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לֵיל שִׁיכּוֹרִים | Leil Shikkorim, a maarava from the Aravit for Erev Purim, as found in Maḥzor Vitry

https://opensiddur.org/?p=54632 לֵיל שִׁיכּוֹרִים | Leil Shikkorim, a maarava from the Aravit for Erev Purim, as found in Maḥzor Vitry 2024-03-06 11:20:08 This piyyut, attributed to Menaḥem ben Aharon, is found in the Maḥzor Vitry, siman 465. It is a note-for-note structural parody of a beloved Pesaḥ maarava poem, Leil Shimurim. Israel Davidson, in his 1907 work "Parody in Jewish Literature," writes, "The parodist apparently has no other aim than to dress a wine-song in the garb of a religious hymn. The burden of the song is that on Purim one must throw of all care and anxiety... But in order to make our happiness complete, we must remember the needy, and share our luxuries with those that are in want of them." Text the Open Siddur Project Isaac Gantwerk Mayer (transcription & naqdanut) Isaac Gantwerk Mayer (transcription & naqdanut) Isaac Gantwerk Mayer (translation) Menaḥem ben Aharon https://opensiddur.org/copyright-policy/ Isaac Gantwerk Mayer (transcription & naqdanut) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Purim Purim parody parody פיוטים piyyutim 12th century C.E. purimspiel 50th century A.M. maaravot
This piyyut, attributed to Menaḥem ben Aharon,[1] Israel Davidson provides this note on Menahem ben Aharon (ftn 14): “So little is known of the author, that it is impossible to say with certainty when he lived. Though the “Maḥzor Vitry was begun in the life time of Rashi (circ. 1100), it continued to receive additions many years later” (Einleitung u. Register zum Machsor Vitry p.172, also Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 196), But, according to Dr. Berliner (Zinleitung, p. 173), the addition of Eliezer ben Aaron (Maḥzor Vitry p. 600) would be the latest, if he is the same man who flourished in the time of Meir Abulafia (1180—1244). This points to one thing, that by 1244 Menaḥem’s hymn was already included in the Maḥzor Vitry. Zunz, again, includes Menaḥem among the poets who flourished between 1140 and 1300 (Litgesch. p. 453, 485). We may, therefore, meet him half way and accept 1140 as possibly the earliest, while keeping 1244 as the latest landmark in the life of Menaḥem. Still, it seems to me, that we can safely assign him to the twelfth century, i.e. nearer the original compilers, because his hymn is not marked as an addition, though it is true that not all additions are so indicated (Zinleitung p. 172; Monatsschrift vol. 46, p. 578, no. 157).” –ANV  is found in the Maḥzor Vitry, siman 465. It is a note-for-note structural parody of a beloved Pesaḥ maarava poem, Leil Shimurim. Israel Davidson, in his 1907 work “Parody in Jewish Literature,” writes, “The parodist apparently has no other aim than to dress a wine-song in the garb of a religious hymn. The burden of the song is that on Purim one must throw of all care and anxiety… But in order to make our happiness complete, we must remember the needy, and share our luxuries with those that are in want of them.”

Note: “The CAUSE” is used to translate the Divine Name YHVH, based on the philosophical idea of God as the Prime Mover and on the interpretation of the Name as a causative form of the copula – “causes to be.” “The Place” is a direct translation of the divine referent, ha-Maqom. This translation also uses the plural pronoun to refer to God as a pluralis majestatis, and to avoid the implications of God being assigned a gender. (Find Ibn Ezra’s commentary on Genesis 1:1 for a discussion of the pluralis majestatis when referring to God.) All divine referents (pronouns, epithets, names) are rendered in unicase.

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Source (Hebrew)Translation (English)
בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יהוה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ מֶֽלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר בִּדְבָרוֹ מַעֲרִיב עֲרָבִים בְּחׇכְמָה פּוֹתֵֽחַ שְׁעָרִים וּבִתְבוּנָה מְשַׁנֶּה עִתִּים וּמַחֲלִיף אֶת־הַזְּמַנִּים וּמְסַדֵּר אֶת־הַכּוֹכָבִים בְּמִשְׁמְרוֹתֵיהֶם בָּרָקִֽיעַ כִּרְצוֹנוֹ׃ בּוֹרֵא יוֹם וָלָֽיְלָה גּוֹלֵל אוֹר מִפְּנֵי חֹֽשֶׁךְ וְחֹֽשֶׁךְ מִפְּנֵי אוֹר׃ הַמַּעֲבִיר יוֹם וּמֵבִיא לָֽיְלָה וּמַבְדִּיל בֵּין יוֹם וּבֵין לָיְלָה יְהֹוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃ אֵל חַי וְקַיָּם תָּמִיד יִמְלֹךְ עָלֵֽינוּ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃
Blessed are you, Cause our God, Sovereign of the universe, who with Their word evens the evening, in wisdom opens the gates, and in understanding changes the occasions and replaces the times and sets the stars in their orbits in the firmament as They will. Creator of day and night, who rolls light from before darkness and darkness from before light. The One who makes day pass and brings night, and distinguishes between day and night — the Cause of Multitudes is Their name. God, living and enduring will always reign over us forever and ever.
לֵיל שִׁיכּוֹרִים הוּא זֶה הַלַּֽיְלָה
לִשְׂמֽוֹחַ בְּיַֽיִן הַטוֹב וְלָגִילָה
פּוּרִים עַל־שֵׁם־הַפּוּר נִקְרָא בְּגִּילָה
יִזְכּוֹר־לָּֽנוּ בִּקְרִיאַת מְּגִילָּה
A night of drunkenness is this night,
To rejoice in good wine and good cheer.
Purim, for the name of the lottery, it is called in cheer.
Remember us when we read the Megillah!
בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יהוה הַמַּעֲרִיב עֲרָבִים׃
Blessed are you, Cause, who evens the evening.
אַהֲבַת עוֹלָם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל עַמְּךָ אָהַבְתָּ תּוֹרָה וּמִצְוֹת חֻקִּים וּמִשְׁפָּטִים אוֹתָנוּ לִמַּדְתָּ׃ עַל־כֵּן יהוה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ בְּשׇׁכְבֵֽנוּ וּבְקוּמֵֽנוּ נָשִֽׂיחַ בְּחֻקֶּֽיךָ וְנִשְׂמַח בְּדִבְרֵי תּוֹרָתֶֽךָ וּמִצְוֹתֶֽיךָ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד כִּי הֵם חַיֵּֽינוּ וְאֹֽרֶךְ יָמֵֽינוּ וּבָהֶם נֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָֽיְלָה׃ וְאַהֲבָתְךָ אַל־תָּסִיר מִמֶּֽנּוּ לְעוֹלָמִים׃
Eternal love have you loved the house of Israel your people. Torah and commandments, precepts and rulings you have taught us. Thus, Cause our God, when we lie down and rise up, we will meditate on your precepts, and rejoice in the words of your Torah and commandments forever and ever, for they are our life and the length of our days, and on them we will ponder day and night. And let your love not depart from us forevermore.
בַּלַֽיִל הַזֶּה יִשְׁכְּרוּ כׇּל־יְצוּרִים
לְהִזָכֵר חוֹק אֲשֶׁר נִקְבַּע בְּפוּרִים
אָרוּר הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יָדוֹ יָרִים
לִשְׁתּוֹת מַֽיִם הַמְאָרְרִים
On this night, all creatures will get drunk
To recall the precept that was established on Purim.
Cursed be the man who would raise his hand
to drink bitter water!
בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יהוה אוֹהֵב עַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
Blessed are you, Cause, who loves Their people Israel.
ממשיכים משְׁמַ֖ע עד מֹשֶׁה וּבְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ עָנוּ שִׁירָה…
Continue from the Shəmaȝ onwards to “Moshe and the children of Israel responded to You in song.”
פּוּרִים
בְּיַֽיִן פּוֹתְחִים בְּבָרוּךְ
עַל־שֻׁלְחָן אֲשֶׁר עָרוּךְ
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
in wine opening with blessing
on the table which is set
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
יְשׁוֹרֵר שִׁיר נוֹעַם
עַלֵי יַֽיִן בִּקְהַל עָם
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
write a pleasant song
on wine in the people’s community
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
יְמַלֵא כּוֹסוֹת
כְּדָת מַה לַעֲשׂוֹת
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
cups be filled
per the law of what to do
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
יִשְׁתּוּ יַֽיִן כׇּל־רוֹאֵֽהוּ
עַד־לֹא יַכִּיר אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵֽהוּ
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
all who see it will drink wine
until one cannot recognize another
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
לֹא יִקַּח נֶֽשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית
אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁתֶּה יַֽיִן מֵחָבִית
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
no interest or usury will
a drinker of wine from the barrel take
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
אַשְׁרֵי אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִֽפֶן
לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַגֶּֽפֶן
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
content be the one who turns
to bless over the wine
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
יִשְׁכְּרוּ בְּיַֽיִן לָבָן
וְיֵרָצֶה כְּמִנְחָה וּכְקׇרְבָּן
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
get drunk on white wine
as desired as offerings and sacrifices
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
אִכְלוּ וּשְׁתוּ רֵעִים
זַמְּרוּ לְיֵין הַטּוֹב כִּי נָעִים
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
eat and drink, friends,
sing to good wine for it is pleasant,
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
שַׁחֲטוּ אַוָוזִים וְתַרְנְגּוֹלִים
כִּי בְּזֹאת תִּהְיוּ נִגְאָלִים
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
slaughter geese and chickens
for by this you will be redeemed
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
זִכְרוּ תּוֹרַת רִאשׁוֹנִים
מַעֲשֵׂה אָבוֹת יַעֲשׂוּ בָנִים
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
remember the ancient teaching,
ancestral matters children do
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
שִׁמְעוּ בְּנֵי אֵיתָנִים
מַהֲרוּ וְאִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
listen, sons of the mighty!
Hurry and eat delicacies
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
יִשְׁתֶּה יַֽיִן טוֹב
אֲשֶׁר יַרְוֶה כְגַן רָטֹב
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
drink good wine
which quenches like a moist garden
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
אֲשֶׁר לֹא זָקַן
יִשְׁתֶּה מִן־הַקַּנְקַן
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
one who has not aged
drinks from the pitcher
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
יִזְכֹּר יֵין בְּרִיתוֹ
כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר הָיְתָ֥ה בְאׇמְנָ֖ה אִתּֽוֹ
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
let him remember his covenant-wine
as she was raised with him
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
יַקְרִיבֵֽהוּ אֶל־חִכּוֹ
לְרׇחְבּוֹ וּלְאׇרְכּוֹ
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
let him bring forth to his palate,
its breadth and width,
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְפָנִים
יָקָר הוּא מִפְּנִינִים
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
in Israel of old,
more precious than gemstones
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
כּוֹס יַֽיִן בְּיָדוֹ יַעֲמִיד
וְיַעֲרֹךְ עַל־פִּיו תָּמִיד
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
raise a wineglass in one’s hand
and arrange it upon his mouth always
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
יִשְׁתֶּה יַיִן יָשָׁן
אָרוּר הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁן
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
One should drink aged wine.
Cursed be the man who would sleep
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
יַיִן תָּמִיד יְרוֹקֵן
לִפְנֵי נַֽעַר וְזָקֵן
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
always drain wine,
before youth and elder,
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
יִשְׁלַח לְרֵעֵֽהוּ מָנוֹת
וְלָאֶבְיוֹנִים מַתָּנוֹת
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
send portions to one’s fellow,
and gifts to the needy
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
אִכְלוּ רֵעִים וּשְׁתוּ אִישׁ בְּאׇהֳלוֹ
וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן־לוֹ
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
eat, friends, and drink, each in his tent
and send portions to one without
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
אוֹהֵב שִׂמְחָה אוֹהֵב יַֽיִן יַעֲשִׁיר
וְכׇל־כְּלֵי זֶֽמֶר וּכְלֵי שִׁיר
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
love joy, love wine, be enriched,
and all musical instruments
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
אַל־תִּשְׁתֶּה יַֽיִן רַע עַֽיִן
קֹּֽדֶם תִּשְׁבֹּר צְמָאֲךָ אֶל־הָעַֽיִן
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
and don’t drink bad-looking wine
before breaking thirst at the fountain
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
בַּמֶּה יְזַכֶּה אִישׁ זְכוּתוֹ
שָׂבֵֽעַ יָלִין בַּל־יִפָּקֵד עֲוֺנוֹ
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
what merits a man? His merit is
that he rests satiated, sins unaccounted
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
גִּילָה רִנָּה חֶדְוָה וְדִיצָה
הִקָּבְצוּ לִשְׁתּוֹת וְעֻצוּ עֵצָה
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
cheer, joy, happiness, and jocundity
gather to drink and plot plots
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
דְּאָגָה בְלֶב אִישׁ יְשִׂיחֶֽנָה
מַאֲכָל טוֹב וּמִשְׁתֶּה יְשַׂמְּחֶֽנָּה
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
worry hunches a man’s heart,
good food and drink rejoices it
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
דָּלֹה תִדְלֶה יַֽיִן מֵחָבִיּוֹת
בַּלַּֽיְלָה הַהוּא תְהִלּוֹת דּוּמִיּוֹת
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
ladle, ladle wine from the barrels,
that night praises are silent
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
הַיַּֽיִן בְּפִֽיךָ תָּמִיד שָׁגוּר
וְסֵֽפֶל אַדִּירִים יִהְיֶה סָגוּר
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
wine in your mouth always be routine,
and the noble goblet be closed
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
חַכְלִילִי עֵינַֽיִם מִיַּֽיִן
וְאוֹיְבֵֽינוּ יִהְיוּ כְאַיִן
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
eyes dark from wine,
and our enemies will be as naught
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
טוֹב אֲשֶׁר תֶּאֱחֹז בְּכוֹס מָלֵא
מִכֶּֽתֶם אוֹפִיר לֹא תְסֻלֶּה
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
better to grasp a full cup,
than invaluable gold of Ophir
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
יֵין מַלְכוּת יִשְׁתּוּ וִיְסַלְסְלוּ
בַּחוּרִים שִׁכּוֹרִים יַחְדָּיו יְצַלְצְלוּ
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
drink royal wine and exult,
drunken lads together ring out
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
כׇּל־אֲשֶׁר יַמְרֶה פִּיו מִלֶּאֱכֹל
וּמְצָאֻֽהוּ רָעוֹת וְהָיָה לֶאֱכֹל
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
all who embitter his mouth from eating,
wicked ones find and devour him
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
לֵץ הֹמֶה וּמַֽיִם וּמִשֵׁכָר
וְהַשּׁוֹתֶה מֵהֶם לֹא יַרְבֶּה שָׂכָר
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
a riotous mocker, and one who drinks
water and beer will not merit
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
מִשְׁתֶּה שֶׁלְּךָ יִהְיֶה לְהֶפְקֵר
וְשׁוֹתִים הַרְבֵּה לְאֵין חֵֽקֶר
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
your drink will be free to take,
and drink a lot without measure
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
מָאן דְאִית לֵיהּ בּוּשְׂמַיָא
בְּרַחְמֵיהּ מַסִּיק לֵיהּ
וְיִקְנֶה שֵׁם טוֹב וְיִהְיֶה עוֹלֶה
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
one who has booze and gives it to his love
gets a good esteemed name
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
נָתֹן תִּתֵּן מַתָּנוֹת לָעֲנִיִים
לֹא לִשְׁפָחוֹת וְלֹא לָעֲבָדִים
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
give, give gives to the poor
not maids or servants
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
שֶׁכׇּל־אָדָם מַאֲרִיךְ בִּסְעוּדָתוֹ
וּמִן־הַשָּׁמַֽיִּם יְמַלְּאוּ שְׁאֵלָתוֹ
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
each man who lengthens his meal,
heaven will fulfill his request
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
שׁוֹתֶה כַדָּת וְכַהֲלָכָה
זֵֽכֶר צַדִּיק לִבְרָכָה
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
drink per the law and practice,
may the righteous’ memory be for blessing
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
שׁוֹמֵר מִצְוָה שׁוֹתֶה תַּאֲוַת נַפְשׁוֹ
שֶֽׁמֶשׁ וְיָרֵֽחַ נִבְרְאוּ לְשַׁמְּשׁוֹ
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
keep the deeply craved command, drink.
Sun and moon created to serve it
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
שַׁבְקֵיהּ לְרַוְיָא דְמִנַפְשֵׁיהּ נָפִיל
לֹא יָקוּם כִּי־יִפּוֹל כְּמוֹ פִּיל
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
leave the drunk who falls on his own,
not rising, for elephantlike he fell
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
תֵּֽרֶא יַֽיִן כִּי יִתְאַדָּם
כִּי זֶה כׇּל־הָאָדָם
בְּלֵיל חַג פּוּרִים
Purim,
look on wine when it reddens
for this is all humanity
on the Purim festival night!
פּוּרִים
יַֽיִן אֲשֶׁר הוּקַם לִשְׂמֹֽחַ פְּנֵי אִישִׁים
יָבֹא וְיָגֵל פְּנֵי אֲנָשִׁים וְנָשִׁים
אָרוּר הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יֹאכַל עֲדָשִׁים
בְּלֵילֵי פּוּרִים וּבַמּוֹעֲדִים וּבַחֳדָשִׁים
Purim,
wine which was set to gladden the face of people
will come and cheer the face of men and women.
Cursed be the man who would eat lentils[2] lentils and mashed beans are considered mourners’ foods. 
on the days of Purim and on festivals and new moons!
בְּגִילָה בְּרִינָה בְּשִׂמְחָה רַבָּה וְאָמְרוּ כֻלָּם מִֽי־כָמֹ֤כָה בָּֽאֵלִם֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה מִ֥י כָּמֹ֖כָה נֶאְדָּ֣ר בַּקֹּ֑דֶשׁ נוֹרָ֥א תְהִלֹּ֖ת עֹ֥שֵׂה פֶֽלֶא׃ מַלְכוּתְךָ רָאוּ בָנֶֽיךָ בּוֹקֵֽעַ יָם לִפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה זֶ֤ה אֵלִי֙ עָנוּ וְאָמְרוּ׃ יְהֹוָ֥ה ׀ יִמְלֹ֖ךְ לְעֹלָ֥ם וָעֶֽד׃ וְנֶאֱמַר כִּֽי־פָדָ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶֽת־יַעֲקֹ֑ב וּגְאָל֕וֹ מִיַּ֖ד חָזָ֥ק מִמֶּֽנּוּ
In cheer and joy and great gladness and all said, “Who is like you among the deities, Cause? Who is like you, majestic in holiness, awesome in praise, wonder-working?” Your sovereignty your children saw, splitting the sea before Moshe. “This is our God!” they answered and said: “The Cause will reign forever and ever!” And it is said, the Cause rescued Jacob and redeemed him from a hand stronger than his.
אָרוּר הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יֹאכַל פּוֹלִין כְּתוּשִׁים
מִפִּי הַמֶּֽלֶךְ וְהַהֶגְמוֹן וְהָרָאשִׁים
כׇּל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל יַעֲלוּ עָלָיו חֲמֻשִׁים
לְגׇרְשׁוֹ מִתּוֹךְ קְהַל קְדוֹשִׁים
Cursed be the man who eats mashed beans,[3] Find note above regarding lentils. 
from the mouth of the king, hegemon, and chiefs.
All the house of Israel will raise units against him,
to expel him from among the congregation of the holy.
בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יהוה גָּאַל יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
Blessed are you, Cause, who redeemed Israel.
מכאן ממשיכים בהַשְׁכִּיבֵֽנוּ ואילך כרגיל
From here continue with hashkivenu and onwards as usual.

Source(s)

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Notes

Notes
1Israel Davidson provides this note on Menahem ben Aharon (ftn 14): “So little is known of the author, that it is impossible to say with certainty when he lived. Though the “Maḥzor Vitry was begun in the life time of Rashi (circ. 1100), it continued to receive additions many years later” (Einleitung u. Register zum Machsor Vitry p.172, also Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 196), But, according to Dr. Berliner (Zinleitung, p. 173), the addition of Eliezer ben Aaron (Maḥzor Vitry p. 600) would be the latest, if he is the same man who flourished in the time of Meir Abulafia (1180—1244). This points to one thing, that by 1244 Menaḥem’s hymn was already included in the Maḥzor Vitry. Zunz, again, includes Menaḥem among the poets who flourished between 1140 and 1300 (Litgesch. p. 453, 485). We may, therefore, meet him half way and accept 1140 as possibly the earliest, while keeping 1244 as the latest landmark in the life of Menaḥem. Still, it seems to me, that we can safely assign him to the twelfth century, i.e. nearer the original compilers, because his hymn is not marked as an addition, though it is true that not all additions are so indicated (Zinleitung p. 172; Monatsschrift vol. 46, p. 578, no. 157).” –ANV
2lentils and mashed beans are considered mourners’ foods.
3Find note above regarding lentils.

 

 

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