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Masoretic layer 'P'

'P,' also known as the "Priestly" source, is one of the primary sources of the Masoretic text of the Torah in the Hebrew Bible. According to the Supplementary hypothesis presented by Dr. Tzemaḥ Yoreh, 'P' supplements the earlier 'J' narrative with dates, names, and numbers, "thus 'ordering' and authenticating 'J's account." This strata dates from the exilic and early post-exilic period, 571–486 BCE. 'P' is the Pentateuchal (and, to a lesser extent, the Prophetical) source most concerned with the priests, the temple, the regulation of sacrifices (e.g. what to bring on which day), and organization in general, including censuses, the division of labor among the various clans of Levites, and the hierarchy among the tribes. 'P' is responsible for the first of the two creation stories in Genesis (a/k/a Genesis 1), for the genealogies of Adam and Shem, the covenants with Noaḥ and Avraham, and a few other stories concerning Avraham, Yitsḥak and Yaakov. Aside from these, the bulk of 'P's texts are found at the end of Exodus (specifically Exodus 25–40), throughout Leviticus, in Numbers 1–10, and in Joshua 13–21. An important feature of 'P' is their copious addition of lists to the text. Many of these lists are genealogies (e.g. Gen. 5, 11, 36), but they can also be lists of stations on Israel’s journey throughout the wilderness (e.g. Num. 33), cities (e.g. Josh. 14–21), and censuses (e.g. Num. 1–3). By inundating the reader with lists, 'P' attempts to enhance the authority of the Bible, ensuring that their version of events is accepted over possible alternatives. 'P' was a hands-off redactor, preferring to make their additions at the beginnings and ends of narratives. Note that their creation list and genealogical lists appear entirely before and after the earlier account of creation and expulsion from Eden, respectively. Both additions alter our understanding of the surrounded material in important ways without being invasive. Only when the matter at hand is of grave importance to 'P,' as in the case of the pillaging of the innocent inhabitants of Shechem, does 'P' delve fully into the text.

פָּרָשַׁת בְּהַעֲלֹתְךָ | Parashat b’ha-Alotekha (Numbers 8:1-12:16), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: י״ט בסיון ה׳תשע״ט (2019-06-22) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat b’Ha’alotekha, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת נָשֹׂא | Parashat Naso (Numbers 4:21-7:89), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ז באייר ה׳תשע״ט (2019-06-01) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Naso, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת בְּמִדְבַּר | Parashat b’Midbar (Numbers 1:1-4:20), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ז באייר ה׳תשע״ט (2019-06-01) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat b’Midbar, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת בְּחֻקֹּתַי | Parashat b’Ḥuqotai (Leviticus 26:3-27:34), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ה׳ באייר ה׳תשע״ט (2019-05-10) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat b’Ḥuqotai, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת בְּהַר | Parashat b’Har (Leviticus 25:1-26:2), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ד׳ באייר ה׳תשע״ט (2019-05-08) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat b’Har, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת אֱמֹר | Parashat Emor (Leviticus 21:1-24:23), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ב׳ באייר ה׳תשע״ט (2019-05-06) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Emor, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת קְדֹשִׁים | Parashat Qedoshim (Leviticus 19:1-20:26), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ח׳ בניסן ה׳תשע״ט (2019-04-13) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Qedoshim, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת אַחֲרֵי מוֹת | Parashat Aḥarei Mōt (Leviticus 16:1-18:30), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ז׳ בניסן ה׳תשע״ט (2019-04-12) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Aḥarei Mōt, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת מְצֹרָע | Parashat Metsora (Leviticus 14:1-15:33), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ב׳ בניסן ה׳תשע״ט (2019-04-06) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Metsora, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת תַזְרִיעַ | Parashat Tazria (Leviticus 12:1-13:59), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ד באדר ב׳ ה׳תשע״ט (2019-03-30) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Tazria, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת שְׁמִינִי | Parashat Sh’mini (Leviticus 9:1-11:47), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ט״ז באדר ב׳ ה׳תשע״ט (2019-03-23) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Shemini, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת צַו | Parashat Tsav (Leviticus 6:1-8:26), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ה באדר א׳ ה׳תשע״ט (2019-03-02) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Tsav, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת וַיִּקְרָא | Parashat Vayiqra (Leviticus 1:1-5:26), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ד באדר א׳ ה׳תשע״ט (2019-02-28) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Vayiqra, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת וַיְחִי | Parashat Vayeḥi (Genesis 47:28-50:26), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ב׳ בטבת ה׳תשע״ט (2018-12-10) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Vayeḥi, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת וַיַּקְהֵל | Parashat Vayaqhel (Exodus 35:1-38:20), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: י״ח באדר א׳ ה׳תשע״ט (2019-02-23) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Vayaqhel, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת קֹרַח | Parashat Qoraḥ (Numbers 16:1-18:32), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ג בסיון ה׳תשע״ט (2019-06-26) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Qoraḥ, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת תְּצַוֶּה | Parashat T’tsavveh (Exodus 27:20-30:10), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ה׳ באדר א׳ ה׳תשע״ט (2019-02-09) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat T’tsavveh, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת תְּרוּמָה | Parashat Terumah (Exodus 25:1-27:19), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ז בשבט ה׳תשע״ט (2019-02-02) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Terumah, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת מִשְׁפָּטִים | Parashat Mishpatim (Exodus 21:1-24:18), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ט״ו בשבט ה׳תשע״ט (2019-01-20) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' |

The text of parashat Mishpatim, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת יִתְרוֹ | Parashat Yitro (Exodus 18:1-20:22), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: י״ד בשבט ה׳תשע״ט (2019-01-20) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'J' |

The text of parashat Yitro, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת וָאֵרָא | Parashat Va’era (Exodus 6:2-9:35), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ג בטבת ה׳תשע״ט (2018-12-30) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Va’era, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת שְׁמוֹת | Parashat Shemot (Exodus 1:1-6:1), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ט״ו בטבת ה׳תשע״ט (2018-12-23) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Shemot, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת נֹחַ | Parashat Noaḥ (Genesis 6:9-11:32), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ד בתשרי ה׳תשע״ט (2018-10-03) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'B' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'J' |

The text of parashat Noaḥ, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת לֶךְ־לְךָ | Parashat Lekh Lekha (Genesis 12:1-17:27), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: א׳ במרחשון ה׳תשע״ט (2018-10-10) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'B' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'J' |

The text of parashat Lekh Lekha, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת וַיֵּרָא | Parashat Vayera (Genesis 18:1-22:24), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ט׳ במרחשון ה׳תשע״ט (2018-10-17) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Vayera, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת חַיֵּי שָׂרָה | Parashat Ḥayyei Sarah (Genesis 23:1-25:18), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ט״ו במרחשון ה׳תשע״ט (2018-10-24) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Ḥayyei Sarah, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת תּוֹלְדֹת | Parashat Toldōt (Genesis 25:19-28:9), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״א במרחשון ה׳תשע״ט (2018-10-29) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Toldot, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת וַיֵּצֵא | Parashat Vayetsei (Genesis 28:10-32:3), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ז במרחשון ה׳תשע״ט (2018-11-04) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' |

The text of parashat Vayetsei, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת וַיִּשְׁלַח | Parashat Vayishlaḥ (Genesis 32:4-36:43), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ד׳ בכסלו ה׳תשע״ט (2018-11-12) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Vayishlaḥ, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת כִּי תִשָּׂא | Parashat Ki Tissa (Exodus 30:11-34:35), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: י״ב באדר א׳ ה׳תשע״ט (2019-02-16) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Ki Tissa, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת וַיֵּשֶׁב | Parashat Vayeshev (Genesis 37:1-40:23), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: י״ד בכסלו ה׳תשע״ט (2018-11-22) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Vayeshev, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת וַיִּגַּשׁ | Parashat Vayigash (Genesis 44:18-47:27), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ב׳ בטבת ה׳תשע״ט (2018-12-10) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Vayigash, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת שְׁלַח | Parashat Shlaḥ (Numbers 13:1-15:41), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: י״ט בסיון ה׳תשע״ט (2019-06-22) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Shlaḥ, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת בֹּא | Parashat Bo (Exodus 10:1-13:16), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: א׳ בשבט ה׳תשע״ט (2019-01-06) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'D2' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Bo, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת בְּשַׁלַּח | Parashat b’Shalaḥ (Exodus 13:17-17:16), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ז׳ בשבט ה׳תשע״ט (2019-01-13) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat B’shalaḥ, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת מַטּוֹת | Parashat Matōt (Numbers 30:2-32:42), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ׳ בתמוז ה׳תשע״ט (2019-07-23) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Matot, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת פְקוּדֵי | Parashat Ph’qudei (Exodus 38:21-40:38), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: י״ח באדר א׳ ה׳תשע״ט (2019-02-23) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Piqudei, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת מַסְעֵי | Parashat Mas’ei (Numbers 33:1-36:13), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ׳ בתמוז ה׳תשע״ט (2019-07-23) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Masei, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת פִּינְחָס‏ | Parashat Pinḥas (Numbers 25:10-30:1), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: י״ח בתמוז ה׳תשע״ט (2019-07-20) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' |

The text of parashat Pinḥas, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת חֻקַּת | Parashat Ḥuqat (Numbers 19:1-22:1), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ד בסיון ה׳תשע״ט (2019-06-27) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'H' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Ḥuqat, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת בָּלָק | Parashat Balaq (Numbers 22:2-25:9), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: ו׳ בתמוז ה׳תשע״ט (2019-07-09) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic kernel 'E' | Masoretic layer 'J' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'B' |

The text of parashat Balaq, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .


פָּרָשַׁת בְּרֵאשִׁית | Parashat Bereshit (Genesis 1:1-6:8), color-coded according to its narrative layers

Contributed on: כ״ג בתשרי ה׳תשע״ט (2018-10-02) by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Tzemaḥ Yoreh | the Masoretic Text | Masoretic layer 'B' | Masoretic layer 'P' | Masoretic layer 'J' |

The text of parashat Bereishit, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. . . .