The details of sexual violence in Megillat Yehudit, Midrash Ma’aseh Ḥanukkah, and in at least one important variation of Megillat Antiokhus are not intended to be sensational. Rather, they emphasize a tradition that holds human predatory activity in sex, diet, and other forms of vicious exploitation as depraved and taboo — a transgression of the Noaḥide law and covenant not to behave as a predator (ever min haḥai). Genesis 9:4 In particular, the work describes the villainous employ of the infamous Droit du Seigneur (law of the thigh), a noble “right.” The 11th century commentator Rashi ascribed the origin of the Droit du Seigneur to the Nephilim and their Giant children in the story of the generation of the Flood, which the Torah presents as the very model of depraved behavior, an etiology of how predation entered Nature. Genesis 6 It is no accident that dairy is the traditional diet for Ḥanukkah. Dairy is also the food prescribed for Shavuot, celebrating the giving of the Torah and the fulfillment of the Noaḥide covenant at Mt. Ararat. Jubilees, ch 5-6. In the tale of Judith, dairy food — an allusion to the potency of Torah — acts as a soporific to Holofernes’ predatory desire in the manner that Torah (ideally) acts to condition and pacify human nature to the degree possible in our difficult world. (The soporific power of Torah is also attested in aggadot telling how the Israelites fell unconscious at the giving of the Torah at Sinai.) Dr. Deborah Levine Gera, provides additional context from the period of the Rishonim when Megillat Yehudit was composed:
The foremost exegete of the Talmud, Rashi (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac, 1041–1105), when discussing why women, as well as men, are required to light Hanukkah candles, simply notes that when the Greeks decreed that Jewish virgin brides were to be bedded first by the ruler, a woman brought about the miracle. We know that Rashi was acquainted with the liturgical poem Odekha ki anafta bi because he quotes it elsewhere (in his commentary on Ez 21:18), so it is very likely that he knew of Judith’s deed, but did not choose to mention her by name. Rashi’s grandson, the Rashbam (Rabbi Samuel ben Meir 1085–1174), does mention Judith, and he is quoted as saying that the chief miracle of Purim came about through Esther, and that of Hanukkah through Judith. Rashi on Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 23a; Tosafot on Babylonian Talmud Megillah 4a. Later commentators bring further details. Nissim ben Reuben (ca. 1310–75), known as the Ran, refers to Judith not by name, but as the daughter of Yochanan. In his account, which he says comes from a midrash, the woman gave the chief enemy cheese to eat so as to make him drunk, and then cut off his head. This, adds the Ran, is why it is customary to eat cheese on Hanukkah. Nissim ben Reuben on Alfasi, Shabbat 10a (on Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 23b). In the Kol Bo (section 44), a work outlining Jewish laws and customs dating to the thirteenth or fourteenth century, we find a similar version. In this account, the king of Greece attempts to seduce Judith, the daughter of the high priest Yochanan, and she feeds him a cheese dish so that he will become thirsty, drink too much, and fall asleep. Such references to Judith’s encounter with an enemy whom she fed either cheese or milk are subsequently found in a long line of works which codify halacha, Jewish law, and supply the background to the practice of eating cheese dishes on Hanukkah.
We have set our transcription side-by-side with the English translation made by Susan Weingarten, originally published as “Food, Sex, and Redemption in Megillat Yehudit: Appendix to Chapter 6,” in Sword of Judith. ed., Kevin R. Brine, Elena Ciletti, Henrike Lähnemann (Open Book Publishers, 2010) p.110-125. The secondary transcription sources we have used are the same as those used by Dr. Weingarten for her translation: A. Neubauer Catalogue no. 2746 = Heb. e. 10, fol. 66v–72v (Bodleian Library, Oxford) as transcribed by Abraham Meir Habermann in “Megillat yehudit le-omrah be-hanukkah,” מחנים 52 (1961), pp. 42–47, and by André-Marie Dubarle in Judith: formes et sens des diverses traditions II: textes (Rome, 1966), pp. 140–53. Although the copy from which our transcription derived was made in 1402, Dubarle notes that similarities to Menahem ben Machir’s Yotser (Hymn) for the Second Shabbat of Ḥanukkah (c. 11th century) suggest that it was composed then, or earlier. When we first published this piece we followed Dubarle’s date, but we’ve since been cautioned by Dr. Weingarten that the similarities in the yotsrot by Menachem ben Machir and Yosef ben Solomon of Carcassonne “only suggest the story of Judith in this version was current in the 11th century, but not that the text of Megillat Yehudit as we have it dates to the 11th century.” Explained in private correspondence We have retained the section dividers that Dubarle used to compare the extant variations of Judith midrashim in our arrangement of paragraphs, and this has led to minor differences with the layout of Dr. Weingarten’s translation.
Any errors in the transcription are my own. I am grateful to Dr. Weingarten for sharing her work under an Open Content license. Please read Dr. Weingarten’s complete chapter in Sword of Judith for additional context. Here is the introduction to her translation of Megillat Yehudit:
Manuscript and editions
The single manuscript of Megillat Yehudit is at present in the Bodleian Library in Oxford: A. Neubauer Catalogue no. 2746 = Heb. e. 10, fol. 66v–72v. Neubauer’s catalogue notes that this document is bound together with Megillat Antiochus and other documents, one of which includes four sentences in Provençal. Below the title, Megillat Yehudit, is the instruction, written in smaller letters: “to be said on Hanukkah.” The manuscript is dated by its colophon to 162, i.e. 1402 c.e., and written in Hebrew in a fine regular hand, which Neubauer describes as “Provençal rabbinic.” Dubarle, who has edited many of the different versions of the story of Judith, calls it Megillath Judith de style anthologique (his no. 8). André-Marie Dubarle, Judith: Formes et sens des diverses traditions, i: Études (Rome: Institut Biblique Pontifical, 1966), pp. 92–94. Biblical books are referenced with the short titles following the Chicago style (cf. index under “Bible”). As he points out, 1402, when the manuscript was copied by Moses Shmeil Dascola, is not necessarily the date of redaction.
The Hebrew text has been published twice in full by A.M. Habermann as “Megillat yehudit le-omrah be-hanukkah,” Maḥanayim 52 (1961), pp. 42–47 and in his Ḥadashim gam yeshanim: hiburim shonim mi-tokh kitvei yad be-tziruf mevo’ot ve-he’arot (Jerusalem, 1975), pp. 40–46. The second part of the manuscript only, with the story of Judith, was published by A.M. Dubarle: Judith: formes et sens des diverses traditions II: textes (Rome, 1966), pp. 140–53, with a French translation. There is a microfiche of the whole manuscript in the National Library in Jerusalem.
It is interesting that the act of translating attracts metaphors of the female body. My male Greek teacher used to say of translations that they are like women: if they are beautiful they are unlikely to be faithful, and if they are faithful they are unlikely to be beautiful. I fear this translation is neither: it is certainly not scientific. My excuse is that this is a preliminary translation, aimed at giving readers who are not familiar with the original Hebrew some idea of Megillat Yehudit. As the writer Shai Agnon said, reading a Hebrew work in translation is like kissing a bride through her veil. Hebrew words carry with them a biblical load, all the more so when the work is written, as here, almost entirely as a string of biblical quotations and allusions. I have noted over three hundred scriptural citations, shown in italics, and I am sure there are more. It would be interesting to analyze them all and their intertextual effect. I have made a start on the group of references to women and food in my paper above.
I have used all three published texts of Megillat Yehudit as well as the microfiche for this translation. For the biblical quotations I have made use of three translations of the Hebrew Bible: the Revised Standard Version; the New English Bible and the Jewish Publication Society’s Tanakh. None of them is wholly satisfactory in the new context of Megillat Yehudit. Note that changes of person and number of the verb, and other grammatical infelicities are typical of this document. Many of these are due to the use of quotations, which the author does not always adapt to the new context. I am grateful to Deborah Gera for her critical reading of this translation and her helpful suggestions.
Vocalization and Cantillation
Niqqud (vowels) and t’amim (cantillation, trope) have been added by Isaac Gantwerk Mayer based upon the underlying text sourced from the Tanakh. We are indebted to the careful citation references of Susan Weingarten that make this experimental edition possible. Inspired by the book of Esther, Isaac used a yerakh-ben-yomo/karnei-parah on the villain’s name immediately after his demise.
|Hebrew (with niqqud and t’amim)||Translation (English)|
וְאַתָּ֤ה בֶן־אָדָם֙ קַח־לְךָ֣ מְגִלַּת־סֵ֔פֶר בִּטְנְךָ֤ תַֽאֲכֵל֙ וּמֵעֶ֣יךָ תְמַלֵּ֔א אֵת־אֲשֶׁר אֶתֵּ֣ן אֵלֶ֑יךָ וַתְּהִ֥י בְּפִ֖יךָ כִּדְבַ֥שׁ לְמָתֽוֹק׃ וּבָרְכ֣וּ אֵת־יְהוָה֮ אֱלֹהֵיכֶם֒ אֲשֶׁ֨ר־עָשָׂ֜ה עִמָּכֶ֣ם לְהַפְלִ֗יא וְיַדְבֵּ֤ר עַמִּים֙ תַּ֣חְתֵּ֔ינוּ וּמְשִׁסָּתֵ֖נוּ שִׁסָּ֣ה לָ֑נוּ וּמְפַלְּטֵ֣ינוּ מֵאֹיְבֵ֔ינוּ וּמִן־קָמֵ֖ינוּ תְּרוֹמְמֵֽנוּ׃ הֲלֹ֞א זֹא֣ת ׀ מוּדַ֣עַת בְּכׇל־הָאָ֗רֶץ יְהוָ֧ה מְנַסֵּ֛נוּ הֲנֵלֵ֥ךְ בְּתוֹרָתֵ֖ינוּ אִם־לֹֽא׃ וּבְעַ֣בְדֻתֵ֔נוּ לֹ֖א עֲזָבָ֑נוּ יָגַ֖עְנוּ ה֥וּנַח לָֽנוּ׃
You also, son of man, take Ezekiel 4:1. a written scroll, Ezekiel 2:9. feed your stomach and fill your belly with Ezekiel 3:3. what I give you, Ezekiel 3:3. and it will be as sweet as honey in your mouth. Ezekiel 3:3 (slightly changed). And bless the LORD your God who has dealt wondrously with you. Jl 2:26. He has laid the nations prostrate beneath us Ps 47:4 . and those who spoiled us will be our spoil. Jer 30:16. He has rescued us from our foes and has raised us clear of our enemies. Ps 18:49. Is it not known in all the world, Isaiah 12:4. that the LORD has put us to the test, to see whether we follow his law, or not? Ex 16:4 (and cf. Dt 13:4). And we have not ceased our service, but we are weary and have been allowed to rest. Lam 5:5.
Megillat Yehudit (the Scroll of Judith),
To be said on Hanukkah
וַיְהִ֗י בְּרֵאשִׁית֙ מֶמְשֶׁ֣לֶת יְרוּשָׁלַ͏ִ֔ם וַיְקַנֵּא֙ דּ֣וּכוּס אֶחָ֔ד עַ֥ל יְרוּשָׁלַ͏ִ֖ם וְעַל־עַמּ֑וֹ וַיַּעַ֧ל יְרוּשָׁלַ͏ִ֛ם ה֥וּא וְכׇל־מֶמְשַׁלְתּ֖וֹ עִמּֽוֹ׃ וַיָּ֣צַר עָלֶ֔יהָ וַיִּ֖בֶן דָּיֵ֑ק וְלֹא נָתַ֣ן־לְאִ֗ישׁ לָצֵ֧את וְלָבֹ֛א וַיִּהְי֥וּ בַּמָּצוֹר יָמִ֥ים רַבִּֽים׃ וַיֶּחֱזַ֧ק עֲלֵיהֶ֛ם הָרָעָ֖ב וַתִּבָּקַ֥ע הָעִ֑יר וַיָּבֹ֨א הַדּ֝וּכוּס יְרוּשָׁלַ͏ִ֗ם וַיֶּחֱזַ֤ק עָלֶיהָ֙ וַיִּ֣תְפְּשֶׂ֔הָ וְכׇל־עָרֵ֥י מְצוּד֖וֹת בִּיְהוּדָֽה׃ וַיִּתְּנ֥וּ יָ֖ד תַּ֣חַת יָד֑וֹ וַיַּ֖עַבְדֽוּהוּ׃ וַיָּ֨שֶׂם֙ אֶת־כִּסְא֔וֹ מֵעַ֕ל כִּסֵּ֥א הַמְּלָכִ֖ים אֲשֶׁר־הָ֣יוּ בִּירוּשָׁלַ͏ִ֑ם וַיַּ֣עַשׂ חַ֔יִל וַיַּךְ֙ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיִּרַ֖שׁ אֶת־אַרְצָֽם׃ וַיִּקַּ֞ח אֶת־אוֹצְר֛וֹת בֵּית־יְהוָ֛ה וְאֶת־אוֹצְר֖וֹת הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיִּתֶּ֤ן עֹ֨נֶשׁ֙ עַל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְלֹ֣א יָכְלוּ֩ בְּנֵ֨י יְהוּדָ֧ה וּבִנְיָמִ֛ין לָשֵׂ֥את אֶת־רֹאשָׁ֖ם וַיִּכָּֽנְעוּ׃
It came to pass, at the beginning of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, that a certain duke burned with desire for Jerusalem and its people, and he went up to Jerusalem, and all his court with him. Then he besieged it, and built a siege-ramp, Ezekiel 4:2 and cf. 2 Kings 25:1; Jer 52:4. and he did not allow any man to go out or come in. Thus they were besieged for many days. Deuteronomy 20:19. And the famine grew more severe for them and the city was broken up. Jer 52:6–7. Then the duke entered Jerusalem and he prevailed over it and captured it, together with all the fortified cities in Judah. Thus they put their hand under his hand and surrendered. Then he placed his throne above Est 5:1. the throne of the kings who had been in Jerusalem and he was triumphant and smote 1 Samuel 14:48. Israel and possessed their land. Cf. Jer 49:1–2. He took the treasures of the House of the LORD and the treasures of the king, 2 Kings 24:13 etc. and imposed a punishment on the land: 2 Kings 24:33. the people of Judah and Benjamin Neh 11:4. could no longer raise up their heads and they were subdued. Judges 8:28.
וַיִּוָּעַ֗ץ עִם־שָׂרָיו֙ וְרוֹזְנָ֔יו וְהֵ֥ם הִרְשִׁ֖יעוּ לַעֲשׂ֑וֹת וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ זֹא֣ת הָעֵצָה֮ הַיְּעוּצָה֒ לָ֠נוּ נִ֨תְּנָ֤ה הָאָ֨רֶץ֙ לְמ֣וֹרָשָׁ֔ה וּמִ֤בְנוֹתֵ֨יהֶם֙ נִקְחָ֣ה לָ֔נוּ וּתְהִ֛י נַפְשָׁ֥ם לָהֶ֖ם לְשָׁלָֽל׃ בְּזֹא֗ת יֵא֤וֹתוּ לָ֨נוּ֙ הָאֲ֣נָשִׁ֔ים וְנִהְיֶ֖ה לְעַ֥ם אֶחָֽד׃ וַיִּֽיטְב֥וּ דִבְרֵיהֶ֖ם בְּעֵינָ֑יו וְלֹ֣א אֵחַ֔ר כִּ֥י חָפֵ֖ץ בְּבַֽת־יַעֲקֹֽב׃
Then he consulted his officers and his 2 Chr 32:3. nobles and they behaved wickedly, Daniel 12:10. saying: “This is the counsel we counsel: Isaiah 14:26. the land has been made over to us as our property, Ezekiel 11:16. now let us take their daughters for ourselves Genesis 34:16 (slightly changed). and they shall take home their lives and nothing more. Jer 21:9 etc. On this condition they will consent Genesis 34:15 (slightly changed). and we shall become one people.” Genesis 34:16 (slightly changed). Their words pleased Genesis 34:18 (slightly changed). him, and he deferred not, Genesis 34:19. for he desired the daughter of Jacob. Genesis 34:19 [RV: had delight in].
וַיִּשְׁלַ֧ח וַיִּקְרָ֛א לְכׇל־אַנְשֵׁ֥י יְהוּדָ֖ה וִירוּשָׁלִָ֑ם וַיָּבֹ֥אוּ כֻּלָּ֖ם אֶל־הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ וַיֹּ֥אמֶר לָהֶ֖ם הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ שִׁמְע֤וּ אֵלַי֙ אַבִּירֵ֣י לֵ֔ב הָרְחוֹקִ֖ים מִיְּשׁוּעָֽה׃ אֵ֖ל אָנֹ֑כִי וּמוֹשַׁ֥ב אֱלֹהִ֖ים יָשַׁבְֽתִּי׃ אֶ֚פֶס כָּמ֔וֹנִי וּמוֹשִׁ֥יעַ אַ֖יִן בִּלְתִּֽי׃ מַגִּ֥יד מֵרֵאשִׁ֖ית אַחֲרִ֑ית אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֥א נַעֲשֽׂוּ׃ אֹמֵר֙ עֲצָתִ֣י תָק֔וּם וְכׇל־חֶפְצִ֖י אֶעֱשֶֽׂה׃ וְנָתַתִּ֥י עֵצָתִ֖י בְצִיּ֑וֹן וְתִפְאַרְתִּ֖י עַל־יִשְׁרָאֵֽל׃ אֵין־חֵ֤פֶץ הַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ בְּמֹ֔הַר כִּי־אִ֥ם בִּשְׁלַ֭ל צְבָעִֽים רִקְמָ֛ה רַחַ֥ם רַחֲמָתַ֖יִם לְרֹא֖שׁ גָּֽבֶר׃ שִׁמְעִי־זֹא֞ת בָּ֣הּ ׀ יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל הֶעֲדִינָ֗ה הַיּוֹשֶׁ֧בֶת בַּבַּ֧יִת מִכְלַל־י֖וֹפִי וְטֹבַֽת־מַרְאֶ֑ה כִּי־תִּהְיֶ֨יןָ לְאִ֜ישׁ כָּעָצַ֗מְתְּ חֲבֵרֶ֕יךָ הָבִ֤יאוּ אוֹתָּהּ֙ אֵלַ֔י וְאֵדָעֶֽנָּהּ׃ שְׁתֵּי־אֵ֛לֶּה לֹ֥א יָשְׁר֖וּ בְּעֵינָֽי׃ אַלְמָנָ֤ה וּגְרוּשָׁה֙ לֹ֣א תִּקָּ֔חוּ כִּ֛י אִ֥ם בְּתוּלָ֖ה מֵעַמָּֽיו׃ שִׁמְע֤וּ זֹאת֙ בֵּ֣ית יַעֲקֹ֔ב הִנֵּ֥ה צְרַפְתִּ֖יךָ לֹ֣א בְכָ֑סֶף וּבְּחַרְתִּ֗יךָ וְאִ֥ם לֹא֙ פְּתֻחֹ֣ת אׇזְנֶ֔ךָ דַ֛ע אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֶעֱשֶׂ֖ה לָֽךְ׃ בַּחוּרֶ֥יךָ בְּחֶ֖רֶב אֶהֱרֹ֑ג וְשָׂרֶ֧יךָ וְשׁוֹפְטֶ֛יךָ לְמִרְמָ֖ס אֶתֵּֽן׃ וְאָשִׁ֤יבָה יָדִי֙ עָלַ֔יִךְ וְאֶשְׂ֖רֹף כָּל־מִבְצָרֶֽיךָ׃ הִנֵּה אֲלַמֵּדְךָ לְהוֹעִ֔יל בְּדֶ֥רֶךְ ז֖וֹ תֵּלֵ֑ךְ עֻ֥צוּ עֵצָ֖ה וְדַבֵּֽרוּ׃
So he sent and called all the people of Judah and Jerusalem, 2 Kings 23:1–2. and they all came to the king. [And the king said to them]: “Listen to me, you stubborn of heart, who are far from Isaiah 46:12. salvation. Isaiah 46:13. I am a god and I sit throned like a god. Ezekiel 28:2. There is none like me, and there is none able to save you except for me. Cf. Is 45:21 and 46:9. I reveal the end from the beginning, what is to be. I say that my purpose shall take effect, I will accomplish all that I please. Isaiah 46:10. I will give counsel in Zion and my glory to Israel. Isaiah 46:13. All the king desires as bride-price is 1 Samuel 18:25. spoil of dyed cloths, spoil of embroidered cloths, Judges 5:30. a damsel or two for each man. Judges 5:30. Listen to this, Isaiah 47:8. O daughter of Israel, who loves luxury, and sits Isaiah 47:8. in her house perfect in beauty, Ps 50:2. and fair to look upon: Genesis 26:7; 2 Samuel 11:2; Est 1:11 etc. if you are destined to marry a man, his friends must bring you [first] to me and I will know you ….. The editor notes that the text is unclear here, but this is the meaning he proposes, i.e., that the king should spend the first night with a virgin bride. These two will not please me: 1 Kings 9:12. a widow, or a divorced woman: these he shall not take, but a virgin of his people. Lv 21:14. Hear this, O House of Jacob, Isaiah 48:1. behold I have refined you but not with silver, I have tested you, Isaiah 48:10. and if your ear is not opened, Isaiah 48:8. know what I shall do to you: 1 Kings 20:22. I shall slay your young men with the sword, 2 Kings 8:12; Am 4:9. and I will cause your officers and judges to be trodden down. I will turn my hand upon you, Isaiah 1:25. and I shall burn all your fortresses. 2 Kings 8:12. Behold, I teach you for your own advantage, in the way you should go. Isaiah 48:17. Take counsel together and speak.” Isaiah 8:10.
וַיִּתֵּ֣ן לָהֶ֣ם זְמָן֮ שְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה יָמִים֒ וְלֹא֙ דִּבְּרוּ־ל֔וֹ מִטֹ֖ב וְעַ֣ד רָ֑ע וַיֵּצְא֥וּ מִמֶּ֖נּוּ סַרִ֥ים וְזוֹעֲפִֽים׃ וַיִּרְא֗וּ אוֹת֕וֹ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּרָ֑ע וְלֹא־הָיָ֨ה בָהֶ֥ם יָדַ֛יִם לָנ֖וּס הֵ֥נָּה וָהֵֽנָּה׃ וַיִּ֤רֶף יָדָם֙ וְלֹֽא־מָצְא֣וּ מַעֲנֶ֔ה וְאִחֲר֥וּ מִן־הַמּוֹעֵ֖ד אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְעָדָ֑ם
He gave them three days’ time, but they did not speak to him either good or evil, Genesis 31:24. and went away from him heavy and displeased. 1 Kings 20:43. Then the children of Israel saw they were in trouble: Ex 5:19. they had no power to flee this way or that way, Jo 8:20. and they found no answer. Job 32:4. Thus they took longer than the time he set them. 2 Samuel 20:5
וַיִּשְׁלַח֩ וַיִּקְרָ֨א אוֹתָ֜ם וַיֶּאֱסֹרַ֗ם וַיִּתְּנֵ֛ם בְּבֵ֖ית הַמַּהְפָּֽכֶת׃ וַיּוֹצֵא֙ מִמַּסְגֵּ֣ר נַפְשָׁ֔ם וַיּאֹ֖מֵר לָהֶ֑ם הָרִֽאשֹׁנוֹת֙ מֵאָ֣ז הִגַּ֔דְתִּי וּמִפִּ֣י יָצְא֗וּ מִדַּעְתִּ֕י כִּ֨י קָשִׁ֧ים אַתֶּ֛ם וּמִצְחְכֶ֖ם נְחוּשָֽׁה׃ לְמַ֤עַן שְׁמִי֙ אַאֲרִ֣יךְ אַפִּ֔י לְבִלְתִּ֖י הַכְרִ֥ית אֶתְכֶֽם׃ שֻׁ֣בוּ עָדַ֗י וְאֶתְּנָ֧ה אֶתְכֶ֛ם לִתְהִלָּ֥ה וּלְשֵׁ֖ם וּלְתִפְאָֽרֶת׃
So he sent and called them, and he bound them and put them in the prison-house. 2 Chr 16:10. When he brought them out of prison, Ps 142:8. he said to them: “I declared the former things from the beginning and they went forth from my mouth, Isaiah 48:3. because I knew that you are obstinate and your brow brass. Isaiah 48:4. But for the sake of my name I will control my wrath, I will not destroy you. Turn back to me, Jl 2:12. and I will make you high in praise and in name and in honour.” Deuteronomy 26:19.
וַיַּעֲנ֤וּ כֻּלָּם֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו בְּלַעֲגֵ֣י שָׂפָ֔ה וּבְלָשׁ֖וֹן אַחֶ֑רֶת וַיֹּאמְ֗רוּ כִּדְבָרְךָ֮ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֒לֶךְ֒ הִנֶּ֣נּוּ בְיָדֶ֔יךָ לַעֲשׂ֖וֹת כַּטּ֥וֹב בְּעֵינֶֽיךָ׃ קָרְס֤וּ כָֽרְעוּ֙ יַחְדָּ֔ו לֹ֥א יָכְל֖וּ מַלֵּ֣ט מַשָּֽׂא׃ וַתִּתְעַלֵּ֕פְנָה הַבְּתוּל֥וֹת הַיָּפ֖וֹת וַתִּבְכֶּינָ֑ה וַיֹּאמְ֗רוּ הָאֱלֹהִ֣ים ׀ מָצָ֣א אֶת־עֲוֹנֵ֗נוּ וַיִּתֵּ֣ן אוֹתָ֘נוּ֮ לִמְשִׁסָּה֒ וַיִּבְ֕כּוּ בְּכִ֖י גָּדֽוֹל׃
They all answered at once with stammering lip and in a different tongue, Isaiah 28:11. saying: “As you say, O lord king, we are in your hands, to do as you please.” Jo 9:25; Jer 26:14. They stooped, they bowed down together, they could not deliver the burden. Isaiah 46:2. The beautiful virgins fainted Am 8:13. and said tearfully: “God has found out our sins and given us as spoil,” Isaiah 42:24. and they wept sore. Judges 21:2 etc.
וַיֶּחֱזַ֣ק דְּבַר־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ וַיּוֹצִיא֖וּם אֶל־בֵּ֑יתוֹ וַתְּחַלֵּ֣לְנָה אוֹתָ֔נָה וְהַנָּשִׁ֖ים תִּשָּׁכַֽבְנָה׃ וַתֹּאמְ֣רוּ ׀ הַנָּשִׁ֣ים הַשַּׁאֲנַנּ֗וֹת עַד־מָתַ֕י יִהְיֶ֧ה זֶ֛ה לָ֖נוּ לְמוֹקְֵשׁ׃ הֲלֹ֗א ט֨וֹב־לָ֤נוּ וְחָדַ֨לְנוּ֙ מִהְי֣וֹת לְאִ֔ישׁ וְלֹ֥א נָב֖וֹאָה אֶֽל־מִשְׁכְּבוֹתָ֑יו וַיַּעֲשׂוּ־כֵֽן׃ וַתִּשְׁבֹּ֖ת מֵהָעִֽיר ק֤וֹל שָׂשׂוֹן֙ וְק֣וֹל שִׂמְחָ֔ה ק֥וֹל חָתָ֖ן וְק֣וֹל כַּלָּֽה׃
But the king’s command remained firm, 2 Samuel 24:4. and he took them out to his house, and he defiled them by lying with the women. Zec 14:2. Then the women who had been at ease Isaiah 32:11. said: “How long will this one be a snare for us? Ex 10:7. Would it not be better for us to cease to marry so we should not have to lie with him?” And they did so. Gen 42:20 etc. Then there ceased in the city Jer 7:34. the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride. Jer 7:34.
וַיִּהְיוּ֙ יָמִ֣ים רַבִּ֔ים וְלֹא־בָ֖אוּ כַּיָּמִ֣ים הָרִאשֹׁנִ֑ים וַיִּפָּלֵ֤א מְאֹד֙ בְּעֵינָ֔יו וַיִּחַ֖ר אַפּֽוֹ׃ וַיִּשְׁלַ֧ח וַיִּקְרָ֛א אֶל־אַנְשֵׁ֖י הָעִ֑יר הֲלֹ֣א זֹאת֩ דְּבָ֨רַי רִאשׁ֝וֹן וַתַּקְשׁוּ֙ עֹ֣רֶף הֲפַכְתֶּ֔ם וְלֹ֖א פָנִֽים׃ חַ֨י רֹאשִׁ֜י כִּ֤י בְנֵי־מָ֙וֶת֙ אַתֶּ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹ֛א שְׁמַרְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־מִצְוֺתַֽי׃ הַטּוֹב֙ לָכֶ֔ם כִּי־יִמְשֹׁ֥ל בָּכֶ֖ם אִ֣ישׁ אַחֵ֑ר אִם־נִמְשֹׁ֥ל בָּכֶ֖ם כׇּל־אֲנָשַֽׁי׃ דְּעוּ֙ אֵיפֹ֔ה כִּֽי־תִּהְיֶ֥ינָה לָהֶ֖ם לִמְשִׁסָּֽה׃
This was so for many days: they did not come as in the earlier days, and he was very surprised and his wrath was kindled. Genesis 39:19 etc. So he sent and called to the men of the city: “Was this not what I said at first, that you were stubborn and you turned and did not face me? Jer 2:27; 32:33. By my head! You are destined for death, for you did not observe 2 Samuel 26:16. my commandments. It would be better for you if someone else were to rule you, rather than my men should rule you! You should know therefore, that [the women] will be their prey.” 2 Kings 21:14.
וַיֹּאמְר֕וּ חָלִ֙ילָה֙ לַעֲבָדֶ֔יךָ מֵחֲדֹ֛ל לַעֲשׂ֖וֹת כַּטּ֥וֹב בְּעֵינֶֽיךָ׃ אַ֣ךְ ׀ אֲשֶׂ֣ר חָדַ֗לְנוּ לָתֵ֕ת אֵ֥ת־בְּנוֹתֵ֖ינוּ לַאֲנָשִׁ֑ים הַכֶּ֨סֶף֙ אָזַ֣ל מִכֵּלֵ֔ינוּ לָתֵ֧ת אֵל־בְּנוֹתֵ֛ינוּ לָכֵ֖ן תֵּעָגֵֽנָה׃
וַיַּעַ֖ן הָאִ֥ישׁ הַבְּלִיַּ֑עַל אֲנַסֶּה־נָּ֤א אַךְ־הַפַּ֨עַם֙ וְאֶ֣רְאֶ֔ה אִ֥ם כֵּנִ֖ים אַתֶּֽם׃ לָכֵ֗ן שׁ֚וּבוּ אֶל־אָ֣הֳלֵיכֶ֔ם וְאֲצַוֶּ֥ה אֲלֵיכֶ֖ם לֵּאמֹֽר׃ וַיַּעֲבֶר־קוֹל֙ בִּיהוּדָ֔ה וּבְאֶרֶ֖ץ יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם כׇּ֣ל ׀ אִ֣ישׁ ׀ וְאִשָּׁ֡ה אֲשֶׁר֩ לֹ֨א יִנָּשְׂא֜וּ וְיָשִׂ֤ים דָּמִים֙ בְּבֵית֔וֹ אַחַ֥ת דָּת֖וֹ לְהָמִֽית׃
Then the worthless man [son of Belial] Judges 19:22 etc. answered: “I will try you this time and see if you are honest. Genesis 42:12; 33. So go back to your tents and I will command you saying: ‘A proclamation shall go forth in Judah and the land of Jerusalem: Every man and woman who do not marry, each of them brings blood on his house, there is one law for him – he shall be put to death.’” Est 4:11.
זֹא֥ת שֵׁנִ֖ית כַּסּ֣וֹת דִּמְעָ֑ה וַיֶּחֶרְד֣וּ ׀ אִ֣ישׁ אֶל־אָחִ֗יו וַתּוּפַ֛רְנָה עֲצַ֖ת נָשִֽׁים׃ וְהָיָ֞ה כִּ֨י־תִּנָּשֵׂ֜אנָה לַאֲנָשִׁ֗ים וְתִּלָּקַ֘חְנָה֮ בֵּ֣ית הַמֶּ֒לֶךְ וַיִּשְׁכְּב֛וּ אֶת־הַנָּשִׁ֖ים הַצֹּבְאֽוֹת׃ וַיְהִ֣י ׀ בַּיָּמִ֣ים הָהֵ֗ם הָיְתָה בָּעִיר מְהוּמָ֥ה רָבָּ֖ה מְאֹ֑ד וַתִּהְיֶ֣נָה ׀ בְּנ֣וֹת יִשְׁרָאֵ֗ל צְרֻרוֹת֙ כָּל־יְמֵ֣י חַיֵּיהֶ֔ן אַלְמְנ֥וּת חַיּֽוּת׃
Then there was a second time a veil of tears. Mal 2:13. Trembling, they turned to one another, Genesis 42:28. and the counsel of the women came to nought. Isaiah 8:10. Thus when the women were married, they would take them to the house of the king and he lay with crowds of women. Ex 38:8. The meaning of the scriptural word tzova’ot is uncertain: “crowds” is the interpretation of the Jewish medieval commentator Rashi. And it came to pass in those days there was in the city a great upheaval, 1 Samuel 5:9. and the daughters of Israel were shut up unto the day of their death, living in widowhood. 2 Samuel 20:3.
וַיְהִ֣י ׀ כִּי־צָּ֣ר לָהֶ֗ם וַיִּכָּנְע֞וּ וַיָּשֻׁ֧בוּ אֵל־יהו֛ה בְּכָ֥ל־לִבָּ֖ם וּבְכָ֣ל־נַפְשָׁ֑ם וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע יהוה֙ מֵהֵ֣יכָלוֹ֔ וַיִּתֵּ֤ן לָהֶן֙ מוֹשִׁ֔יעַ אֶ֖ת־יְהוּדָֽה׃ וְהָאִ֥ישׁ גָּד֖וֹל מִכָּל־בְּנֵי־קֶ֑דֶם גִּבּ֥וֹר חַ֖יִל וְאִ֥ישׁ מִלְחָמָֽה׃ וַֽיְהִי־לוֹ֕ אָח֥וֹת יָפָ֖ה וְט֥וֹבַת־שֶֽׂכֶל׃ וַיְהִ֣י בְּלֵ֣ב ׀ אָחִ֗יהָ לָתֵ֤ת אוֹתָהּ֙ לָאִ֔ישׁ וַיֶּאֱרֹ֖ס אוֹתָ֑הּ וַתֵּהֹ֖ם כָּ֥ל־הָעִֽיר׃ וַיְהִ֖י בְּשָֽׁמְעָ֑ה וַתֵּ֨בְךְּ֙ וַתִּתְחַנֶּן־ל֔וֹ לְבִלְתִּ֛י הֱי֖וֹת לְאִֽישׁ׃ פֶּ֨ן־תִּקַּ֤ח אוֹתִי֙ וְנָפַ֔לְתִּי בְּיַ֥ד הֶעָרֵ֖ל הַזֶּ֑ה וַאֲנִ֗י אָ֤נָה אוֹלִיךְ֙ אֶת־חֶרְפָּתִ֔י וְאַתָּ֗ה תִּהְיֶ֛ה כְּאַחַ֥ד הַנְּבָלִ֖ים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ עָלֶ֖יךָ יֹאמְר֣וּ הַמֹּשְׁלִ֑ים בָּֽגְדָ֨ה יְהוּדָ֝ה וְגָ֨ם תוֹעֵבָ֧ה נַעֲשָׂ֛ה אֶת־אֲחוֹתָ֥הּ לָֽקְחָ֖ה וַתְּעַנֶּֽה׃
And it came to pass out of their affliction Hos 5:15. they were humbled and returned to the LORD, with all their heart and with all their soul. Deuteronomy 6:5. Then the LORD heard their voice ‘their voice’ is found in the manuscript, but was missed out by Habermann in his edition. from his abode, and he gave them a saviour, 2 Kings 13:5. Judah. This man was greater than all men of old, a mighty hero and man of war. 1 Samuel 16:18. He had a beautiful sister, 2 Samuel 13:1. of good understanding. Proverbs 3:4 etc. Now her brother decided to give her to a man [in marriage], and he betrothed her, and all the city was amazed. Ruth 1:19. When she heard, she wept and pleaded with him, Est 8:3. not to be given to a man: “lest you should take me and I should fall into the hands of this uncircumcised one, and I, how shall I suffer my shame? And you will be like one of the scoundrels of Israel. 2 Samuel 13:13. Of you the tale-tellers will say: Numbers 21:27. ‘Judah has broken faith, and a shameful deed has been done, Mal 2:11. they took his sister and violated her.’” 2 Samuel 13:13; cf. 2 Sm
וַיְהִ֕י כִּשְׁמ֖וֹעַ אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֣י אֲחוֹת֑וֹ וַתְּאַלֲצֵ֛הוּ וַיִּחַ֖ר אַפּֽוֹ׃ וַיַּחְגֹּר֙ אֶ֣ת־חַרְבּ֔וֹ וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ אֶל־בֵּ֣ית הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וְה֗וּא יוֹשֵׁב֙ עַ֣ל־כִּסְּא֔וֹ וְהַשָּׂרִ֕ים מִימִ֖ינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלֽוֹ׃ וַיִּרְאֵ֤הוּ חֲגוֹר֙ חֶ֣רֶב מְצֻמֶּ֔דֶת וַיִּבְזֵ֖הוּ וַיֹּאמַ֑ר הֲשָׁלוֹם֙ יְהוּדָ֔ה תָּֽבֹא־נָ֥א אֲחֹתֶּ֖ךָ וְנֵדָעֶֽנָּהּ׃ וַיֹּא֗מֵר מַ֤ה לְּךָ֙ וּ֣לְשָׁל֔וֹם סֹ֥ב אֵלַ֖י אַחֲרָ֑י הַכְזוֹנָ֕ה תַּעֲשֶׂ֖ה אֶת־אֲחוֹתַֽי׃ וַיִּשְׁלֹ֤ף אֶת־חַרְבּוֹ֙ וַיִּכְרָ֣ת אֶת־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ עִ֖ם־כָּל־הַשָּׂרִ֑ים וְעֹבְדֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ הֵמִ֖ית בֶּחָֽרֶב׃
When he heard the words of his sister, they weighed on him, Judges 16:16. and his wrath was kindled. Genesis 39:19 etc. He put on his sword-belt 2 Samuel 20:8. and went to the king’s house. He was sitting on his throne and his officers were on his right and on his left. When he saw him belted with his sword close to him, 2 Samuel 20:8. he derided him, 1 Samuel 10:27. saying: “Is it well with you, Judah? Cf. 2 Samuel 20:9: Is it well with you, my brother? Bring your sister so we can know her.” Cf. Gn 19:5. But he replied: “What concern of yours is it whether it is well? Turn behind me. 2 Kings 9:18. Should my sister be treated like a whore?” Genesis 34.31. Then he drew his sword and he cut off his head 1 Samuel 17:51; 2 Samuel 20:22. with all the officers, and he put all the servants of the king to the sword.
וַיֵּצֵ֣א מִשָּׁ֔ם וַיִּתְקַע֙ בַּשּׁוֹפָ֔ר וַיֵּאָסְפ֥וּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל כְּאִ֥ישׁ אֶחָֽד׃ וַיֹּא֨מֶר֙ רִדְפ֣וּ אַחֲרַ֔י כִּ֨י נָתַ֧ן אֱלֹהֵ֛ינוּ בְּיָדֵ֖ינוּ אֶת־כׇּל־אוֹיְבֵֽינוּ׃ וַיֵּצְא֧וּ וַיַּכּ֛וּ אִ֥ישׁ נֶגְדּ֖וֹ וַיָּרִ֑יעוּ וַיָּנֻ֗סוּ וְהַמַּחֲנֶה֙ הָיָ֣ה בֶ֔טַח לֹֽא־נוֹתָ֥ר מֵהֶ֖ם אִֽישׁ׃ וַתְּהִ֤י שִׂמְחָה֙ בְּיִ֣שְׂרָאֵ֔ל כִּֽי־שִׂמְּחָ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה מֵֽאוֹיְבֵיהֶ֑ם וַיֵּשְׁב֥וּ בְּאָהֳלֵיהֶ֖ם כִּתְמ֥וֹל שִׁלְשֽׁוֹם׃
Then he went out from there, and blew the shofar [ram’s horn], Judges 3:27; 2 Samuel 20:1, etc. and the children of Israel assembled as one man. And he said: “Follow me, for God has given all our enemies into our hands.” Judges 3:28. So they went out, and they smote man against man, and they shouted. 1 Samuel 17:52. Then they [the enemy] fled Judges 7:21. and the camp was secure, Judges 8:11. and not a man of them remained. Numbers 26:65. And there was joy in Israel, for the LORD had made them to rejoice over their enemies, 2 Chr 20:27. and they dwelt in their tents as beforetimes. 2 Kings 13:5.
וַיהִ֣י כִשְׁמ֡וֹעַ אֵל־הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ הַגָּד֣וֹל אַלִיפ֩וֹרְנִי֩ כִּי־מֵ֨ת אָחִ֝יו כִּי־הִכּ֨וּהוּ֙ בְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיִּ֥שְׁבְּ ׀ מִמֶּ֖נּוּ שֶׁ֑בִי וַיִּחַ֤ר אַפּוֹ֙ וַיִּצְעַ֣ק צְעָקָ֔ה גְּדֹלָ֥ה וּמָרָ֖ה עַד־מְאֹֽד׃ וַיֶּאֱסֹ֖ף אֶת־מַחֲנֵ֑הוּ עַ֨ם רָ֧ב כַּח֛וֹל אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־שְׂפַת־הַיָּ֖ם לָרֹֽב׃
When the great king Aliphorni [Holophernes] heard that his brother was dead because the children of Israel had smitten him, and taken some of them prisoners, Numbers 21:1. his wrath was kindled Genesis 39:19,etc. and he burst into wild and bitter sobbing. Genesis 27:34. He assembled his camp, a multitude of people, 1 Kings 3:8. as numerous as the sands of the sea. 1 Kings 4:20.
וַיִּרְא֤וּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ כִּ֣י הִ֣תְבָּאֲשׁ֔וּ עִם־הַמֶּלֶ֖ךְ אַלִיפ֑וֹרְנִי וַיִּירְא֥וּ מְאֹ֖ד לְנַפְשׁוֹתָֽם׃ וַיִּבְנוּ֮ עִ֣יר מְצֻד֒וֹת בְּכׇ֣ל ׀ יְהוּדָ֣ה וִירוּשָׁלִַ֗ם וַיָּכִ֤ינוּ שֶׁ֨לַח֙ וּמָגִנִּ֣ים לָרֹ֔ב וַיַּחֲזִ֖יקוּ אֶת־בִּדְקֵ֣י חוֹמוֹתָ֑ם וַיַּעֲשׂ֧וּ מִגְדָּל֛וֹת לָתֵת־בּ֥וֹ אֲבָנִ֖ים גְּדֹלֽוֹת׃ וַיִּתְּנוּ־חַ֨יִל֙ וְאַנְשֵׁ֣י מִלְחָמָ֔ה בְּכׇל־עִ֥יר וָעִ֖יר וּבִירוּשָׁלָ֑ׅם וַיִּקְרְאוּ־צ֛וֹם וַיִּתְפַּלְל֖וּ אֵל־יהוֽה׃
Then the children of Israel realized they had incurred the wrath of 1 Chr 19:6. the king Aliforni, and they feared greatly for their lives. So they built fortresses in all Judah and Jerusalem, and they prepared missiles and many shields and they strengthened the lookouts of their walls and they made towers to put large stones in them. They put a garrison and men of war in each and every town and in Jerusalem, proclaimed a fast Jon 3:5. and prayed to the LORD.
וַיַּ֤עַל אַלִיפ֨וֹרְנִי֙ יְר֣וּשָׁלִַ֔ם ה֥וּא וְכׇל־חֵ֖ילוֹ אִתּ֑וֹ וַיִּרְא֣וּ יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל כִּ֚י רַב־מְאֹ֣ד מַחֲנֵ֔הוּ וַיִּירְא֖וּ מְאֹֽד׃ וּבְכׇ֨ל־יוֹם־וָי֜וֹם מִתְהַלֵּ֣ךְ ׀ סָבִ֣יב הַחוֹמָ֗ה עִם־שָׂרָ֤יו וּפָרָשָׁיו֙ שָׁלִשָׁ֣יו וְרִכְבּ֔וֹ וַיָּרִ֨יעוּ֙ תְּרוּע֣וֹת גְדוֹל֔וֹת לְיָֽרְאָ֖ם וּֽלְבַהֲלָ֑ם כֹּ֥ה עֲשׂ֖וּ יָמִ֖ים רַבִּֽים׃
Then Aliforni went up to Jerusalem, he and all his army with him and Israel saw that his camp was very numerous and they feared greatly. Every day he went around the wall with his officers and his horsemen, his generals and his chariot. 1 Kings 9:22. They sounded great trumpet blasts Jo 6:5. to frighten them into panic. 2 Chr 32:18. Thus they did for many days.
וַיֹּא֨מֵר֙ אִ֣ישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מֵעַ֖ל הַחוֹמָ֑ה וַיִּצְעַ֛ק הוֹשִׁ֖יעָה אֲדֹנִ֥י הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ כׇּרְתָ֥ה בְרִיתְךָ֖ אִתָּ֑נוּ וְנָשִׂ֥ימָה אוֹתְךָ֖ לַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ לֹ֣א נֶחְשָׁב֩ כֶּ֨סֶף וְזָהָ֝ב לִמְא֗וּמָה אַ֛ךְ הֱיֵ֥ה לָ֖נוּ לְמִשְׁעָ֑ן וּבֹ֣א הָעִ֗ירָה וּמְלֹךְ֙ עָלֵ֔ינוּ וַאֲנָ֧חְנוּ יַחְדָּ֛ו נִשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֖ה לַהֲדֹ֥ם רַגְלֶֽיךָ׃
Then a man of Israel who was on the wall spoke out, and cried: “Help, my lord, O king! 2 Kings 6:26. Make a treaty with us and we will make you our king. Silver and gold will not be accounted, 1 Kings 10:21. but you should be our support and come to the city and reign over us. And we together will bow down to your footstool.” Ps 99:4.
וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר אֲלֵיהֶ֖ם יְהוּדִ֣ית קוֹל־גָּד֑וֹל הֲלֹ֗א אֲתֶּ֧ם בֵּית־יִשְׂרָאֵ֛ל הֲמִתֶּ֖ם עַמִּֽי׃ וְאֶת־דָּ֥ם אָחִ֖י אֲבַקֵּ֣שׁ מִיָּדְכֶ֑ם אִ֨ם יִתֵּ֤ן אִישׁ֙ אֶת־כׇּל־ה֣וֹן בֵּית֔וֹ לֹא־יַצִּ֥יל אוֹת֖וֹ מִיָּדִֽי׃ וְהִכְרַתִּ֖י אֶת־עָרֵ֣י אַרְצֶ֑ךָ וְהָרַסְתִּ֖י אֶת־כׇּל־מִבְצָרֶֽיךָ׃ וְעָשִׂ֖יתִי בְּאַ֣ף וּבְחֵמָ֑ה וְנַקֵּה֙ לֹ֣א אֲנַקֶּךָ לְמַעַן֩ תִּתִּ֨י אוֹתְךָ֜ לְמָשָׁ֗ל וְלִשְׁרֵקָ֔ה וְחֶרְפַּ֥ת עַמִּ֖י תִּשָּֽׂאוּ׃ לֹ֣א אָשׁ֔וּב אֵ֥ל בֵּ֖ית מַלְכוּתִ֑י עַ֥ד עֲשׂוֹתִ֖י הַמְזִמָּֽתָה׃ וְאֵת־אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֖עְתִּי אֲקַיֵּ֑מָה לֹ֨א אָשִׁ֤יב חַרְבִּי֙ מִדָּ֔ם וְנָקָ֥ם אָשִׁ֖יב לְצָרִֽי׃
Then [Aliforni] called loudly to them in the language of Judah: 2 Chr 32:18. The Hebrew for ‘in the language of Judah’ is yehudit. Cf. also 2 Kings 18:28. “O house of Israel, have you not killed my people? Page 62 of the MS ends here. Habermann thought there was clearly a lacuna in the text, which begins again with Holophernes’s speech. However, he read he-atem ami “Are you not my people?,” perhaps thinking the previous verse referred to a speech by Judith because of the mention of yehudit. Dubarle reads ha-mitem ami “Have you not killed my people?,” which is a slightly adapted quotation from Numbers 17:6 [RV 16:41]. This has the advantage of making the whole speech belong to Holophernes, without any lacuna. I seek the blood of my brother Genesis 4:10. from you. If a man were to give all the substance of his house Sg 8:7. it would not save him from me. 2 Chr 32:17. I shall destroy the cities of your land and demolish all your fortresses Mi 5:10. and I shall do it with anger and rage Jer 21:5. and by no means clearing the guilty. Numbers 14:18. I shall make you a desolation and the inhabitants an object of hissing and you shall bear the reproach of my people. Mi 6:16. I will not return to the house of my kingdom until I have executed my vile designs. Jer 11:25. I shall carry out what I have sworn. I will not stay my sword from blood and I will wreak vengeance on my foe.” Deuteronomy 32:43.
וַיַּ֖עַן הָאִ֣ישׁ דֹּבֵ֑ר אַל־יִתְהַלֵּ֥ל חֹגֵ֖ר כִּמְפַתֵּֽחַ׃ וַאֲנִי֙ בַּיהו֣ה אֲצַפֶּ֔ה אוֹחִ֖ילָה לֵאלֹהֵ֣י יִשְׁעִֽי׃
וַיָּ֣שׇׁב ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא אַלִיפ֨וֹרְנִי֙ אֵל־אָ֣הֳל֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נָטָה־ל֖וֹ לָשָֽׁבֶת׃ וַיְהִ֥י יָמִ֖ים יוֹשֵׁ֣ב בָּאֹ֑הֵל עִ֥ם שָׂרָ֖יו וַאֲצִילֵ֥י הָאָֽרֶץ׃ וּלְפָנָ֣יו ׀ גְּדֹ֣ל עֵצָ֗ה רַ֚ב עֲלִ֣ילִיָּ֔ה אִ֖ישׁ נָשׂ֣וּא פָנִ֑ים וְיוֹעֵ֛ץ וַחֲכַ֥ם חֲרָשִׁ֖ים וּנְב֥וֹן לָֽחַשׁ׃ וַיְדַבֵּ֣ר אֶל־הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ תִּֽפָּל־נָ֥א תְחִנָּתִ֖י אַחֲלֵ֣י אֲדֹנִ֑י לְכ֨וּ וְנֵלְכָ֝ה אֵל־בָּתֵּ֣ינוּ וְאֵל־אַרְצֵ֗נוּ וְאַל־נֹאבְדָה֙ לָשֶׁ֣בֶת בָּאֳהָלִ֔ים וְהִלָּחֵ֛ם עִם־יוֹשְׁבֵ֥י הָאִ֖י הַזֶּֽה׃ הֲל֨וֹא יָדַ֜עְתָּ אִם־לֹ֣א שָׁמַ֗עְתָּ אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂה֩ לְסִיח֨וֹן וּלְע֝וֹג וּלְיוֹשְׁבֵ֧י אַרְצָ֛ם כׇּל־מְלָכִ֖ים שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים וְאֶחָֽד׃ וַיַּכּ֖וּ אוֹתָ֑ם וַיִּרְשׁ֣וּ אֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ הַ֠נֶּ֠גֶב הַ֨שְּׁפֵלָ֧ה וְהָעֲרָבָ֛ה וְכׇל־ח֖וֹף הַיָּֽם׃ כׇּל־עַ֥ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר יַחְרִ֣יד אוֹתָ֑ם כֻּלָּ֥ם בָּחֶ֖רֶב יִפֹּֽלוּ׃ הִנֵּ֕ה יהו֖ה יָרִ֣יב רִיבָ֑ם וְקָבַ֥ע אֶת־קוֹבָעֵ֖יהֶם נָֽפֶשׁ׃ אָבִ֣י רְאֵה֮ גָּ֣ם רְאֵה֒ מֵאֵ֣ת אָחִ֔יךָ חֶרְפָּת֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר חֵרְפ֑וּם יהו֛ה הֵשִׁ֥יב גְּמוּל֖וֹ בְּרֹאשֽׁוֹ׃ כִּ֚י יהו֣ה אֱלֹהֵיהֶ֔ם ה֚וּא אֱלֹהֵ֣י הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים וַאֲדֹנֵ֖י הָאֲדֹנִ֑ים וְלַיה֥וה הָאָ֖רֶץ וּמְלוֹאָֽהּ׃ וּמִי֙ יוּכַ֣ל לָדִ֔ין עִ֥ם שֶׁתַּקִּ֖יף מִמֶּ֑נּוּ יהו֕ה יִלְחַ֖ם לָהֶֽם׃ וְהַ֣נְּבִיאִ֔ים נִבְּא֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר עֹ֣פֶל ׀ בַּת־צִיּ֣וֹן עָדֶ֗יךָ תֵּאתֶה֙ וּבָאָ֔ה הַמֶּמְשָׁלָ֥ה הָרִאשֹׁנָ֖ה לְבַ֣ת יְרוּשָׁלָֽׅם׃ אִם־לִ֥י וּלְקֹלִ֖י תִּשְׁמַ֑ע אִ֥ישׁ אֵל־אַרְ֖צוֹ יִפְנֽוּ׃
On that day Aliforni returned to his tent which he had pitched to sit in. For many days he sat in his tent with his officers and the nobles of the country. Then there came before him, wondrous in purpose and mighty in deed, Jer 32:19. an honourable man and a counsellor, a cunning artificer and an eloquent orator. Isaiah 3:3. He spoke to the king: “Let my supplication be accepted before you: Jer 37:20. I would, my lord, 2 Kings 5:3. that we should arise and go 1 Samuel 9:9. to our home and our land, so we shall not perish sitting in tents and fighting with the inhabitants of this coastland. Isaiah 20:6. Do you not know? Have you not heard Isaiah 40:28. what he did to Sihon and Og and the inhabitants of their countries, Cf. Dt 31:4. all the thirty-one kings? They defeated them and took possession of their territories: Jo 12:1. the Negeb, the Shephelah, the Arabah and all the seacoast. Deuteronomy 1:7. Every people who will make them tremble will fall by the sword. For behold! the LORD will take up their cause and rob him who robs them of their livelihood. Proverbs 22:23. A version of the expression yariv rivam [(God) will take up their cause ] is also found in the past tense ravta et rivam in the Babylonian Talmud Megillah 21b as part of the blessing to be said before the reading of Megillat Esther on Purim. At some stage it was transferred to Hanukkah, where it has been said as part of the blessing Al haNissim at least since the Mahzor Vitri (ed. A. Goldschmidt, Jerusalem, 2004) in the eleventh century. My father, see, O see, the shame of your brother, his shameful acts. the LORD has made them recoil on his own head. Jl 4:7 (3:8). For the LORD their God is the God of gods and Lord of lords, Deuteronomy 10:17. and the earth is the LORD’s and all that is in it. Ps 24:1. Who can contend with what is mightier than he? Ecclesiastes 6:10. the LORD will fight for them. The prophets prophesied to them, saying: ‘Hill of Zion’s daughter, the promises to you shall be fulfilled; your former sovereignty shall come again to the daughter of Jerusalem. Mi 4:8. If you be mine and will hearken to my voice 2 Kings 10:6. each man will go back to his own land.’” Cf. Is 13:14; Jer 15:16.
וַיְהִ֣י כִשְׁמ֘וֹעַ֮ אַלִיפ֒וֹרְנִי֒ אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֣י ׀ הָאִ֣ישׁ הַזֶּ֗ה וַיִּחַ֨ר ל֤וֹ מְאֹד֙ וַיֹּא֨מֵר֙ אִ֣ישׁ הַדָּמִ֔ים שֶׁ֕קֶר אַתָּ֥ה אוֹמֵ֖ר אֵלַ֑י אֵל־הַיְּהוּדִ֖ים אַתָּ֥ה נֹפֵֽל׃ וַיִּקְצְפ֤וּ הַשָּׂרִים֙ עָלָ֔יו וַיֹּא֣מְר֔וּ לְהִתְרַפּ֧וֹת לֵ֛ב אַנְשֵׁ֥י הַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה בָּ֑אתָ וּמִי֩ בְּכׇל־אֱלֹהֵ֨י הָאֲרָצ֝וֹת אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִצִּ֘ילוּ֮ אֶת־אַרְצָ֣ם מִיָּדִי֒ כִּ֛י יַצִּ֖יל אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִָֽם׃ וַיִּתְפְּשׂ֗וּהוּ וַיִּשָּׁבְע֛וּ חַי־נֶפֶ֥שׁ אֲדֹנֵ֖נוּ הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ כִּ֥י בֶן־מָ֖וֶת הֽוּא׃ וַיַּ֣עַן הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ יַ֚עַן כִּ֣י דִבֵּ֔ר ט֖וֹב עַ֣ל הַיּהוּדִ֑ים כַּמִּשְׁפָּ֤ט הַזֶּה֙ אֶעֱשֶׂ֖ה לּ֔וֹ אֶת־מִשְׁפָּט֖וֹ חָרַֽצְתִּי׃ לְכוּ֙ וּתְל֣וּ אוֹת֔וֹ מֵהָ֖לְאָה לְשַׁעֲרֵ֥י יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם יָדָ֣יו אֲסֻר֔וֹת וְרַגְלָ֖יו לִנְחֻשְׁתַּֽיִם׃ אַ֣ל תְמִיתֻ֗הוּ אַ֛ךְ בְּרָעָ֥ב וּבְצָמָ֖א תְנִיחֻ֑הוּ לַחֹ֥רֶב בַּיּ֖וֹם וְלַקֶּ֥רַח בַּלָּֽיְלָה׃ וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא יֵרָאֶה֙ אֶת־נִ֣קְמָתִ֔י מִיּוֹשְׁבֵ֖י יְהוּדָ֣ה וִירוּשָׁלָ֑ׅם עֲבָדַ֤י ׀ יֹאכֵ֙לוּ֙ וְה֣וּא יִרְעַ֔ב עֲבָדַ֣י יִשְׁתּ֔וּ וְה֥וּא יִצְעַ֖ק מִכְּאֵ֥ב לֵֽב׃ וְאַכֶּ֨הוּ֙ פַּ֣עַם אַחַ֔ת וְלֹ֥א אֶשְׁנֶ֖ה ל֑וֹ יָבֹא־נָ֣א וְיוֹשִׁיעֵ֔הוּ וּמִ֥י מִיָּדִ֖י יַצִּילֵהוּ׃
When Aliforni heard the words of this man he was very wrathful, Genesis 39:19 etc. and he said: “You man of blood 2 Samuel 16:7. you are telling me a lie. Cf. Jer 40:16; 43:2. You have gone over to Jer 37:13. the Jews.” The officers were angry with him also, saying: “You have come to discourage the soldiers. Jer 38:4. Among all the god of the nations is there one who saved his land from me? And how will he save Jerusalem?” Isaiah 36:20. So they seized him, and swore: “By the life of our lord the king, he deserves to die!” 1 Samuel 20:31; 2 Samuel 12:5. The king added: “Because he spoke well of the Jews, according to this judgement I shall do to him, Ex 21:31. I have decided it. 1 Kings 20:40. Go and hang him up beyond the gates of Jerusalem Jer 22:19. his hands bound and his feet thrust in fetters. 2 Samuel 3:34. You shall not put him to death, but leave him to hunger and thirst, Deuteronomy 28:48. to heat by day and to frost by night. Jer 36:30. And on that day the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem will see my revenge: my servants shall eat and he will starve, my servants shall drink and he will cry out from sorrow, Isaiah 65:13–14. and I will strike him once: I shall not have to strike twice. 1 Samuel 26:8. Let him come and deliver him! 1 Samuel 4:3. Who will save him from my hands?” Cf. Is 36:20.
וַיְצַ֥ו אֶת־עֲבָדָ֖ו לֵּאמֹ֑ר וַיַּאַסְרֻ֨הוּ֙ בָּעֲבֹתִ֣ים חֲדָשִׁ֔ים וַיִּתְל֖וּהוּ וַיַּנִּחֻֽהוּ׃
Then he commanded his servants saying: “Bind him with new ropes,” Judges 15:13. and they strung him up and left him.
וַיִּשָּׂ֥א אֶת־עֵינָ֖יו בַּשָּׁמַ֣יִם וַיֹּאמַ֑ר אָמ֣וּתָה הַפָּ֗עַם אַחֲרֵי֙ רְאוֹתִ֣י נְקָמָ֔ה מֵאַלִיפ֖וֹרְנִי וּמֵעָמּֽוֹ׃ וַיַּעֲמֹ֞ד בֵּ֤ין הַשָּׁמַ֨יִם֙ וּבֵ֣ין הָאָ֔רֶץ שְׁלֹשָׁ֥ה יָמִ֖ים וּשְׁלֹשָׁ֣ה לֵיל֑וֹת לֶ֚חֶם לֹ֣א אָכַ֔ל וּמַ֖יִם לֹ֥א שָׁתָֽה׃
וַיְהִ֣י ׀ בִּשְׁלשָׁ֣ה הַיָּמִ֡ים וְאִשָּׁ֣ה ׀ אַחַ֣ת ׀ מִנְּשֵׁ֣י בְנֵֽי־הַנְּבִיאִ֡ים וּשְׁמָ֣הּ יְ֠הוּדִית צָעֲקָ֨ה אֶל־יהו֜ה וַתִּתְפַּלֵּ֣ל ׀ וַתָּצ֣וּם וַתִּתְחַנֶּן־ל֗וֹ אָ֚נָּא י֣הו֔ה עֹשֶׂ֥ה חֶ֖סֶד לַאֲלָפִ֑ים זׇכְרָ֕ה לְחַֽסְדֵ֥י דָוִ֖ד הַנֶּאֱמָנִֽים׃ וַיְהִי֙ אַחַ֣ר הִתְפַּלְּלָ֔ה וַתִּצְלַ֧ח רוּחַ־יהו֧ה וַתָּ֥שֶׂם לָ֖הּ בְּלִבָּֽהּ׃
On the third day a woman of the wives of the sons of the prophets, whose name was Judith, cried out 2 Kings 4:1. to the LORD, and prayed, and fasted, and beseeched him: “Please, LORD, who performs kindness to thousands! Ex 20:6; Jer 32:18. Remember David’s loyal service in faithfulness!” This is a combination of 2 Chr 6:42 and Is 55:3. After she had prayed, the spirit of the LORD suddenly seized her Judges 14:6. and she took it to her heart.
וַתֹּ֖אמֵר אֶל־שׁוֹעֵ֣ר הָעִ֑יר פְּתַח֙ אֶת־שַׁעֲרֵ֣י הָעִ֔יר אוּלַ֕י יִהְיֶה֙ יהו֣ה אִתִּ֔י וְיֹשִׁעֵ֖נוּ מִיָּ֥ד אֹיְבֵֽינוּ׃ וַיֹּ֣אמֵר הַשּׁוֹעֵ֔ר מָה־זֹּא֖ת מִהַ֣רְתְּ לָצֵ֑את הֲלֹ֗א אֶל־מַחֲנֵ֤ה אַלִיפ֨וֹרְנִי֙ אַ֣תְּ נוֹפֶ֔לֶת וּתַּעַגְבִ֣י אֵלָ֔יו וְתִּזְנִ֥י אֶת־פִּלֶגְשֵׁ֖ךְ אִתָּֽךְ׃ וַתַּ֤עַן יְהוּדִית֙ וַתֹּ֔אמֶר בַּצּ֕וֹם עִנֵּ֖יתִי נַפְשִׁ֑י וָאֶשְׁפֹּ֥ךְ אֶת־שִׂיחִ֖י לִפְנֵ֥י יהוֽה׃ הַנִּ֣יחִי אוֹתִ֔י כִּ֥י עֵ֖ת לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת לַיהוֽה׃ וַיַּ֤רְא הַשּׁוֹעֵר֙ אֶת־טַ֣עְמָ֔הּ וַיֹּאמֵ֖ר לְכִ֑י וֶאֱלֹהֵ֥י אֲבֹתַ֖יִךְ יִהְיֶ֥ה עִמַּֽיִךְ׃ וַיִּפְתַּ֨ח הַשּׁוֹעֵ֜ר הַפֶּ֗תְחָה בַּלָּ֕אט וַתֵּצֵ֛א הִ֖יא וּשְׁתֵּ֣י שִׁפְחוֹתֶ֑יהָ וְהַדֶּלֶ֖ת סָגַ֥ר אַחֲרֵיהֶֽן׃
Then she said to the gatekeeper of the city: “Open the gates of the city. Perhaps the LORD will be with me and will deliver us from the hand of our enemies.” 1 Samuel 4:3. But the gatekeeper said: “Why are you going so quickly? Genesis 27:20. Have you gone over Jer 37:13. to the camp of Aliforni? Will you play the whore with him? Will you betray [us] with your lover?” Ezekiel 23:5; Jgs 19:2. Judith replied saying: “I have mortified myself with fasting Ps 35:13. and poured out my complaint before the LORD. Ps 142:2. Let me go, Judges 16:26. for it is time to act for the LORD.” Ps 119:126. It is common in rabbinical literature for a quotation of one half of a scriptural verse to refer also to the other, unquoted part. The gatekeeper saw her good sense 1 Samuel 25:32. and said: “Go, and the god of your fathers be with you.” And he opened the gate secretly and she went out, herself and her two maids and he closed the door behind them. Genesis 19:6.
וַיְהִ֣י ׀ כְּצֵ֣את הַגְּבִירָ֗ה הִיא֩ וּשְׁתֵּ֨י שִׁפְחוֹתֶ֝יהָ הָהוֹלְכ֣וֹת לְרַגְלֶ֗יהָ וַתִּלְבָּ֨שׁ בִּגְדֵ֧י מַלְכ֛וּת וַתָּ֤שֶׂם כֶּֽתֶר־מַלְכוּת֙ בְּרֹאשָׁ֔הּ וַתֵּ֣טֶב אֶת־רֹאשָׁ֔הּ וַתֵּ֥רֶב תִּפְאַרְתָּ֖הּ וַתַּגְדֵּ֣ל יִפְעָתָ֑הּ וַתְּהִ֤י יְהוּדִית֙ נֹשֵׂ֣את חֵ֔ן בְּעֵינֵ֖י כׇּל־רֹאֶֽיהָ׃
When the lady went out, herself and her two maids in attendance, 1 Samuel 25:42. she put on royal apparel Est 5:1. and set a royal diadem on her head Est 2:17. and dressed her hair. 2 Kings 9:30. Her glory increased and her beauty grew, and Judith won the admiration of all who saw her. Est 2:15.
וַתֵּ֣לֶךְ וַתָּבוֹא֮ בְּמַחֲנֵ֣ה אַלִיפ֒וֹרְנִי֒ וַיִּרְא֤וּ אֹתָהּ֙ וַ֣יְּהַלְּל֔וּהָ אֶ֖ל הַמֶּֽלֶךְ׃ וַתִּשְׁאַ֣ל ׀ וַתֹּ֗אמֶר אֵיפֹ֨ה בֵּית־הַמֶּ֝לֶךְ וַיֵּלְכ֧וּ עִמָּ֛הּ חַ֖יִל לָרֹ֣ב מְאֹֽד׃
וַיְהִ֣י ׀ כְּבוֹאָ֣ה אֶל־הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ וַתִּשְׁתָּ֤הוּ אֶל־פָּנָיו֙ אַ֔רְצָה וַיְהִי֙ כִרְאוֹת֣וֹ אוֹתָ֔הּ וַתִּשָּׂא־חֵ֥ן וָחֶ֖סֶד לְפָנָ֑יו וַיְבַהֵ֧ל וַיֹּא֛מֶר לְמִ֖י הַנַּעֲרָֽה׃
וַתַּ֧עַן וַתֹּאמַ֛ר מִבְּנ֥וֹת יִשְׁרָאֵ֖ל אָנֹ֑כִי וְאָב֨וֹאָה הַיּ֝וֹם לְהִתְנַפֵּ֧ל ׀ וּלְהִתְחַנֵּ֣ן אֵלֶ֗יךָ תִּמְצָ֤א שִׁפְחָתְךָ֙ חֵ֣ן בְּעֵינֶ֔יךָ וּפָרַשְׂתָּ֥ כְנָפֶ֖ךָ עַל־אֲמָתֶֽךָ׃
וַיֹּא֣מֶר הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ שַׁאֲלִ֖י אֲחוֹתִ֑י מַה־שְּׁאֵלָתֵ֧ךְ וּמַה־בַּקָּשָׁתֵ֛ךְ עַד־חֲצִ֥י הַמַּלְכ֖וּת וְתֵעָֽשׂ׃
The king said: “Ask me, sister, what is your wish and what is your request? Even to half my kingdom it shall be fulfilled.” Est 5:6; 7:2.
עַתָּ֣ה ׀ אֲדֹנִ֣י הַמֶּ֩לֶךְ֩ הִנֵּ֨ה לְשִׁפְחָתְךָ֝ אָ֤ב זָקֵן֙ אִ֣ישׁ הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים מִבְּנֵ֥י הַנְּבִיאִ֖ים ה֑וּא וַיָּ֣קׇם ׀ מִתּ֣וֹךְ הָעָ֗ם וַֽיַּעֲמֹ֤ד לְרֹאשׁ֙ הַ֣ר־הַזֵּתִ֔ים וַיֹּא֞מֶר שִׁ֨מְעוּ־נָ֧א דְבָרָ֛י אֶת־אַשֶׁ֥ר אֱלֹהַ֖י שׁוֹלֵ֣חַ אֲלֵיכֶֽם׃ עַ֨ל־מִ֤י בָטַ֨חְתָּ֙ וַתִּמְרֹ֔ד בַּמֶּ֥לֶךְ הַגָּד֖וֹל אַלִיפ֣וֹרְנִי עַבְדִּ֑י וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ אִם־תֵּצְא֣וּ אֵלָ֗יו וְהָיְתָ֕ה נַפְשְׁכֶ֥ם לְשָׁלָ֖ל וִחְיִיתֶֽם׃ וְאִם־אֵ֥ין שִׁמְע֖וּ דְבָרָ֑י בָּעֵ֨ת מָחָ֝ר יָבֹ֤א עַבְדִּי֙ אַ֣לִיפ֔וֹרְנִי וְיָשַׁב֙ עַל־כִּסֵּ֣א דָּוִ֔ד וּמָשַׁ֥ל מִמְשָׁ֖ל רַֽב׃ וְאַתֶּ֖ם לֹא־תִּנָּצְל֣וּ מִיָּד֑וֹ וְאֶֽת־הָרֹ֨תֵיהֶ֜ם תְּבַקֵּ֗עַ וְעֹ֨לְלֵיהֶ֥ם תְּרַטֵּ֧שׁ נְאֻ֖ם יהוֽה׃ וַיְהִ֨י כְּשׇׁמְעָ֝ם וַיֶּחֶרְד֤וּ אַחֲרָיו֙ וַיִּ֣רְדְּפ֔וּהוּ וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ וַיָּ֖שׇׁב אֶל־אַחַ֣ד הֶהָרִ֑ים לֵרָא֛וֹת אֶת־אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִהְיֶ֖ה בָּעִֽיר׃ וְה֨וּא צִֽוָּה־לִ֝י לְכִ֣י ׀ וּמַלְּאִ֣י אֶת־נַפְשֵׁ֗ךְ וּצְאִ֣י אֶל־הָמֶּלֶךְ֮ הַגָּדוֹל֒ ומלא [וּמַלְּאִי֙] אֶ֣ת־דְּבָרַ֔יִךְ וְדַּבְּרִ֥י אֵלַ֖י ט֑וֹב לִפְנֵ֣י הַמֶּ֔לֶךְ אִמָּ֥לְטָה גַּם־אֲנִ֖י בִּגְלָלֵֽךְ׃ עַתָּ֨ה בָ֜אתִי תִּפָּ֤ל־נָא֙ תְחִ֣נָּתִ֔י בְּבֹאֲךָ֖ הָעִ֑ירָה תְּחַיֶּ֣ה אֶת־אָבִ֣י וְאֶת־אִמִּ֡י וְאֶת־אָחַי֩ וְאָ֨נֹכִ֧י אֶהְיֶ֛ה כְּאַחַ֖ת שִׁפְחֹתֶֽיךָ׃
[She replied] “My lord the king, your handmaid has an old father, he is a man of God, of the sons of the prophets. 2 Kings 4:1. He arose from within the people and stood on the top of the Mount 1 Kings 14:7; Jgs 9:7 and cf. Gn 19:30. of Olives Zec 14:4. and said: ‘Hear now Judges 9:7. my words, which my god sends to you: “Now on whom do you trust, that you rebel against Isaiah 36:5. the great king Aliforni, my servant? If you surrender to him you shall escape with your life and live.” Jer 38:2. cf. n. 29. And if you do not listen to my words, at this time tomorrow, my servant Aliforni will come and sit on the throne of David 1 Kings 2:12. and rule with great dominion. Daniel 11:3. You will not be saved from his hand and he will rip up your women with child and dash your children,’ 2 Kings 8:12, in the reverse order. says the LORD.” When they heard him they were afraid because of what he said, and they pursued him. So he went and sat on one of the hills to see what would become of the city, Jon 4:5. and he commanded me: ‘Go, flee for your life, and go to the great king. Take him all this message and speak for me well before the king, so I too will escape Genesis 19:20. because of you.” Now I have come. Hear my supplication! Jer 37:20. When you come to the city, save alive my father and my mother and my brethren, Jo 2:13. and I will be as one of your handmaids.” Ruth 2:13.
וַיְהִ֣י ׀ כִּשְׁמ֣וֹע אַלִיפ֔וֹרְנִי אֶ֚ת דִּבְרֵ֣י הַנַּעֲרָ֔ה וַיִּשְׂמַ֧ח וַיֹּאמֵ֛ר אַל־תִּרְאִ֕י כִּ֚י אֶעֱשֶׂ֣ה כנפשיך [כְּנָּפְשֵׁ֔ךְ] וְאַצִּ֥יל אֶת־נַפְשׁוֹתֵיהֶ֖ם מִמָּֽוֶת׃ וְאַ֤תְּ תהיה [תִּהְיִי֙] עַ֣ל בֵּיתִ֔י וּמָלַכְ֭תְּ בְּכֹל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר תְּאַוִּ֑י וְאָבִ֧יךְ אֲשִׂימֶ֛נּוּ שׁוֹמֵ֥ר לְרֹאשִׁ֖י כׇּל־הַיָּמִֽים׃
When Aliforni heard the words of the girl, he rejoiced greatly, 1 Kings 5:21 [5:7]. and said: “Do not fear for I will do what you desire and I will deliver your lives from death. Jo 2:13. You will be in charge of my household Genesis 41:40. and reign over all your soul desires 1 Kings 12:37. and your father – I shall make him my body guard for ever. 1 Samuel 28:2.
בֹּאִי־נָ֛א שִׁכְבִ֥י עִמִּ֖י אֲחוֹתִ֑י כִּ֞י גְּדוֹלָ֤ה אַהֲבָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֲהַבְתִּ֔יךְ אַהֲבַ֖ת תַּעֲנוּגִֽים׃
וַתַּ֥עַן יְהוּדִ֖ית וַתֹּאמַ֑ר אָנָּ֤א אֲדֹנִי֙ עַל־רֹ֣ב יִפְעָתֶ֔ךָ שְׁפֹ֥ךְ בַּדָּ֖ם חֲמָתִֽי׃
אַ֗ךְ בַּלַּ֨יְלָה֙ אֶטְהַ֣ר מִזּוֹבִ֔י וָאֶרְחַ֥ץ בְּנִקָּי֖וֹן כַּפָּ֑י עַד־הָעֶ֖רֶב תַּנַּ֥ח יָדֶֽךָ׃
וַיֹּא֘מֵר֮ כִּדְבָרֵ֣ךְ אֲחוֹתִי֒ אַ֚ךְ אַ֣ל־תְּאַחֲרִ֣י אוֹתִ֔י הַלַּ֕יְלָה רַחֲצִ֖י הִזַּכִּֽי׃
שְׁתַּ֥יִם שָׁאַ֖לְתִּי מֵאֵ֣ת אֲדֹנִ֑י אַל־[תשיבי]־תָּשִׁ֥יב אֶת־פָּנָ֖י רֵיקָֽם׃ הָסֵר֙ אָהֳלֵ֣י הָאֲנָשִׁ֔ים וְיַ֨רְחִ֧קוּ מֵעַלֵ֛ינוּ הַרְחֵ֖ק כִּמְטַחֲוֵ֣י קָשֶׁ֑ת פֵּן־יִרְא֤וּ אוֹתָ֨נוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י הָחַ֔יִל מִ֣תְרַפְּקִ֔ים וְיַגִּ֕ידוּ אֶ֛ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִרְא֖וּ וּנְבֻזֶּ֥ה בְּעֵינֵיהֶֽם׃ גָּ֠ם אִ֨ם־יִרְא֤וּ אוֹתָ֨נוּ֙ בְּעֲיִינ֔וֹת וּבַ֥נְּחָלִ֖ים אַל־יִגְּע֣וּ בָּ֑נוּ וּדְבֹ֖רְנָה דָּבָֽר׃
“Two things I ask of you, Proverbs 30:7. my lord, I pray you, do not refuse me, 1 Kings 2:20. or let me go away empty-handed. Ex 23:15. Remove your men’s tents, Numbers 16:26. so that they distance themselves from us a bowshot’s length away, Genesis 21:16. lest the soldiers should see us embracing, The text is unclear here. I have followed the slight re-ordering proposed by Dubarle. and say what they have seen and we should be demeaned in their eyes. Even if the soldiers see us Here presumably Judith means herself and her maid, not herself and Holophernes. in the springs and streams, let them not touch us or talk.”
וַיֹּא֖מֵר ט֑וֹב וַיְהִ֛י כִּ֥י חַפֵ֖ץ בְּבַ֥ת יְהוּדִֽית׃ ותזעק [וַיִּזְעַ֕ק] בְּק֥וֹל גָּד֖וֹל בְּכׇל־הַמַּחֲנֶ֑ה וַיַּרְחִ֨יקוּ מֵעֲלֵיהֶ֧ם מְאֹ֛ד וַיִּירְא֖וּ לְנַ֥פְשׁוֹתָֽם׃
וַתֹּ֤אמֵר יְהוּדִית֙ צָמֵ֔אתִי וְגָ֛ם בְּצ֥וֹם נָפְשִׁ֖י עִנִּֽיתִי׃ וַתֹּ֖אמֵר לְשִׁפְחָת֑וֹ בַּשְּׁלִ֣י לִי֩ שְׁתֵּ֨י לְבִיב֝וֹת ואברא [וְאֶבְרֶ֣ה] מִיָדְּךָ֗ וַתַּ֥עַשׂ לָ֖הּ הַלְּבִיב֑וֹת וַיִּ֨מְלָחֵ֧ם עַד־מְאֹ֛ד וּבְחֲרִיצֵ֥י הֶחָלָ֖ב שָׁפַ֖ךְ עַל־הַסִּֽיר׃ וַיִּקָּחֵ֖ם וַיְבִיאֵ֣ם הָחֶ֑דְרָה אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַלִיפ֖וֹרְנִי שָֽׁמָה׃
Then Judith said: “I am thirsty and have been humbling my soul with fasting.” Ps 35:13. So she said to her maid: “Cook 2 Samuel 13:8. me two pancakes so I can eat at your hands.” 2 Samuel 13:6. She made her the pancakes and salted them heavily and poured them into the pot with pieces of cheese. 1 Samuel 17:18. She took them and brought them to the room Cf. 2 Samuel 13:10. where Holophernes was.
וַיַּ֨עַשׂ אַלִיפ֝וֹרְנִי כֵּרָ֣ה גְדוֹלָ֗ה אֶת־מִשְׁתֶּה֙ יְהוּדִ֔ית וַיֹּאכַ֥ל אֶת־הַלְּבִיב֖וֹת וְאֶת־חֲרִיצֵ֣י הֶחָלָ֑ב וַיֵּשְׁ֣תְּ ׀ וַיִּטַ֣ב לִבּ֡וֹ וַיִּשְׁכָּר֩ וַ֨יִּתְגַּל בְּתוֹךְ־אָהֳלֹ֛ה וַיִּשְׁכַּ֖ב וַיֵּרָדַֽם׃
And Holophernes made a great banquet, 2 Kings 6:23. the feast of Judith, Judith is here substituted for Esther in Est 2:18. and he ate Ruth 3:7. the pancakes and the pieces of cheese. 1 Samuel 17:18. He drank too, and his heart was merry. Ruth 3:7. He got drunk and he uncovered himself in his tent, Genesis 9:21. and he lay down and slept. Jon 1:5.
וַיְהִי֙ כִּרְא֣וֹת יְהוּדִ֔ית כּ֨י שׁוֹתֶ֧ה שִׁכּ֛וֹר ה֥וּא נֹפֵ֖ל אַ֑רְצָה וְאֵין אִ֥ישׁ אִתּ֖וֹ בַּבַּֽיִת׃ וַתָּ֣קׇם עַל־רַגְלֶ֔יהָ וַתִּפְרֹ֧שׂ כַּפֶּ֛יהָ הַשָּׁמַ֖יְמָה וַתֹּאמַ֑ר אָ֣נָּא ׀ יהו֣ה ׀ הַצְלִיחָֽה־נָּא֩ לַ֨אֲמָתְךָ֧ הַיּ֛וֹם וְהוֹשִׁ֥יעָה אֶת־יָדִ֖י לִֽי׃ וַתִּקַּ֣ח הַחֶ֩רֶב֩ וַתָּבֹ֨א אֵלָ֝יו בַּלָּ֗אט וְהוּא֙ נִרְדָּ֔ם וַתָּ֖רֶם יְמִינָ֣הּ וְשְׂמֹאלָ֑הּ וַתַּךְ֙ אֶ֣ת־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ ויכהו [וַתַּכֶּ֖הוּ] וַתָּמִיתֵֽהוּ׃ וַתִּכְרֹת֙ אֶ֣ת־רֹאשׁ֔וֹ וַתָּ֧שֶׂם אוֹתָ֛ה לוּטָ֖ה בִּבְגָדֶֽיהָ׃
When Judith saw that he had been drinking himself drunk 1 Kings 16:9. and that he had fallen to the ground Judges 3:25. and there was no-one with him in the house, Genesis 39:11; 1 Kings 3:18. she rose to her feet. 2 Kings 13:21. She spread forth her hands toward heaven and said: 1 Kings 8:22. “LORD, I beseech, you prosper your handmaid this day. Neh 1:11. Let my own hand save me!” Judges 7:2. Then she took the sword Judges 3:21. and went softly to him, for he was fast asleep. Judges 4:21. Then she held up her right hand and her left hand Daniel 12:7. and she smote his head, Jon 7:8. she smote him and killed him 1 Samuel 17:49. and she cut off his head 1 Samuel 17:51. and she put it wrapped up 1 Samuel 21:10. in her clothes.
וַתֵּ֗לֶךְ עִ֚ם שִׁ֣פְחוֹתֶ֔יהָ מְתוֹפְפ֖וֹת וּשְׂמֵח֑וֹת עַל־פֶּתָ֖ח הָעֵינָֽיִם׃ וַיִּרְא֛וּהָ אַנְשֵׁ֖י הַמַּחֲנֶ֑ה וַיִּירְא֖וּ מִגֶּ֣שֶׁת אֲלֵיהֶֽן׃ ֠וַתָּבֹ֠אוּ אֶל־שַׁעֲרֵ֨י יְרוּשָׁלִַ֜ם
וַיִּקְרְא֣וּ אֶל־הַשּׁוֹעֵ֗ר פְּתַ֕ח לַאֲהֻבַ֖ת רֵ֑עַ ותפתח [וַיִּפְתַּ֣ח] לָ֔הּ וַתַּרְאֶ֖הוּ אֶ֥ת־הָרֹֽאשׁ׃ וַיֶּאֱסֹ֣ף אֵלָיו֩ אֶת־כׇּל־אַנְשֵׁ֨י הָעִ֝יר וְלֹ֣א הֶאֱמִ֗ינוּ וַיֹּאמְר֧וּ פֵּן־מָצְאָ֛ה רֹא֥שׁ מֻשְׁלָ֖ךְ בַּדָּ֑רֶךְ וַתִּקָּחֵ֖הוּ לָֽנוּ׃
They cried to the gatekeeper: Open for the woman beloved of her friend Hos 3:1. and he opened for her and she showed him the head. So he gathered together all the people of the city, and they did not believe it. They said: “Perhaps she found a head thrown onto the road and brought it to us.”
וַתֹּ֩אמֵר֩ אִ֨ם לִּ֝י וּלְקוֹלִ֗י לֹ֕א תִּ֖שְׁמָ֑עוּ אָעִ֧ידָה לָּכֶ֛ם עֵדִ֖ים נֶאֱמָנִֽים׃ הִנֵּ֨ה מֵהָ֝לְאָה לְשַׁעֲרֵ֣י יְרוּשָׁלִַ֗ם אִ֨ישׁ גִּבּ֧וֹר חַ֛יִל יוֹעֵ֖ץ לַמֶּ֑לֶךְ וַיְצַו֩ לִתְלוֹת֨וֹ בְיָדָ֜יו עַל־אֲשֶׁ֧ר דִּבֵּר־ט֛וֹב עַ֥ל הַיְּהוּדִ֖ים אֶל־הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ׃ וַיָּרֻ֡צוּ וַיִּקָּחֻ֩הוּ֩ וַיַ֨אֲכִילֻ֝הוּ וַ֣יַּשְׁקֻ֗הוּ וַתָּ֥שׇׁב רוּח֖וֹ אֵלָ֑יו וַיַּרְאֻ֖הוּ אֶת־הָרֹֽאשׁ׃ וַיֹּ֞אמֵר יְהִ֣י שֵׁ֣ם יהוה֮ מְבוֹרָךְ֒ כִּ֚י לָקַ֔ח אֶת־נִקְמָתִ֖י מֵאַלִיפֽוֹרְנִי׃ דְּע֣וּ [איפה] ׀ אֵפ֣וֹא ׀ כִּ֣י ׀ אֵ֪ין אַ֠לִיפ֟וֹרְנִי֩ חַ֜י כִּ֕י אִ֖ם מֵֽת׃
Then she said: “If you will not listen to me and my voice, 2 Kings 10:6 (this verse is part of the story of cutting off the heads of the seventy sons of the wicked king Ahab). I will take faithful witnesses. Isaiah 8:2. Here, drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem, Jer 22:19. is a mighty valiant man, 1 Sam 16:18; Ru 2:1 etc. a counsellor of the king 2 Chr 25:16. who ordered him to be hung up by his hands because he spoke well of the Jews to the king. So they ran and fetched him 1 Samuel 10:23. and gave him food and drink, and his spirit came to him again. 1 Samuel 30:11–12. Then they showed him the head, and he said: ‘Blessed be the name of the LORD, Ps 113:2. for he has taken my vengeance on Aliforni. Know now 2 Kings 10:10. that Aliforni is not alive but dead.’” 1 Kings 21:15.
וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ֙ אֶל־דִּבְרֵ֣י הַמְבַשֵּׂ֔ר וישתחו [וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲ֖ווּ] לַיהוֽה׃ וַיַּאַסְפוּ֙ כׇּל־אַנְשֵׁ֣י הַמִּלְחָמָ֔ה וְיָצְאוּ֙ כְּצֵ֣את הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ חֲגוֹרֵ֖י חָ֑רֶב וַיִפְּל֤וּ בָּם֙ פִּתְאֹ֔ם וַיִּלָּחֲמ֖וּ בָּֽם׃
וַיִּרְא֣וּ גִבּוֹרֵ֣י אַלִיפ֘וֹרְנִי֮ כִּי־כֵן֒ וַיָּבֹ֞אוּ אֶל־אֹ֧הֶל אַלִיפ֛וֹרְנִי וַיִּמְצְא֥וּ הַפֶּ֖תַח כִּי־נִסְגַּ֑ר וַיָּחִ֣ילוּ עַד־בּוֹשׁ֩ וַיִּקְרְא֨וּ בְּקוֹל־גָּד֜וֹל וְאֵין־עֹנֶ֗ה וַיִּפְתָּ֜חוּ וַיִּרְא֗וּ אֵ֚ת אֲדֹ֣נֵיהֶ֔ם נֹפֵ֥ל אַ֖רְצָה מֵֽת׃
Then the mighty men of Aliforni saw how it was and went to the tent of Aliforni, but they found the opening closed. Then they waited until they were ashamed to delay any longer, Judges 3:25. and they cried aloud and there was no answer. 1 Kings 18:28–29. So they opened up and saw their lord fallen down dead on the earth. Judges 3:25.
וַיְהֻמֵּ֤ם יהוה֙ בְּק֣וֹל גָּד֔וֹל וַיָּנֻ֥סוּ וַיִּפְּל֖וּ חֲלָלִ֑ים לֹֽא־נִשְׁאַ֥ר בָּהֶ֖ם עַד־אֶחָֽד׃ כֵּ֚ן יֹאבְד֔וּ כׇל־אוֹיְבֶ֖ינוּ יהוֽה׃ וַיָּשֻׁ֣בוּ ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הָה֗וּא שְׂמֵחִ֧ים וְטֽוֹבֵי־לֵ֛ב עַל־כׇּ֖ל הַטּוֹבָ֑ה אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה הָאֱלֹהִ֖ים לָֽנוּ׃
Then the LORD discomfited them with a great noise 1 Samuel 7:10. and they fell back and many were overthrown: Judges 9:40. there remained not so much as one of them. Ex 14:28. So let all our enemies perish, LORD! Judges 5:31. They returned that day joyful and glad of heart for all the goodness that God did 1 Kings 8:66. for us.
וַתְּהִ֣י יְהוּדִ֔ית מוֹלֶ֖כֶת עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְשֹׁפְטָ֖ה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ עַל־כֵּ֨ן יַעֲשׂ֝וּ בְנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ בְּסִיר֣וֹת וּבְחוֹחִ֔ים כֵּרָ֥ה גְדוֹלָ֖ה עַד־מְאֹ֑ד בְּחֲרִיצֵ֖י הֶחָלָֽב׃ שִׂמְחָ֥ה וּמִשְׁתֶּ֖ה וְי֣וֹם ט֑וֹב וּמִשְׁל֥וֹחַ מָנ֖וֹת אִ֥ישׁ לְרֵעֵֽהוּ׃ תֻּפִינֵ֨י מַאֲכָ֝ל מַרְחֶ֗שֶׁת וְל֤וּשׁ בְּבָצֵק֙ עַ֣ד־חֻמְצָת֔וֹ וְכִדְבָ֖שׁ תִּגְדַּ֑ל וּמַעֲשֶׂ֤ה אֹפֶה֙ רָקִ֔יק לְזִכָּ֛רוֹן עֹבֵ֥ר מִתְעַבֵּ֖ר עַל־רִ֥יב לֹּא־לֽוֹ׃ וְהַשְּׁתִיָּ֥ה כַדָּ֖ת אֵ֣ין אֹנֵ֑ס כִּי־כֵ֞ן יִסַּ֣ד ׀ הַמָּלְכָּ֣ה יְהוּדִ֗ית עַ֚ל כׇּל־רַ֣ב בֵּית֔וֹ לַעֲשׂ֖וֹת כִּרְצ֥וֹן אִישׁ־וָאִֽישׁ׃ קִיְּמ֣וּ ׀ וְקִבְּל֣וּ הַיְּהוּדִ֡ים עֲלֵיהֶ֣ם לְקַיֵּם֩ אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֨י הָאִגֶּ֝רֶת הַזֹּ֗את לַעֲשׂ֛וֹת יְמֵ֖י מִשְׁתֶּ֑ה וְשִׂמְחָ֖ה וְי֥וֹם טֽוֹב׃
Then Judith became queen over the land 2 Kings 11:3. and judged Israel. Judges 4:4. Because of this the children of Israel shall make a very great feast 2 Kings 6:23. in their pots and cauldrons, 2 Chr 35:13. with pieces of cheese, 1 Samuel 17:18. gladness and feasting, a good day, of sending portions to one another, Est 9:22. baked pieces, Lv 6:14 [6:21]. food from the frying pan and dough kneaded until it is leavened Hos 7:4. so its glory will grow with honey, all manner of baked goods, Genesis 40:17. a wafer, for a memorial to the man who meddled in a quarrel which was not his Proverbs 26:27. The reference here is presumably to Aliforni taking up his brother’s quarrel with the Jews. and the drinking was according to the law: none did compel, for thus the Est 1:8. Queen Judith had appointed to all the officers of [his] house, that they should do according to every man’s pleasure. Est 1:8. The Jews ordained and took it upon themselves Est 9:27. to confirm this letter Est 9:29. to make a day of feasting and joy and a good day. Est 9:22.
וְעַתָּ֣ה אֱלֹהִ֗ים כַּאֲשֶׁ֤ר הָיִ֨יתָ֙ עִ֣ם אֲבֹתֵ֔ינוּ כֵּ֖ן תִּהְיֶ֣ה עִמָּ֑נוּ וְהוֹצִ֖יאָה מִמַּסְגֵּ֥ר נַפְשֵֽׁנוּ׃ וַאֲנַחְנוּ֙ בּיהו֣ה נְצַפֶּ֔ה נוֹחִ֖ילָה לֵאלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׁעֵֽנוּ׃ הִנֵּה֙ יהו֔ה יַשְׁמִ֥יעַ אֶל־צִיּ֑וֹן הִנֵּ֥ה יִשְׁעֵ֖ךְ בָּֽא׃ הִנֵּ֤ה שְׂכָרוֹ֙ אִתּ֔וֹ וְקָרְא֥וּ לָהֶ֛ם עַם־הַקֹּ֖דֶשׁ גְּאוּלֵ֣י יהו֑ה ׀ אָמֵ֥ן ׀ אָמֵ֖ן ׀ סֶּֽלָה׃
And now God, as you were with our fathers, so be you with us, and bring our souls out of prison. Ps 142:8 . Therefore we will look to the LORD, and wait for the God who saves us. Mic 7:7. Behold the LORD will announce to Zion: Behold your Saviour is coming! Behold his reward is with him! Isaiah 62:11. And they shall be called: The holy people, The redeemed of the LORD. Isaiah 62:12. Amen, Amen, Selah.
נִשְׁלְמָ֣ה ׀ כְּתִיבַֽת־זֶ֣ה הַסֵּפֶ֗ר עַ֥ל יְדֵ֛י מֹשֶׁ֥ה שְׁמִיאֵ֖ל דֲּאַשְׂק֑וֹלָה בִּשְׁלֹשִׁ֣ים י֔וֹם לַחֹ֖דֶשׁ סִיוָֽן׃ שְׁנָ֣ת ק֗ס֗ה֗ [שְׁתָ֘יִם֮ וַשִׁישִׁים֒ וּמֵאָ֕ה וַחֲמֵשֶׁ֥ת אֲלָפִ֖ים שָׁנָ֑ה לְמִנְיָ֖ן בְרִיאָ֥ת הָעוֹלָֽם]׃
[The writing of this book was finished by Moses Shmeil Habermann has Shtzeil here in the text in Hadashim gam Yeshanim, but writes Shmeil in his comment in his article in Maḥanayim (p. 43). Dr. Weingarten has reviewed the original MS and has confirmed that the text reads Shmeil, a variant of the name Shmuel [Samuel]. Dascola on the 30th day of the month of Sivan, 162. 162 = 5162 a.m., i.e. 1402 C.E.
בָּר֥וּךְ הַשֵּׁ֖ם מְלָמֵּ֣ד יָדִ֑י לְקָרֵ֨ב מְרוֹמֵ֝ם עַל־כׇּ֤ל בְּרָכָה֙ וּתְהִלָּ֔ה ׀ אָמֵ֥ן ׀ אָמֵ֖ן ׀ סֶּֽלָה׃
Blessed be HASHEM who teaches my hand to bring near from on high all blessing and praise. Amen, Amen, Selah.]
|3||Jubilees, ch 5-6.|
|4||Rashi on Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 23a; Tosafot on Babylonian Talmud Megillah 4a.|
|5||Nissim ben Reuben on Alfasi, Shabbat 10a (on Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 23b).|
|6||Explained in private correspondence|
|7||André-Marie Dubarle, Judith: Formes et sens des diverses traditions, i: Études (Rome: Institut Biblique Pontifical, 1966), pp. 92–94. Biblical books are referenced with the short titles following the Chicago style (cf. index under “Bible”).|
|12||Ezekiel 3:3 (slightly changed).|
|14||Ps 47:4 .|
|18||Ex 16:4 (and cf. Dt 13:4).|
|20||Ezekiel 4:2 and cf. 2 Kings 25:1; Jer 52:4.|
|24||1 Samuel 14:48.|
|25||Cf. Jer 49:1–2.|
|26||2 Kings 24:13 etc.|
|27||2 Kings 24:33.|
|30||2 Chr 32:3.|
|34||Genesis 34:16 (slightly changed).|
|35||Jer 21:9 etc.|
|36||Genesis 34:15 (slightly changed).|
|37||Genesis 34:16 (slightly changed).|
|38||Genesis 34:18 (slightly changed).|
|40||Genesis 34:19 [RV: had delight in].|
|41||2 Kings 23:1–2.|
|45||Cf. Is 45:21 and 46:9.|
|48||1 Samuel 18:25.|
|54||Genesis 26:7; 2 Samuel 11:2; Est 1:11 etc.|
|55||The editor notes that the text is unclear here, but this is the meaning he proposes, i.e., that the king should spend the first night with a virgin bride.|
|56||1 Kings 9:12.|
|61||1 Kings 20:22.|
|62||2 Kings 8:12; Am 4:9.|
|64||2 Kings 8:12.|
|68||1 Kings 20:43.|
|72||2 Samuel 20:5|
|73||2 Chr 16:10.|
|80||Jo 9:25; Jer 26:14.|
|84||Judges 21:2 etc.|
|85||2 Samuel 24:4.|
|89||Gen 42:20 etc.|
|92||Genesis 39:19 etc.|
|93||Jer 2:27; 32:33.|
|94||2 Samuel 26:16.|
|95||2 Kings 21:14.|
|99||Judges 19:22 etc.|
|100||Genesis 42:12; 33.|
|105||Ex 38:8. The meaning of the scriptural word tzova’ot is uncertain: “crowds” is the interpretation of the Jewish medieval commentator Rashi.|
|106||1 Samuel 5:9.|
|107||2 Samuel 20:3.|
|110||‘their voice’ is found in the manuscript, but was missed out by Habermann in his edition.|
|111||2 Kings 13:5.|
|112||1 Samuel 16:18.|
|113||2 Samuel 13:1.|
|114||Proverbs 3:4 etc.|
|117||2 Samuel 13:13.|
|120||2 Samuel 13:13; cf. 2 Sm|
|122||Genesis 39:19 etc.|
|123||2 Samuel 20:8.|
|124||2 Samuel 20:8.|
|125||1 Samuel 10:27.|
|126||Cf. 2 Samuel 20:9: Is it well with you, my brother?|
|127||Cf. Gn 19:5.|
|128||2 Kings 9:18.|
|130||1 Samuel 17:51; 2 Samuel 20:22.|
|131||Judges 3:27; 2 Samuel 20:1, etc.|
|133||1 Samuel 17:52.|
|137||2 Chr 20:27.|
|138||2 Kings 13:5.|
|142||1 Kings 3:8.|
|143||1 Kings 4:20.|
|144||1 Chr 19:6.|
|146||1 Kings 9:22.|
|148||2 Chr 32:18.|
|149||2 Kings 6:26.|
|150||1 Kings 10:21.|
|152||2 Chr 32:18. The Hebrew for ‘in the language of Judah’ is yehudit. Cf. also 2 Kings 18:28.|
|153||Page 62 of the MS ends here. Habermann thought there was clearly a lacuna in the text, which begins again with Holophernes’s speech. However, he read he-atem ami “Are you not my people?,” perhaps thinking the previous verse referred to a speech by Judith because of the mention of yehudit. Dubarle reads ha-mitem ami “Have you not killed my people?,” which is a slightly adapted quotation from Numbers 17:6 [RV 16:41]. This has the advantage of making the whole speech belong to Holophernes, without any lacuna.|
|156||2 Chr 32:17.|
|163||1 Kings 20:11.|
|168||2 Kings 5:3.|
|169||1 Samuel 9:9.|
|172||Cf. Dt 31:4.|
|175||Proverbs 22:23. A version of the expression yariv rivam [(God) will take up their cause ] is also found in the past tense ravta et rivam in the Babylonian Talmud Megillah 21b as part of the blessing to be said before the reading of Megillat Esther on Purim. At some stage it was transferred to Hanukkah, where it has been said as part of the blessing Al haNissim at least since the Mahzor Vitri (ed. A. Goldschmidt, Jerusalem, 2004) in the eleventh century.|
|176||Jl 4:7 (3:8).|
|181||2 Kings 10:6.|
|182||Cf. Is 13:14; Jer 15:16.|
|183||Genesis 39:19 etc.|
|184||2 Samuel 16:7.|
|185||Cf. Jer 40:16; 43:2.|
|189||1 Samuel 20:31; 2 Samuel 12:5.|
|191||1 Kings 20:40.|
|193||2 Samuel 3:34.|
|197||1 Samuel 26:8.|
|198||1 Samuel 4:3.|
|199||Cf. Is 36:20.|
|202||1 Chr 21:16.|
|203||1 Samuel 30:12.|
|204||2 Kings 4:1.|
|205||Ex 20:6; Jer 32:18.|
|206||This is a combination of 2 Chr 6:42 and Is 55:3.|
|208||1 Samuel 4:3.|
|211||Ezekiel 23:5; Jgs 19:2.|
|215||Ps 119:126. It is common in rabbinical literature for a quotation of one half of a scriptural verse to refer also to the other, unquoted part.|
|216||1 Samuel 25:32.|
|218||1 Samuel 25:42.|
|221||2 Kings 9:30.|
|224||2 Chr 24:24.|
|227||1 Samuel 1:18.|
|229||Est 5:6; 7:2.|
|230||2 Kings 4:1.|
|231||1 Kings 14:7; Jgs 9:7 and cf. Gn 19:30.|
|235||Jer 38:2. cf. n. 29.|
|236||1 Kings 2:12.|
|238||2 Kings 8:12, in the reverse order.|
|244||1 Kings 5:21 [5:7].|
|247||1 Kings 12:37.|
|248||1 Samuel 28:2.|
|249||2 Samuel 13:11.|
|250||Sg 7:6 .|
|252||The meaning is somewhat unclear here. The reference to blood seems to be an indirect hint of menstruation, and was taken as such by Habermann. Cf. Ez 14:19.|
|253||Lv 15:28. The word “from my issue,” mizovi, is omitted by Habermann, but present in Dubarle and the microfiche of the MS.|
|255||Cf. Eccl 11:6.|
|259||1 Kings 2:20.|
|263||The text is unclear here. I have followed the slight re-ordering proposed by Dubarle.|
|264||Here presumably Judith means herself and her maid, not herself and Holophernes.|
|267||2 Samuel 19.5 and many other places.|
|268||Jo 9:24 and cf. Jo 9:22.|
|270||2 Samuel 13:8.|
|271||2 Samuel 13:6.|
|272||1 Samuel 17:18.|
|273||Cf. 2 Samuel 13:10.|
|274||2 Kings 6:23.|
|275||Judith is here substituted for Esther in Est 2:18.|
|277||1 Samuel 17:18.|
|281||1 Kings 16:9.|
|283||Genesis 39:11; 1 Kings 3:18.|
|284||2 Kings 13:21.|
|285||1 Kings 8:22.|
|292||1 Samuel 17:49.|
|293||1 Samuel 17:51.|
|294||1 Samuel 21:10.|
|295||metofefot. Cf. Ex 15:20.|
|296||petah ha-einayim. Gn 38:14 (RV: in an open place).|
|299||2 Kings 10:6 (this verse is part of the story of cutting off the heads of the seventy sons of the wicked king Ahab).|
|302||1 Sam 16:18; Ru 2:1 etc.|
|303||2 Chr 25:16.|
|304||1 Samuel 10:23.|
|305||1 Samuel 30:11–12.|
|307||2 Kings 10:10.|
|308||1 Kings 21:15.|
|309||Genesis 24:26 etc.|
|311||2 Samuel 20:8.|
|314||1 Kings 18:28–29.|
|316||1 Samuel 7:10.|
|320||1 Kings 8:66.|
|321||2 Kings 11:3.|
|323||2 Kings 6:23.|
|324||2 Chr 35:13.|
|325||1 Samuel 17:18.|
|327||Lv 6:14 [6:21].|
|330||Proverbs 26:27. The reference here is presumably to Aliforni taking up his brother’s quarrel with the Jews.|
|336||Ps 142:8 .|
|340||Habermann has Shtzeil here in the text in Hadashim gam Yeshanim, but writes Shmeil in his comment in his article in Maḥanayim (p. 43). Dr. Weingarten has reviewed the original MS and has confirmed that the text reads Shmeil, a variant of the name Shmuel [Samuel].|
|341||162 = 5162 a.m., i.e. 1402 C.E.|
“💬 מְגִילַּת יְהוּדִית לְאָמְרָהּ בַּחֲנֻכָּה | Megillat Yehudit, the Medieval Scroll of Judith to be said on Ḥanukkah” is shared by the living contributor(s) with a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International copyleft license.
Works of related interest:
💬 מִדְרַשׁ מַעֲשֶׂה חֲנֻכָּה א׳ | Midrash Ma’aseh Ḥanukkah “alef,” a tale of the people’s resistance to the Seleucid Greek occupation
מְגִילַּת אַנטְיוּכַס | Megillat Antiokhus for Ḥanukkah in Aramaic, translated in Hebrew, Yiddish, and English
אודך כי אנפת בי | Odekha Ki Anafta Bi, a Yotser (Hymn) for Ḥanukkah by Yosef bar Shlomo of Carcassone (ca. 11th cent.)
💬 מגילת אנטיוכס עם טעמי מקרא | Megillat Antiokhus, with ta’amei miqra (for cantillation) by Isaac Gantwerk Mayer
מְגִילַּת אַנטְיוּכַס | Megillat Antiokhus in Aramaic, critical text by Menaḥem Tsvi Kaddari with English translation by John C. Reeves
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