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Haftarah reading for the Second Day of Shavuot (Ḥabaquq 2:20-3:19) with its Targum and the piyyut Yetsiv Pitgam by Rabbeinu Tam (ca. 12th c.)

In the synagogue of old, one of the key roles was that of the meturgeman, whose job was to recite the Torah and Haftarah verse-by-verse in an Aramaic translation. As Aramaic stopped being the vernacular of the Jewish community, the position of the meturgeman began to fade out, and nowadays the only major Jewish community that preserves it is that of the Yemenites. But until relatively recently, Ashkenazim preserved the practice of using a meturgeman on two days where great miracles occurred: the last day of Pesaḥ, and Shavuot. Since the meturgeman was a special and rare occasion, the custom developed of reciting reshuyot, extensive Aramaic piyyutim asking for permission for the translator to do their job. This is the origin of two of the most famous Shavuot piyyutim — Aḳdamut (the editor’s alphabetical translation of which can be found here) and Yetsiv Pitgam.

Yetsiv Pitgam is the key in this case. Written by Rabbeinu Tam in the twelfth century, it serves as a poetic reshut for the meturgeman’s recitation of Yonatan ben Uziel’s targum of Ḥabaquq. Modern communities that recite this poem skip the second-to-last verse, which is a direct proclamation that the meturgeman is beginning his work.

Here the editor has compiled the Shavuot Day 2 haftarah, Ḥabaquq 2:20—3:19, interspersed with a cantillated text of the Targum Yonatan ben Uziel. Since Targum Yonatan is a bit more drash-heavy than Targum Onkelos, it is translated separately as well. This also includes the full poem with an acrostic rhyming translation of Yetsiv Pitgam, with the second-to-last verse restored to its rightful place, as well as a concluding paragraph for the meturgeman to recite, as found in the Maḥzor Vitry. The reading of the Targum on these days is an ancient practice, but (at least in this editor’s opinion) it deserves to be revived.

Note: “The CAUSE” is used to translate the Divine Name YHVH, based on the philosophical idea of God as the Prime Mover and on the interpretation of the Name as a causative form of the copula – “causes to be.”


Source (Hebrew) Translation (English) Targum Yonatan (Aramaic) Aramaic Translation (English)

בָּר֨וּךְ אַתָּ֤ה יהוה֙ אֱלֹהֵ֨ינוּ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ הָעוֹלָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֤ר בָּחַר֙ בִּנְבִיאִ֣ים טוֹבִ֔ים וְרָצָ֥ה בְדִבְרֵיהֶ֖ם הַנֶּאֱמָרִ֣ים בֶּאֱמֶ֑ת ׀ בָּר֨וּךְ אַתָּ֜ה יהוה֗ הַבּוֹחֵ֤ר בַּתּוֹרָה֙ וּבְמֹשֶׁ֣ה עַבְדּ֔וֹ וּבְיִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל עַמּ֔וֹ וּבִנְבִיאֵ֥י הָאֱמֶ֖ת וָצֶֽדֶק׃ אָמֵן׃
Blessed are You, CAUSE our God, Sovereign of the Universe, who chose good prophets and desired their words to be spoken in truth; blessed are You, CAUSE, who chooses the Teaching and Moses THEIR[1] This translation uses the pluralis majestatis to refer to the Divine. This is not meant to imply that God is more than one ḥas v’shalom but rather to reflect the vastness and majesty of God while also avoiding gendered language. See Ibn Ezra’s commentary on Genesis 1:1 for a discussion of the pluralis majestatis when referring to God.  servant and Israel THEIR people and the prophets of truth and righteousness. Amen.


וַיהֹוָ֖ה בְּהֵיכַ֣ל קׇדְשׁ֑וֹ הַ֥ס מִפָּנָ֖יו כׇּל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃
And the CAUSE is in THEIR holy palace; be silent before THEM, all the earth!


יְצִיב פִּתְגָּם
לְאָת וּדְגָם
בְּרִבּוֹ רִבְבָן עִירִין
Judgement fine
of the Mark and Sign
of the myriads of myriads who see.


עֲנֵי אָנָּא
בְּמִנְיָנָא
דְּפָסְלִין אַרְבְּעָה טוּרִין
And I recount
among this count
who hew four mountains in glee.


קֳדָמוֹהִי
לְגוֹ מוֹהִי
נְגִיד וּנְפִיק נְהַר דְּנוּרִין
Cisterns store
what flows before:
a river of fire flows free.


בְּטוּר תַּלְגָּא
נְהוֹר שְׁרַגָּא
וְזִיקִין דְּנוּר וּבָעוּרִין
On snowy heights
of flashing lights
and comets bright and fiery.


בְּרָא וּסְכָא
מַה בַּחֲשׁוֹכָא
וְעִמֵּהּ שַׁרְיַן נְהוֹרִין
Built and detects
what dark neglects
with THEM rests light carefree.


רְחִיקִין צְפָא
בְּלָא שִׁטְפָא
וְגַלְיַן לֵהּ דְּמִטַּמְּרִין
Seeing far off
there’s no cut-off!
What’s hidden THEY can see.


בָּעִית מִנֵּיהּ
יָת הַרְמֹנֵהּ
וּבַתְרוֹהִי עֲדֵי גּוּבְרִין
Of THEM I ask
permit my task,
and then I ask of thee.


יָדְעֵי הִלְכְתָא
וּמַתְנִיתָא
וְתוֹסֶפְתָּא סִפְרָא וְסִפְרִין
Naturals in law
and the Mishnah
Tosefta, Sifra, and Sifri.


מֶלֶךְ חַיָּא
לְעָלְמַיָּא
יְמַגֵּן עָם לְהוֹן מְשַׁחֲרִין
Our Ruler Alive
who’ll always survive
will shield us, our trust is the key.


אֲמִיר עֲלֵיהוֹן
כְּחָלָא יְהוֹן
וְלָא יִתְמְנוּן הֵיךְ עַפְרִין
For this they said:
As sand they spread,
like dust they’ll uncountable be.


יְחַוְּרוּן כְּעָן
לְהוֹן בִּקְעָן
יְטוּפוּן נַעֲוֺהִי חַמְרִין
May all their vales
be sheep of fat-tails;
their vats with wine, sous lie.


רְעוּתְהוֹן הַב
וְאַפֵּיהוֹן צְהַב
יְנַהֲרוּן כִּנְהַר צַפְרִין
Endow their want,
their face to flaunt
as it shines as dawn on the sea.


לִי הַב תְּקוֹף
וְעֵינָךְ זְקוֹף
חֲזֵי עָרָךְ דְּבָךְ כַּפְרִין
Impart me might,
Your eyes’ own light,
let it fall on the false enemy.


וִיהוֹן כְּתִבְנָא
בְּגוֹ לִבְנָא
כְּאַבְנָא יִשְׁתְּקוּן חַפְרִין
Regard as chaff
in brick their laugh,
in shame like a stone their plea.


(כְּקָאֵימְנָא
וְתַּרְגֵּימְנָא
בְּמִילוּי דִּבְּחִיר סָפְרִין)
(And as I stand
I’ll translate and
the scripture I’ll read with a key.)


יְהוֹנָתָן
גְּבַר עִנְוְתָן
בְּכֵן לֵהּ נַמְטֵי אַפְרִין
Yah who gave
to the humble slave.
To THEM let us thank and agree.


וַיהֹוָ֖ה אִתְרְעֵֽי לְאַשְׁרָאָֽה שְׁכִינְתֵּֽיהּ בְּהֵ֣יכְלָא דְקוּדְשֵׁ֑יהּ וִיסוּפ֥וּן מִן־קֳדָמ֖וֹהִי כׇּל־דַֽחֲלַת־אַֽרְעָא׃
And Adonai wished to make THEIR presence dwell in THEIR palace of holiness; be silent before him, all who dwell on the earth!

תְּפִלָּ֖ה לַחֲבַקּ֣וּק הַנָּבִ֑יא עַ֖ל שִׁגְיֹנֽוֹת׃
A prayer of Habakkuk the prophet, scighionotamente.

צְל֖וֹתָא דְצַלִי־חֲבַק֣וּק נְבִ֑יָא כַּד אִתְגְלֵי־לֵיהּ עַ֖ל אַֽרְכָּא דִיהַב לְרַשִׁיעַיָא דְאִם יְתוּבוּן לְאוֹרַֽיְתָא בִּלְבַב שְׁלִים יִשְׁתְּבֵיק לְהוֹן וִיהוֹן כׇּל־חוֹבֵֽיהוֹן דְחָבוּ קֳדָמוֹהִי הָא־כְּשָׁלֽוּתָא׃
The prayer that was prayed by Habakkuk the prophet when it was revealed to him about the extension granted to the wicked, that if they returned to the Teaching wholeheartedly all their sins that they sinned before Me would be forgiven for those in error.

יְהֹוָ֗ה שָׁמַ֣עְתִּי שִׁמְעֲךָ֮ יָרֵ֒אתִי֒ יְהֹוָ֗ה פׇּֽעׇלְךָ֙ בְּקֶ֤רֶב שָׁנִים֙ חַיֵּ֔יהוּ בְּקֶ֥רֶב שָׁנִ֖ים תּוֹדִ֑יעַ בְּרֹ֖גֶז רַחֵ֥ם תִּזְכּֽוֹר׃
O CAUSE, I have heard Your hearing; I am awed, CAUSE, of Your deeds; within the years renew them; within the years make them known! In anger, may You remember compassion!

יְהֹוָ֗ה שְׁמָעֵ֣ית שְׁמַע־גְבוּרְתָּךְ֮ דְחָלֵית֒ יְהֹוָ֗ה רַבְרְבִין־עוֹבָדָךְ֙ דִי אַתְּ יָהֵיב אַרְכָּא לְרַשִׁיעַיָא דְאִם יְתוּבוּן לְאוֹרַיְתָךְ וְלָא תָבוּ וְאִינוּן מַרְגְזִין קֳדָמָךְ בְּג֤וֹ שְׁנַיָ֙א֙ דִיהַֽבְתָּ־לְהוֹן־חַ֔יָא בְכֵן־אַתְּ־עֲתִיד־לְהוֹדַ֥ע גְבוּרְתֵּ֖ךְ בְּגוֹ־ שְׁנַ֑יָא דַאֲמַרְתָּא לְחַדַתָּא עַלְמָא לְאִתְפְּרָ֖עָא מֵרַשִׁיעַיָא דַעֲבָרוּ עַל־מֵימְרָךְ וְצַדִיקַָיָא עָבְדֵי רְעוּתָךְ בְּרַחֲמִ֥ין תִּדְכָּֽר׃
Adonai, I have heard hearings of your wonders and I fear; Adonai, Your great acts that You have granted extension to the wicked if they return to Your Teaching, but they did not return and they enraged You, in the years that You gave them life, thus in the future you will make them know Your greatness in the years You ordered to restore the world and to pay back the wicked who transgressed Your word, and the righteous who do Your will, in Your wrath remember mercy on them!

אֱל֙וֹהַּ֙ מִתֵּימָ֣ן יָב֔וֹא וְקָד֥וֹשׁ מֵהַר־פָּארָ֖ן סֶ֑לָה כִּסָּ֤ה שָׁמַ֙יִם֙ הוֹד֔וֹ וּתְהִלָּת֖וֹ מָלְאָ֥ה הָאָֽרֶץ׃
The One God comes from Teiman, the Holy One from Mount Paran, selah; whose glory has covered the skies, and praise has filled the earth.

בְּמִתַּן אוֹרַיְתָא לְעַמֵיהּ אֱלָ֙הָא֙ מִדָר֣וֹמָא אִתְגְלֵ֔י וְקַדִ֥ישָׁא מִטֽוּרָא־דְפָארָ֖ן בִּגְבוּרַת־עַלְמִ֑ין אִתְחַפִּ֤יאוּ שְׁמַ֙יָא֙ זִיו־יְקָרֵ֔יהּ וְאִמְרֵי־תוּשְׁבַּחְתֵּ֖יהּ מַ֥לְיָא אַֽרְעָא׃
When the Teaching was given to the people, God was revealed from the south, the Holy One from the Mount of Paran in eternal greatness, the skies were covered in the light of THEIR Glory, and words of THEIR praise filled the earth.

וְנֹ֙גַהּ֙ כָּא֣וֹר תִּֽהְיֶ֔ה קַרְנַ֥יִם מִיָּד֖וֹ ל֑וֹ וְשָׁ֖ם חֶבְי֥וֹן עֻזֹּֽה׃
And a glow like light it will be, beams from each side of it, and there is the enclosure of THEIR strength.

וּזְהוֹר־יְקָרֵ֙יהּ֙ כִּזְהוֹר־בְּרֵאשִׁ֣ית אִתְגְלֵ֔י וְזִקוּקִ֥ין מִמֶרְכָּבַת־יְקָרֵ֖יהּ נַפְקִ֑ין תַּמָ֖ן גְלָ֥א יַת־שְׁכִנְתֵּיהּ דַהֲוַת מִטַמְרָא מִבְּנֵי אֱנָשָׁא בִּתְקוֹף־רֽוּמָא׃
And the light of THEIR Glory, like the light of creation, was revealed, and sparks of THEIR glorious Chariot fell down there, revealing THEIR Presence that was hidden from humanity with great power.

לְפָנָ֖יו יֵ֣לֶךְ דָּ֑בֶר וְיֵצֵ֥א רֶ֖שֶׁף לְרַגְלָֽיו׃
Before THEM comes plague, and flame comes out after THEM.

מִן־קֳדָמ֖וֹהִי מִשְׁתַּלַ֣ח מַלְאָֽךְ־מ֑וֹתָא וְנָפֵ֥יק כְּשַׁלְהוֹבִית־אֶ֖שְׁתָּא מֵימְרֵֽיהּ׃
Ahead of THEM is sent out the Angel of Death, and like fiery flames THEIR Word.

עָמַ֣ד ׀ וַיְמֹ֣דֶד אֶ֗רֶץ רָאָה֙ וַיַּתֵּ֣ר גּוֹיִ֔ם וַיִּתְפֹּֽצְצוּ֙ הַרְרֵי־עַ֔ד שַׁח֖וּ גִּבְע֣וֹת עוֹלָ֑ם הֲלִיכ֥וֹת עוֹלָ֖ם לֽוֹ׃
THEY have stood and the earth shook, THEY have seen and the nations were shaken; the mountains of old have shattered, the hills of yore bent; the paths of eternity are THEIRS.

אִתְגְלֵ֣י ׀ וְאֲזִ֣יעַ אַ֗רְעָא וְאַיְתֵי מַבּוּלָא עַל־עַם דָרָא דַעֲבָרוּ עַל־מֵימְרֵיהּ וְאַף בְּתִנְיָתָא כַּד־חָבוּ קֳדָמוֹהִי בְּחוֹבֵיהוֹן כֵּן֙ בַּלְבְּלִינ֣וּן לְעַמְמַ֔יָא וְאִתְפְּרָ֙קוּ֙ טוּרַֽיָא־דְמִלְקָדְמִ֔ין מָ֖כָא רָמָ֣תָא דְמִן־עַלְמָ֑א גְבוּרַ֥ת עַ֖לְמָא דִילֵֽיהּ׃
THEY were revealed and shook the earth, and brought the Deluge on the people of the generation that transgressed THEIR Word, as well as with the next that sinned before THEM with their sins, thus the peoples were mixed up, and the ancient mountains were dismantled, humbling the heights everlasting; eternal might has been with THEM.

תַּ֣חַת אָ֔וֶן רָאִ֖יתִי אׇהֳלֵ֣י כוּשָׁ֑ן יִרְגְּז֕וּן יְרִיע֖וֹת אֶ֥רֶץ מִדְיָֽן׃
Because of trouble, I have seen the tents of Kushan, the curtains of the land of Midian are shaken!

כַּד־פְּלָחוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל לְטַ֣עֲוָתָ֔א מְסַרְתִּ֖ינוּן בְּיַד־כּוּשָׁ֑ן חַיָ֕בָא וְכַד תָּבוּ לְמֶעְבַּד אוֹרַיְתָא עֲבָדֵית לְהוֹן נִסִין וּגְבוּרָן וּפְרַקְתִּ֖ינוּן מִיַ֥ד מִדְיָנָאֵֽי עַל־יַד גִדְעוֹן בַר־יוֹאָשׁ׃
When the house of Israel worshipped idols I delivered them into the hand of Kushan the wicked, and when they repented to doing the Teaching, I did great wonders and miracles for them and redeemed them from the hand of the Midianites by the hand of Gideon son of Joash.

הֲבִנְהָרִים֙ חָרָ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה אִ֤ם בַּנְּהָרִים֙ אַפֶּ֔ךָ אִם־בַּיָּ֖ם עֶבְרָתֶ֑ךָ כִּ֤י תִרְכַּב֙ עַל־סוּסֶ֔יךָ מַרְכְּבֹתֶ֖יךָ יְשׁוּעָֽה׃
Are You mad at the Rivers, CAUSE? Is You anger at the Rivers, or at the Sea Your rage, that you ride on Your horse, Your chariot of victory?

הָא עַל מַלְכֵיהוֹן וּמַשִׁרְיָתֵיהוֹן דְסַגִיאִין כְּמֵי נַ֙הֲרָא֙ הֲוָה־רְגַ֣ז מִן־קֳדָמָךְ־יְהֹוָ֔ה עַ֤ל מַלְכַ֙יָא֙ הֲוָה־רוּגְזָ֔ךְ וּבְיַמָ֖א הוֹדַעְתָּא בְהוֹן פּוּרְעֲנוּת גְבוּרְתָּ֑ךְ אֲרֵ֤י אִתְגְלֵ֙יתָא֙ עַל־מַרְכְּבַת־יְקָרָ֔ךְ שְׁכִנְתָּךְ־לְעַמָ֖ךְ תְּקוֹף־וּפוּרְקָֽן׃
Was it against their kings and camps, who are as many as the waters of a river, that anger that was from before You, Adonai? And was Your anger upon the kings, that in the sea You let them know Your great vengeance, that You revealed Yourself upon Your glorious Chariot? Your presence to Your people is mighty and redeeming!

עֶרְיָ֤ה תֵעוֹר֙ קַשְׁתֶּ֔ךָ שְׁבֻע֥וֹת מַטּ֖וֹת אֹ֣מֶר סֶ֑לָה נְהָר֖וֹת תְּבַקַּע־אָֽרֶץ׃
Drawn and ready is your bow; the seven Staves of Speech, selah; the Rivers split open the earth.

אִתְגְלְָ֤אָה אִתְגְלֵ֙יתָא֙ בִּגְבוּרְתָּ֔ךְ בְּדִיל־קְיָמָ֥ךְ דְעִם־שִׁבְטַ֖יָא מֵימְרָ֣ךְ קַיָם־לְעַלְמִ֑ין לְהוֹן בְּזִיעֲתָא טִנָרִין תַּקִיפִין נְפָקוּ נַהֲרִ֖ין שָׁטְפִ֥ין אַֽרְעָא׃
You revealed Yourself, revealed Yourself, on account of Your Covenant that you made with the tribes of your Word lasting forever; You split great rocks and water flowed out to wash the earth.

רָא֤וּךָ יָחִ֙ילוּ֙ הָרִ֔ים זֶ֥רֶם מַ֖יִם עָבָ֑ר נָתַ֤ן תְּהוֹם֙ קוֹל֔וֹ ר֖וֹם יָדֵ֥יהוּ נָשָֽׂא׃
The mountains have seen You and shaken; a downpour of water has passed by; the depths has given out their voice, the sky has raised its hand.

בְּאִתְגְלָיוּתָךְ עַל טוּרָא דְסִינַי חֲזוֹ יְקָרָךְ זָעוּ֙ טוּרַ֔יָא עֲנָנֵ֥י מִ֖טְרָא עֲד֑וֹ אָרִ֤ים תְּה֙וֹמָא֙ קָלֵ֔יהּ חֵילֵי־מְר֖וֹמָא תְּמָ֥הוּ קָֽמוּ׃
In Your revelation on the mount of Sinai they saw Your Glory, the mountains trembled as rainclouds passed over, the depths raised their voice, the forces On High were amazed and stood up.

שֶׁ֥מֶשׁ יָרֵ֖חַ עָ֣מַד זְבֻ֑לָה לְא֤וֹר חִצֶּ֙יךָ֙ יְהַלֵּ֔כוּ לְנֹ֖גַהּ בְּרַ֥ק חֲנִיתֶֽךָ׃
Sun and moon have stood still on high at the light of Your arrows going, the bright lightning of Your spear.

אַף־בְּמֶעֶבְּדָךְ נִסִין לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּמֵישַׁר גִבְעוֹן שִׁ֥מְשָׁא וְסִ֖יהֲרָא קָמ֣וּ בְּמָדוֹרֵיה֑וֹן עִמָ֤ךְ בְּמֵימְרָךְ֙ אִתְגַבָּ֔רוּ בִּתְק֖וֹף נִצְחַ֥ן גְבוּרְתָּֽךְ׃
So too with your miraculous deeds for Joshua at the plain of Gibeon — the sun and moon stood up in their dwelling place, Your people by Your word prevailed with the might of Your victorious greatness.

בְּזַ֖עַם תִּצְעַד־אָ֑רֶץ בְּאַ֖ף תָּד֥וּשׁ גּוֹיִֽם׃
In rage You step over the earth; in anger You trample nations.

בְּאַיְתָיוּתָךְ־ל֖וּט בְּאִתְגַלְיוּתָךְ עַל־סָנְאֵי עַמָךְ לְמִתְּבַר רַשִׁיעֵי אַ֑רְעָא בְרוּגְזָ֖ךְ תִּקְט֥וֹל בְּעַמְמַֽיָא׃
In Your bringing a curse upon the enemies of Your people, in Your revelation You trample the wicked of the earth; in Your anger You kill nations.

יָצָ֙אתָ֙ לְיֵ֣שַׁע עַמֶּ֔ךָ לְיֵ֖שַׁע אֶת־מְשִׁיחֶ֑ךָ מָחַ֤צְתָּ רֹּאשׁ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית רָשָׁ֔ע עָר֛וֹת יְס֥וֹד עַד־צַוָּ֖אר סֶֽלָה׃
You have gone out to save Your people, to save Your anointed; You have smashed the roof of the house of the wicked; bared from foundation to neck, selah.

אִתְגְלֵ֙יתָא֙ לְמִפְרַ֣ק יַת־עַמָ֔ךְ לְמִפְרַ֖ק יַת־מְשִׁיחָ֑ךְ שֵׁיצֵ֤יתָא מִן־קֳדָמֵיהוֹן מַלְכַיָא וְשִׁלְטוֹנַ֙יָא֙ מִבָּתֵּיה֣וֹן תָּרֵּֽיכְתְּ־חַיָ֔בָא וּתְבַֽרְתָּא־חֵילֵיה֛וֹן רִגְלֵי־עַמָ֥ךְ עַל־צַוְרֵ֖י סָנְאֵיהוֹן מֵימְרָךְ קַיָם לְעַלְמִֽין׃
You were revealed in saving Your people, in saving Your anointed; You destroyed from before them kings and princes, drove the sinful from their houses, and You shattered their forces, Your people’s foot on the napes of the enemies of Your word, lasting forever.

נָקַ֤בְתָּ בְמַטָּיו֙ רֹ֣אשׁ פְּרָזָ֔ו יִסְעֲר֖וּ לַהֲפִיצֵ֑נִי עֲלִ֣יצֻתָ֔ם כְּמוֹ־לֶאֱכֹ֥ל עָנִ֖י בַּמִּסְתָּֽר׃
You have pierced with Your club the heads of his villages; blown away are those who would scatter me, whose delight is like devouring the poor man in ambush.

בְּזַ֤עְתָּא יַֽמָא־בְּחוּטְרֵֽיהּ־דְמֹשֶׁה֙ וְגִבָּרֵֽיהּ־רֵישֵׁ֣י מַשִׁרְיָת־פַּרְעֹ֔ה דַחֲשִׁיבוּ־מַחְשְׁבָ֖ן עַל־עַמָךְ־דַבַּרְתִּ֑ינוּן בְּרוּחַ עַלְעוֹלִין וּטְבַּ֣עְתִּינ֔וּן בְיַמָא דְסוּף עַל דִרְחִיקוּ וְשַׁעְבִּ֥ידוּ יַת־עַמָ֖ךְ וִיהָֽבוּ עֵצָה בְּסִֽתְרָא לְאוֹבָדְהֽוֹן׃
In Your splitting the sea with Moses’s stick, and the official heads of the camp of Pharaoh who had plotted plots against Your people that You led with a stormy wind, You sank them in the Sea of Reeds since they oppressed and enslaved Your people and gave counsel in secret to those who would make them perish.

דָּרַ֥כְתָּ בַיָּ֖ם סוּסֶ֑יךָ חֹ֖מֶר מַ֥יִם רַבִּֽים׃
You have led Your horses in the sea; surging the mighty waters.

אִתְגְלֵ֥יתָא עַל־יַ֖מָא בְּמֶרְכָּבַֽת־יְקָרָ֑ךְ בִּדְג֖וּר מַ֥יִן סַגִיאִֽין׃
You revealed Yourself upon the sea in the Chariot of Your Glory, in heaps of many waters.

שָׁמַ֣עְתִּי ׀ וַתִּרְגַּ֣ז בִּטְנִ֗י לְקוֹל֙ צָלְל֣וּ שְׂפָתַ֔י יָב֥וֹא רָקָ֛ב בַּעֲצָמַ֖י וְתַחְתַּ֣י אֶרְגָּ֑ז אֲשֶׁ֤ר אָנ֙וּחַ֙ לְי֣וֹם צָרָ֔ה לַעֲל֖וֹת לְעַ֥ם יְגוּדֶֽנּוּ׃
I have heard, and my stomach ached; at the sound my lips quivered; rot entered my bones, my bottom shook; will I rest on the day of stress, when a people comes to attack us?

אֲמָרֵת בָּבֶל שְׁמָעֵ֣ית ׀ וְזָע֣וּ מַלְכַ֗יָא מִן־קֳדָם דִינָא דִי־אִתְדָנוּ מִצְרַיִם לְקַל־מִלַיָא־אִלֵין֙ צַלָ֣א סִפְּוָתִ֔י אֲחַ֖ד זִיעָ֣א לְחַכִּימַיָ֑א וּבְאָתַ֨ר דְשָׁרֵיָ֤יא זָעֵית־דְשַׁבְקַנִי֙ לְי֣וֹם עָ֔קָא לְעִדַן־אַ֖סְקָא גַלְוַת־עַמִ֥י מִנִֽי־יִתְבְּרִינַֽנִי׃
Babylon said, I have seen and kings have shaken before the judgement that was judged on Egypt, at the sound of these things my lips tingle; trembling, I hold fast to the wise , and in the place of origin You move to leave me for a day of trouble, for a time of those my people exiled going up from me will bring disaster upon me.

כִּֽי־תְאֵנָ֣ה לֹֽא־תִפְרָ֗ח וְאֵ֤ין יְבוּל֙ בַּגְּפָנִ֔ים כִּחֵשׁ֙ מַֽעֲשֵׂה־זַ֔יִת וּשְׁדֵמ֖וֹת לֹא־עָ֣שָׂה אֹ֑כֶל גָּזַ֤ר מִמִּכְלָה֙ צֹ֔אן וְאֵ֥ין בָּקָ֖ר בָּרְפָתִֽים׃
When the fig tree doesn’t bud, and there is no fruit on the vines; the olive crop fails and the fields produce no food; the sheep are cut off from the pasture, and there are no cattle in the pen;

אֲרֵֽי־מַלְכֽוּת־בָּבֶ֗ל לָא־תִתְקַיֵ֗ם וְלָ֤א תַעְבֵּיד֙ שׁוּלְטַן־עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל יִתְקַטְלוּן֙ מַלְכֵי־מָדַ֔י וְגִבָּרֵי־יָוָ֖ן לָא־יִצְלְח֑וּן יִ֤שְׁתֵּיצוּן֙ רוֹמָאֵ֔י וְלָא־יְנַבּ֥וּן קִיס֖וּמָא מִירוּשְׁלֵֽם׃
For the kingdom of Babylon will not remain forever nor hold power over Israel, the kings of Media will be killed, and the nobles of Greece will not absorb them, the Romans will be destroyed and never collect census money from Jerusalem.

וַאֲנִ֖י בַּיהֹוָ֣ה אֶעְל֑וֹזָה אָגִ֖ילָה בֵּאלֹהֵ֥י יִשְׁעִֽי׃
As for me, let me rejoice in the CAUSE, let me cheer for the God who saves me.

בְּכֵן עַל נִסָא וּפוּרְקָנָא דְתַעֲבֵּיד לִמְשִׁיחָךְ וְלִשְׁאָרָא דְעַמָךְ דִי יִשְׁתָּאֲרוּן יוֹדוּן לְמֵימָר אֲמַר נְבִיָא וַאֲנָ֖א בְּמֵימְרָא־דַיְהֹוָ֣ה אֲב֑וּעַ אֲד֖וּץ לֶאֱלָ֥הָא עָבֵיד־פּוּרְקָנִֽי׃
And thus, for the miracles and rescues that You will do for Your anointed and the remnant of Your people that will remain will give thanks and say — says the prophet — as for me, in the word of Adonai I shout for joy, I exult in the God who does save me.

יֱהֹוִ֤ה אֲדֹנָי֙ חֵילִ֔י וַיָּ֤שֶׂם רַגְלַי֙ כָּאַיָּל֔וֹת וְעַ֥ל בָּמוֹתַ֖י יַדְרִכֵ֑נִי לַמְנַצֵּ֖חַ בִּנְגִינוֹתָֽי׃
The CAUSE my God is my strength, who makes my feet like gazelles, and lets me walk on the high places; for the conductor, with my melody.

אֱלֹהִ֤ים יְהֹוָה֙ דְסָעֵיד־לִי־בְּחֵ֔ילָא מְשַׁוֵ֤י רַגְלַי֙ קַלִילִין־כְּאַיָלָ֔תָא וְעַ֥ל בֵּית־תּוּקְפִ֖י יְקִימְינָ֑נִי לְדִילֵיהּ־נִצְחָנִין־וּגְבוּרָ֖ן וְקֳדָמֽוֹהִי אֲנָא מְנַגֵן בְּתוּשְׁבַּחְתִּֽי׃
God, Adonai, is my help in power, and sets my feet down easily like the gazelles, and makes me rise on the places of my peak; for the Victorious and Mighty One, before THEM I sing my praises.


עַל־דָּא יִתְבָּרַךְ וְיִתְרוֹמַם וְיִשְׁתַּבַּח שְׁמֵהּ דְּמָרֵיהּ כֹּלָא דְּאִתְרְעֵי בִּנְבִיאֵי צַדִּיקַיָּא לְאַלָפָא לְעַמֵּיהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהַב לָנָא אוֹרַיְתָא עַל־יְדֵי מֹשֶׁה רַבָּנָא לְשִׁבּוּחֵי וּלְבָרוֹכֵי שְׁמֵיהּ דְּקֻדְשָׁא בְּרִיךְ־הוּא וְאִמְרוּ אָמֵן׃ אָמֵן׃
For all this, blessed and exalted and praised be the name of the Master of All, who desired prophets of righteousness to teach THEIR people Israel, and gave to us the Teaching by the hand of Moses our master, to praise and bless the Name of the blessed Holy One, and we say amen. Amen.

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יהוה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ מֶֽלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם צוּר כׇּל־הָעוֹלָמִים צַדִּיק בְּכׇל־הַדּוֹרוֹת הָאֵל הַנֶּאֱמָן הָאוֹמֵר וְעוֹשֶׂה הַמְדַבֵּר וּמְקַיֵּם שֶׁכׇּל־דְּבָרָיו אֱמֶת וָצֶֽדֶק׃ נֶאֱמָן אַתָּה הוּא יהוה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ וְנֶאֱמָנִים דְּבָרֶֽיךָ וְדָבָר אֶחָד מִדְּבָרֶֽיךָ אָחוֹר לֹא־יָשׁוּב רֵיקָם כִּי־אֵל מֶֽלֶךְ נֶאֱמָן וְרַחֲמָן אָֽתָּה׃ בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יהוה הָאֵל הַנֶּאֱמָן בְּכׇל־דְּבָרָיו׃ אָמֵן׃
Blessed are You, CAUSE our God, Sovereign of the Universe, Rock of all universes, Righteous in all the generations, the Trustworthy God, who says and does, who speaks and fulfills, for all of THEIR words are truth and righteousness. Trustworthy are You, CAUSE are God, and trustworthy are Your words, and not a single one of Your words will ever turn out baseless, because a Sovereign God, Trustworthy and Compassionate are You. Blessed are You, CAUSE, the God, trustworthy in all THEIR words. Amen.


רַחֵם עַל־צִיּוֹן כִּי־הִיא בֵּית חַיֵּינוּ וְלַעֲלוּבַת נֶֽפֶשׁ תּוֹשִֽׁיעַ בִּמְהֵרָה בְיָמֵֽינוּ׃ בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יהוה מְשַׂמֵּֽחַ צִיּוֹן בְּבָנֶֽיהָ׃ אָמֵן׃
Have compassion on Zion, for she is our lives’ home, and save the wretched-spirited quickly in our days! Blessed are You, CAUSE, letting Zion rejoice through her children. Amen.


שַׂמְּחֵֽנוּ יהוה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ בְּאֵלִיָֽהוּ הַנָּבִיא עַבְדֶּֽךָ וּבְמַלְכוּת בֵּית־דָּוִד מְשִׁיחֶֽךָ בִּמְהֵרָה יָבֹא וְיָגֵל לִבֵּֽנוּ עַל־כִּסְאוֹ לֹא־יֵשֵׁב זָר וְלֹא־יִנְחֲלוּ עוֹד אֲחֵרִים אֶת־כְּבוֹדוֹ כִּי־בְשֵׁם קׇדְשֶֽׁךָ נִשְׁבַּֽעְתָּלֹּו שֶׁלֹּא יִכְבֶּה נֵרוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃ בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יהוה מָגֵן דָּוִד׃ אָמֵן׃
Let us rejoice, CAUSE or God, with Elijah the Prophet Your servant, and the rule of the house of David Your anointed. Speedily may he come and cheer our hearts; let not a stranger sit on this throne, nor let others inherit his glory, for in Your Holy Name You swore to him that his light would never be extinguished until eternity. Blessed are You, CAUSE, shield of David. Amen.


עַל־הַתּוֹרָה וְעַל־הָעֲבוֹדָה וְעַל־הַנְּבִיאִים וְעַל־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת הַזֶּה וְעַל־יוֹם חַג־הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת הַזֶּה שֶׁנָּתַֽתָּ־לָּֽנוּ יהוה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ לִקְדֻשָּׁה וְלִמְנוּחָה לְשָׂשּׂוֹן וּלְשִׂמְחָה לְכָבוֹד וּלְתִפְאָֽרֶת׃ עַל־הַכֹּל יהוה אֱלֹהֵֽינוּ אֲנַֽחְנוּ מוֹדִים לָךְ וּמְבָרְכִים אוֹתָךְ יִתְבָּרַךְ שִׁמְךָ בְּפִי כׇּל־חַי תָּמִיד לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃ בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יהוה מְקַדֵּשׁ הַשַּׁבָּת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַזְּמָנִים׃ אָמֵן׃
For the Teaching, and for the service, and for the prophets, and for this Sabbath Day, and for this day of the Weeks-Pilgrimage, that You gave us, CAUSE our God, for holiness and rest, for happiness and rejoicing, for glory and for splendor. For all this, CAUSE our God, we thank You, and bless You, may Your name be blessed in the mouth of all life always, until eternity. Blessed are You, CAUSE, who sanctifies the Sabbath, Israel and the seasons. Amen.

The piyyut Yetsiv Pitgam by Rabbeinu Tam can be found in the Mahzor Vitry (f.81r in the British Library’s MS 27200).

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Notes

Notes
1 This translation uses the pluralis majestatis to refer to the Divine. This is not meant to imply that God is more than one ḥas v’shalom but rather to reflect the vastness and majesty of God while also avoiding gendered language. See Ibn Ezra’s commentary on Genesis 1:1 for a discussion of the pluralis majestatis when referring to God.

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