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'P,' also known as the "Priestly" source, is one of the primary sources of the Masoretic text of the Torah in the Hebrew Bible. According to the Supplementary hypothesis presented by Dr. Tzemaḥ Yoreh, 'P' supplements the earlier 'J' narrative with dates, names, and numbers, "thus 'ordering' and authenticating 'J's account." This strata dates from the exilic and early post-exilic period, 571–486 BCE. 'P' is the Pentateuchal (and, to a lesser extent, the Prophetical) source most concerned with the priests, the temple, the regulation of sacrifices (e.g. what to bring on which day), and organization in general, including censuses, the division of labor among the various clans of Levites, and the hierarchy among the tribes. 'P' is responsible for the first of the two creation stories in Genesis (a/k/a Genesis 1), for the genealogies of Adam and Shem, the covenants with Noaḥ and Avraham, and a few other stories concerning Avraham, Yitsḥak and Yaakov. Aside from these, the bulk of 'P's texts are found at the end of Exodus (specifically Exodus 25–40), throughout Leviticus, in Numbers 1–10, and in Joshua 13–21. An important feature of 'P' is their copious addition of lists to the text. Many of these lists are genealogies (e.g. Gen. 5, 11, 36), but they can also be lists of stations on Israel’s journey throughout the wilderness (e.g. Num. 33), cities (e.g. Josh. 14–21), and censuses (e.g. Num. 1–3). By inundating the reader with lists, 'P' attempts to enhance the authority of the Bible, ensuring that their version of events is accepted over possible alternatives. 'P' was a hands-off redactor, preferring to make their additions at the beginnings and ends of narratives. Note that their creation list and genealogical lists appear entirely before and after the earlier account of creation and expulsion from Eden, respectively. Both additions alter our understanding of the surrounded material in important ways without being invasive. Only when the matter at hand is of grave importance to 'P,' as in the case of the pillaging of the innocent inhabitants of Shechem, does 'P' delve fully into the text.

a dental cast preserving the word הושיעני (hoshiani, "save me") inscribed on the verso of a lower set of teeth in a story told in the 2009 film A SERIOUS MAN (dir. Coen Bros.)

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