Avatar

Masoretic kernel 'E'

The textual source called 'E' is the earliest of all literary sources in the Torah, the kernel from which all other narratives expanded upon. E was composed in the mid- to late eighth century BCE, toward the end of the heyday of the northern Ephraimite Kingdom, one of the two kingdoms that occupied Biblical Israel. The Kingdom of Ephraim was the larger and more urban of the two, and had its capital in Samaria, the city after which the Samaritans are named. To its south lay the smaller, but better-known Kingdom of Judah, whose capital city was Jerusalem. It seems likely that E was composed during this period because it marked the first literary flowering in ancient Israel. We know this based on the books of Amos and Hosea, composed at about that time, and from a wealth of inscriptions that we can confidently date to that period. The book of E, so called because it uses Elohim as its exclusive name for the deity of the Pentateuch, is composed of five story cycles focusing on five early Israelite heroes: Avraham, Yaakov, Yosef, Moshe, and Bilaam. The stories of Avraham and Bilaam are placed at the beginning and end of the Elohistic document, respectively, so that the two men can serve as models for how one should fear the remote and awesome God of the Elohistic source. The Yaakov, Yosef, and Moshe cycles, which comprise the bulk of the E narrative, chronicle Israel’s metamorphisis from a family into a people.

פָּרָשַׁת וַיְחִי | Parashat Vayeḥi (Genesis 47:28-50:26), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ב׳ בטבת ה׳תשע״ט (2018-12-10) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Vayeḥi, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת מִשְׁפָּטִים | Parashat Mishpatim (Exodus 21:1-24:18), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ט״ו בשבט ה׳תשע״ט (2019-01-20) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' |

The text of parashat Mishpatim, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת יִתְרוֹ | Parashat Yitro (Exodus 18:1-20:22), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: י״ד בשבט ה׳תשע״ט (2019-01-20) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'J' |

The text of parashat Yitro, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת וָאֵרָא | Parashat Va’era (Exodus 6:2-9:35), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ג בטבת ה׳תשע״ט (2018-12-30) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Va’era, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת שְׁמוֹת | Parashat Shemot (Exodus 1:1-6:1), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ט״ו בטבת ה׳תשע״ט (2018-12-23) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Shemot, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת וַיֵּרָא | Parashat Vayera (Genesis 18:1-22:24), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ט׳ במרחשון ה׳תשע״ט (2018-10-17) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Vayera, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת וַיֵּצֵא | Parashat Vayetsei (Genesis 28:10-32:3), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ז במרחשון ה׳תשע״ט (2018-11-04) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' |

The text of parashat Vayetsei, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת וַיִּשְׁלַח | Parashat Vayishlaḥ (Genesis 32:4-36:43), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ד׳ בכסלו ה׳תשע״ט (2018-11-12) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Vayishlaḥ, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת כִּי תִשָּׂא | Parashat Ki Tissa (Exodus 30:11-34:35), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: י״ב באדר א׳ ה׳תשע״ט (2019-02-16) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Ki Tissa, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת וַיֵּשֶׁב | Parashat Vayeshev (Genesis 37:1-40:23), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: י״ד בכסלו ה׳תשע״ט (2018-11-22) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Vayeshev, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת וַיִּגַּשׁ | Parashat Vayigash (Genesis 44:18-47:27), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ב׳ בטבת ה׳תשע״ט (2018-12-10) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Vayigash, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת מִקֵּץ | Parashat Miqets (Genesis 41:1-44:17), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ד בכסלו ה׳תשע״ט (2018-12-01) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Vayeshev, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת בֹּא | Parashat Bo (Exodus 10:1-13:16), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: א׳ בשבט ה׳תשע״ט (2019-01-06) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'D2' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Bo, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת בְּשַׁלַּח | Parashat b’Shalaḥ (Exodus 13:17-17:16), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ז׳ בשבט ה׳תשע״ט (2019-01-13) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat B’shalaḥ, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת חֻקַּת | Parashat Ḥuqat (Numbers 19:1-22:1), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ד בסיון ה׳תשע״ט (2019-06-27) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Ḥuqat, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת בָּלָק | Parashat Balaq (Numbers 22:2-25:9), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ו׳ בתמוז ה׳תשע״ט (2019-07-09) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Balaq, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .