Style Guide for Preparing Shared Work

In every case, we defer to the contributor’s preferred style in contributing their work, whether it is an original work, or a translation or transcription of an existing work. However, we do suggest the following style as a baseline standard for all contributed works.



Transcribers should endeavor to transcribe either the earliest textual witness of a particular textual unit, prayer, or prayer related work.

Lacking access to a manuscript image, transcribers should use a critical text whenever available.


Transcriptions of Hebrew text

Please vocalize all text as it appears in the work being transcribed. Leave unvocalized text, as is.

For all unvocalized text (text without vocalization points — niqud), please provide (or solicit) a separate edition of the text that is completely vocalized.

Provide citations for all quoted references within brackets or parentheses.

Please avoid using circumlocutions for shemot (Divine Names) in new works.

Transcribers should retain circumlocutions as they appear in historical works.


Translations: Names, Divine Names, Circumlocutions, and Generic divinities

All names, place names, and complex terms should be romanized (transliterated with the alphabet) according to the dialect of the period and place of the original composition. For example, יעקב becomes Ya’akov (rather than Jacob).

Transliterate all divine names with the first letter in Uppercase. For example, אלהים becomes Elohim (rather than “God”), etc.

In the case of the Tetragrammaton (the Four-Letter Name), we recommend it simply being rendered as “YHVH” (rather than “LORD” or “the LORD”). ‘Adonai’ is fine for presenting romanized transliterations of the Tetragrammaton.

When replacing he/him/his in a gender-neutral gramatical reference to the Divine, you may either (in order of preference): 1) replace the pronoun with singlular ‘they,’ 2) use a circumlocution for the most recent divine name mentioned (in cases where plural ‘they’ would be confusing), or else 3) choose a circumlocution such as “Hashem” for YHVH or “G♕d” for Elohim, if necessary. For example, “Praise YHVH for They are good. Hashem loves those with integrity.”

Any indirect reference to divinity may be treated as a generic. For example יהוה אלהיך becomes “YHVH your elo’ah (rather than “YHVH your God”) and אלהי יעקב becomes “elo’ah of Ya’aqov” (rather than God of Ya’aqov”).

Generic terms for divine entities should be identified in transliteration in lowercase. For example, אלים becomes elim.

Circumlocutions should be replaced with the divine names they signify in the manner described above.



Provide all comments and citation references inline rather than as footnotes or endnotes. Begin and end references with reference tags, <ref> and </ref>, respectively.


Transliteration Schema

אַ = a
אָ = a
אֵ = e, ei
אֶ = e
אִ = i
אְ = ‘, e
אֻ = u
אֹ = o
בּ = b
ב = ḇ, v
ג = g
ד = d
ה = h
הּ = hh
ו = v
וּ = u
וֹ = o
ז = z
ח = ḥ (ḥaroset)
ט = t
י = y
כּ = k (kavod)
כ = kh (ana b’khoaḥ)
ל = l
מ = m
נ = n
ס = s
ע = ‘a (follow the niqqud for alef, above)
פּ = p
פ = f
צ = ts (tsitsit)
ק = ḳ, q (ḳaddish)
ר = r
שׁ = sh
שׂ = s
תּ = t
ת = t