קדוש לסעודה מפסקת לפני יום הכפורים | Ḳiddush for the Seudah Mafseket before Yom Kippur, by Isaac Gantwerk Mayer

Yom Kippur is a fast day, so we don’t drink wine, so we don’t make a ḳiddush. Also, Yom Kippur is a mo’ed, one of the Big Five (along with Pesaḥ, Shavuot, Rosh haShanah, and Sukkot), and traditionally said to be one of the happiest days in Israel (see Mishnah Ta’anit 4:8). Now most festivals have a celebratory meal. Obviously, Yom Kippur couldn’t have that. Right?

Wrong! In many communities the se’udah mafseket, the final meal before the fast begins, is considered an equivalent to the festival meal for Yom Kippur. This Ḳiddush was written to be said over a glass of wine at the se’udah mafseket. This Ḳiddush is largely based on the regular Rosh haShanah evening ḳiddush with Shabbat additions, with a few differences.

  1. Since a regular festival ḳiddush contains a lot of wording in common with its respective Kedushat haYom fourth blessing in the amidah, much of the terminology was taken from the equivalent place in the Yom Kippur liturgy.
  2. The terminology was changed to future tense since Yom Kippur has not yet begun.
  3. Since there would be no morning ḳiddush, the custom of reciting appropriate verses for the ḳiddush was moved to here.

Note: “The CAUSE” is used to translate the Divine Name YHVH, based on the philosophical idea of God as the Prime Mover and on the interpretation of the Name as a causative form of the copula – “causes to be.”

Source (Hebrew) Translation (English)

ביום שישי׃ וַיַּ֤רְא אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־כׇּל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֔ה וְהִנֵּה־ט֖וֹב מְאֹ֑ד וַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם הַשִּׁשִּֽׁי׃ וַיְכֻלּ֛וּ הַשָּׁמַ֥יִם וְהָאָ֖רֶץ וְכׇל־צְבָאָֽם׃ וַיְכַ֤ל אֱלֹהִים֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י מְלַאכְתּ֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה וַיִּשְׁבֹּת֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י מִכׇּל־מְלַאכְתּ֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָֽׂה׃ וַיְבָ֤רֶךְ אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־י֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י וַיְקַדֵּ֖שׁ אֹת֑וֹ כִּ֣י ב֤וֹ שָׁבַת֙ מִכׇּל־מְלַאכְתּ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָ֥א אֱלֹהִ֖ים לַעֲשֽׂוֹת׃ (בראשית ב א-ג)
On Friday: And God saw all God had made, and lo, it was very good, and it was evening and morning, the sixth day! And the heavens and earth were finished and all their multitudes. And God finished, on the seventh day, all Divine labor God had done, and rested on the seventh day from all Divine labor God had done. And God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, for on it God rested from all Divine labor that God had created to do.[1]Genesis 2:1-3.

שַׁבַּ֨ת שַׁבָּת֥וֹן הוּא֙ לָכֶ֔ם וְעִנִּיתֶ֖ם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶ֑ם בְּתִשְׁעָ֤ה לַחֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ בָּעֶ֔רֶב מֵעֶ֣רֶב עַד־עֶ֔רֶב תִּשְׁבְּת֖וּ שַׁבַּתְּכֶֽם׃ (ויקרא כג:לב)
A Sabbath, a total Sabbath it is for you, and you will afflict yourselves; on the ninth of the month in the evening, from that evening to the next evening, you shall rest your rests.[2]Leviticus 23:32.

כִּֽי־בַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּ֛ה יְכַפֵּ֥ר עֲלֵיכֶ֖ם לְטַהֵ֣ר אֶתְכֶ֑ם מִכֹּל֙ חַטֹּ֣אתֵיכֶ֔ם לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה תִּטְהָֽרוּ׃(ויקרא טז:ל)
For on this day you will be atoned for to purify you; from all your sins before the CAUSE you will be purified.[3]Leviticus 17:30.

סַבְרִי מָרָנָן וְחֲבֵרַי׃
Attention, my teachers and comrades!

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה
יהוה אֱלֹהֵינוּ
מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם
בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן׃
Blessed are You,
CAUSE our God,
Sovereign of Eternity,
Creator of the vine-fruit.

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יהוה אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר בָּחַר־בָּנוּ מִכׇּל־עָם וְרוֹמְמָנוּ מִכׇּל־לָשׁוֹן וְקִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו׃ 
Blessed are You, CAUSE our God, Sovereign of Eternity, who chose us from all peoples, and raised us from all languages, and sanctified us with Divine commandments.

וַתִּתֶּן־לָנוּ יהוה אֱלֹהֵינוּ בְּאַהֲבָה אֶת־יוֹם (ביום שישי׃ הַשַּׁבָּת הַבָּא וְאֶת־יוֹם) הַכִּפּוּרִים הַבָּא לִמְחִילָה וְלִסְלִיחָה וּלְכַפָּרָה וְלִמְחׇל־בּוֹ אֶת־כׇּל־עֲוֹנוֹתֵֽינוּ (ביום שישי׃ בְּאַהֲבָה) מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ זֵכֶר לִיצִיאַת מִצְרָיִם׃
And You gave us, CAUSE our God, in love, the (On Friday: upcoming Sabbath day and the) upcoming Day of Atonement for forgiveness and for pardon and for atonement and to forgive all our iniquities (On Friday: in love), a holy occasion, a remembrance of the Exodus from Egypt.

כִּי בָנוּ בָחַרְתָּ וְאוֹתָנוּ קִדַּשְׁתָּ מִכׇּל־הָעַמִּים וּדְבָרְךָ אֱמֶת וְקַיָּם לָעַד:
For You chose us and sanctified us from all the peoples, and Your word is true and eternally stands.

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יהוה מֶֽלֶךְ מוֹחֵל וְסוֹלֵֽחַ לַעֲוֹנוֹתֵֽינוּ וְלַעֲוֹנוֹת עַמּוֹ בֵּית־יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַעֲבִיר אַשְׁמוֹתֵֽינוּ בְּכׇל־שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה׃ מֶֽלֶךְ עַל־כׇּל־הָאָֽרֶץ מְקַדֵּשׁ (ביום שישי׃ הַשַּׁבָּת וְ) יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיוֹם הַכִּפֻּרִים:
Blessed are You, CAUSE, Sovereign who forgives and pardons our iniquities and the iniquities of Your people Israel and passes over our guilty deeds every year, Sovereign of all the earth, who sanctifies (On Friday: the Sabbath) and Israel and the Day of Atonement.

Notes   [ + ]

  1. Genesis 2:1-3.
  2. Leviticus 23:32.
  3. Leviticus 17:30.

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