סדר לקריאת מגילת העצמאות | Reading of the Israeli Declaration of Independence for Yom Ha’atsma’ut

Hebrew English

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה
יהוה אֶלֹהֵינוּ
מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם,
שֶׁעָשָׂה נִסִּים לַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ וּלְאִמוֹתֵינוּ
בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם
וּבָזְמַן הַזֶּה.
Blessed are you,
Hashem our elo’ah,
cosmic majesty,
who made miracles for our ancestors
in their days,
in this season.

בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה
יהוה אֶלֹהֵינוּ
מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם,
שֶׁהֶחֱיָנוּ
וְקִיְמָנוּ
וְהִגִּיעָנוּ לַזְּמַן הַזֵּה.
Blessed are you,
Hashem our elo’ah,
cosmic majesty,
who has kept us alive,
sustained us,
and brought us to this season.

פסוקים שחורים הם מושרים עם ניגון למגילת אסתר.
פסוקים כחולים הם מושרים עם ניגון למגילת איכה.
פסוקים אדומים הם מושרים עם ניגון לסוף ספרי חומשי תורה.
Verses in black are read in the Megilat Esther melody.
Verses in blue are read in the Megilat Eikhah melody.
Verses in red are read in the melody of the conclusion of a book of the Torah.

1 א בְּאֶ֣רֶץ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל קָ֖ם הָעָ֥ם הַיְּהוּדִֽיֽ׃ ב בָּ֠הּ עֻצְּבָה֨ דְּמוּת֤וֹ הָרוּחָנִ֨ית֙ הַדָּתִ֣ית וְהַמְּדִינִ֔ית בָּ֛הּ חַי־חַיֵּ֥י קוֹמְמִיּוּ֖ת מַמְלַכְתִּ֑ית בָּ֣הּ יָצַ֗ר נִכְסֵ֤י תַּרְבּוּת֙ לְאֻמִּיִּ֣ים וּכְלָל־אֱנוֹשִׁיִּ֔ים וְהוֹרִ֛ישׁ לָעוֹלָם־כֻּלּ֖וֹ אֶת־סֵפֶר־הַסְּפָרִ֥ים הַנִּצְחִֽי׃ ג לְאַחַ֨ר שֶׁהֻגְלָ֤ה הָעָם֙ מֵ֣אַרְצוֹ בְּכֹ֔חַ הַזְּרוֹ֨עַ שָׁמַר־לָ֤הּ אֱמוּנִים֙ בְּכָל־אַרְצ֣וֹת פְּזוּרָ֔יו וְלֹא־חָדַ֛ל מִתְּפִלָּ֥ה וּמִתִּקְוָ֖ה לָשׁ֣וּב לְאַרְצ֑וֹ וּלְחַדֵּ֥שׁ בְּתוֹכָ֖הּ אֶת־חֵרוּת֥וֹ הַמְּדִינִֽית׃ ד תּוֹךְ־קֶ֕שֶׁר הִיסְטוֹרִ֥י וּמָסָרְתִּ֖י זֶ֑ה חָתְר֨וּ הַיְּהוּדִ֤ים בְּכָל־דּוֹר֙ לָשׁ֣וּב וּלְהֵאָחֵ֔ז בְּמוֹלַדְתָּ֥ם הָעַתִּיקָֽה׃ ה וּבַדּוֹר֣וֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנִ֣ים שָׁ֡בוּ לְאַרְצָ֣ם בַּ֠הֲמוֹנִ֠ים וַחֲלוּצִ֣ים ׀  מַעְפִּילִ֣ים וּמָגִנִּ֗ים הִפְרִ֤יחוּ נְשַׁמּוֹת֙ הֶחֱ֣יוּ שְׂפָתָ֣ם הָעִבְרִ֔ית בָּ֖נוּ כְּפָרִ֣ים וְעָרִ֑ים וְהֵקִ֣ימוּ יִשּׁ֣וּב גָּדֵל־וְהוֹלֵ֡ךְ הַשַּׁלִּ֣יט עַל־מִשְׁק֣וֹ וְתַרְבּוּת֡וֹ שׁוֹחֵר־שָׁל֣וֹם וּמָגֵן־עַל־עַצְמוֹ֩ מֵבִ֨י בִּרְכַּ֤ת הַקִּדְמָה֙ לְכָל־תּוֹשָׁבֵ֣י הָאָ֔רֶץ וְנוֹשֵׂ֥א נַפְשׁ֖וֹ לְעַצְמָא֥וּת מַמְלַכְתִּֽית׃ ו בִּשְׁנַ֣ת אֶ֣לֶף שְׁמוֹנֶה־מֵאוֹת֘ תִּשְׁעִ֣ים וְשֶׁ֒בַע נִתְכַּנֵּ֣ס ׀ הַקּוֹנְגְּרֶ֣ס הַצִּיּוֹנִ֗י לְק֧וֹל קְרִיאָת֛וֹ שֶׁל־הוֹגֶ֥ה חֲז֖וֹן הַמְּדִינָ֣ה הַיְּהוּדִ֑ית תֵּיאוֹדוֹר־הֶ֡רְצְל וְהִכְרִ֣יז עַל־זְכ֣וּת הָ֠עָם־הַיְּהוּדִ֠י לִתְקוּמָ֛ה לְאֻמִּ֖ית בְּאַרְצֽוֹ׃ ז זְכוּת־ז֣וֹ הֻכְּרָה֘ בְּהַצְהָרַ֣ת בַּלְפ֒וּר מִיּוֹם־הָשֵׁנִ֣י בְּנוֹבֶ֞מְבֶּר בִּשְׁנַת־אֶ֤לֶף תְּשַׁע־מֵאוֹת֙ וְשְׁבַ֣ע עֶשְׂרֵ֔ה וְאֻשְּׁרָ֥ה בַּמַּנְדָּ֖ט מִטַּ֣עַם חֶבֶר־הַלְּאֻמִּ֑ים אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֨ן בִּמְיֻחָ֤ד תֹּ֙קֶף֙ בֵּין־לְאֻמִּ֣י לַקֶּשֶׁר־הַהִיסְטוֹרִ֔י שֶׁבֵּ֙ין הָעָם־הַיְּהוּדִ֝י לְבֵ֨ין אֶ֤רֶץ־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְלִזְכ֣וּת הָעָם־הַיְּהוּדִ֔י לְהָקִ֥ים מֵחָדָ֖שׁ אֶת־בֵּית֥וֹ הַלְּאֻמִּֽי׃
1 The Land of Israel was the birthplace of the Jewish people. 2 Here their spiritual, religious and political identity was shaped. Here they first attained to statehood, created cultural values of national and universal significance and gave to the world the eternal Book of Books. 3 After being forcibly exiled from their land, the people kept faith with it throughout their Dispersion and never ceased to pray and hope for their return to it and for the restoration in it of their political freedom. 4 Impelled by this historic and traditional attachment, Jews strove in every successive generation to re-establish themselves in their ancient homeland. 5 In recent decades they returned in their masses. Pioneers, defiant returnees, and defenders, they made deserts bloom, revived the Hebrew language, built villages and towns, and created a thriving community controlling its own economy and culture, loving peace but knowing how to defend itself, bringing the blessings of progress to all the country’s inhabitants, and aspiring towards independent nationhood. 6 In the year 5657 (1897), at the summons of the spiritual father of the Jewish State, Theodore Herzl, the First Zionist Congress convened and proclaimed the right of the Jewish people to national rebirth in its own country. 7 This right was recognized in the Balfour Declaration of the 2nd November, 1917, and re-affirmed in the Mandate of the League of Nations which, in particular, gave international sanction to the historic connection between the Jewish people and the Land of Israel and to the right of the Jewish people to rebuild its National Home.

2 א הַשּׁוֹאָ֤ה שֶׁנַּתְחוֹלְלַה֙ עַל־עַ֣ם־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל ֤בַּזְּמַן הָ֣אַחֲר֔וֹן בָּהּ־הֻכְרְ֛עוּ לַטֶּבַ֥ח מִילְיוֹנֵי־יְהוּדִ֖ים בְּאֵיר֑וֹפָּה הוֹכִ֨יחָה מֵחָדָ֤שׁ בַּעֲלִיל֙ אֶת־הַהֶכְרֵ֣חַ בְּפִתְר֔וֹן בְּעָיַ֨ת הָעָם־הַיְּהוּדִ֤י מְחֻסַּר֙ הַמּוֹלֶ֣דֶת וְהָעַצְמָא֔וּת עַל־יְדֵ֧י חִדּ֛וּשׁ הַמְּדִינָ֥ה הַיְּהוּדִ֖ית בְּאֶ֥רֶץ־יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ב אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּפְתַּ֤ח לִרְוָחָה֙ אֶת־שַׁעֲרֵי־הַמּוֹלֶ֣דֶת לְכָל־יְהוּדִ֔י וְתַעֲנִ֖יק לָעָ֥ם הַיְּהוּדִ֑י מַעֲמָ֧ד שֶׁל־אֻמָּ֛ה שְׁוַת־זְכֻיּ֖וֹת בְּתוֹךְ־מִשְׁפַּחַ֥ת הָעַמִּֽים׃ ג שְׁאֵרִ֤ית הַפְּלֵיטָה֙ שֶׁנִּצְּלָ֔ה מֵהַטֶּ֥בַח הַנָּ֖אצִי הָאָיֹ֣ם בְּאֵיר֑וֹפָּה וִיהוּדֵ֨י אֲרָצ֤וֹת אֲחֵרוֹת֙ לֹא־חָדְל֣וּ לְהַעְפִּ֔יל לְאֶ֖רֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ד עַ֣ל אַ֣ף כָּל־קֹ֡שִׁי מְנִיעָ֣ה וְסַכָּנָה֩ וְלֹא־פָּסְק֨וּ לִתְבֹּ֤עַ אֶת־זְכוּתָם֙ לְחַיֵּ֣י כָּב֔וֹד חֵר֛וּת וַעֲמַ֥ל יְשָׁרִ֖ים בְּמוֹלֶ֥דֶת עַמָּֽם׃ ה בְּמִלְחֶ֣מֶת ׀ הָעוֹלָ֣ם הַשְּׁנִיָּ֗ה תָּרַ֨ם הַיִּשּׁ֤וּב הָעִבְרִי֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ אֶת־מְלוֹא־חֶלְק֨וֹ לְמַאֲבַ֤ק הָאֻמּוֹת֙ הַשּׁוֹחֲר֣וֹת חֵרוּת־וְשָׁל֔וֹם נֶ֥גֶד כֹּחוֹ֖ת הָרָשָׁ֣ע הַנָּ֑אצִי וּבְדַ֧ם חַיָּלָ֛יו וּבְמַאֲמַצּ֣וֹ הַמִּלְחַמְתִּ֗י קָנָה־ל֤וֹ אֶת־הַזְּכוּ֙ת לְהִמָּנ֣וֹת עִ֣ם הָעַמִּ֔ים מְיַסְּדֵ֥י בְּרִ֖ית הָאֻ֥מּוֹת הַמְּאֻחָדֽוֹת׃
1 The catastrophe which recently befell the Jewish people – the massacre of millions of Jews in Europe – was another clear demonstration of the urgency of solving the problem of its homelessness by re-establishing in the Land of Israel the Jewish State, 2 which would open the gates of the homeland wide to every Jew and confer upon the Jewish people the status of a fully privileged member of the community of nations. 3 Survivors of the Nazi holocaust in Europe, as well as Jews from other parts of the world, continued to migrate to the Land of Israel, 4 undaunted by difficulties, restrictions and dangers, and never ceased to assert their right to a life of dignity, freedom and honest toil in their national homeland. 5 In the Second World War, the Jewish community of this country contributed its full share to the struggle of the freedom- and peace-loving nations against the forces of Nazi wickedness and, by the blood of its soldiers and its war effort, gained the right to be reckoned among the peoples who founded the United Nations.

ו בְּיוֹ֣ם הָעֶשְׂרִים־וְתֵּ֡שׁעַ בְּנוֹבֶ֣מְבֶּר בִּשְׁנַת־אֶ֣לֶף תְּשַׁע־מֵאוֹת֘ אַרְבָּעִ֣ים וְשֶׁ֒בַע קִבְּלָ֣ה עֲצֶרֶת֩ הָאֻמּ֤וֹת הַמְּאֻחָדוֹת֙ הַחְלָטָ֣ה הַמְּחַיֶּ֔בֶת הֲקָמַ֛ת מְדִינָ֥ה יְהוּדִ֖ית בְּאֶ֖רֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ז הָעֲצֶרֶת֩ תָּבְעָ֨ה מֵאֵ֤ת תּוֹשָׁבֵי־אֶרֶץ־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ לֶאֱחֹ֣ז בְּעַצְמָ֔ם בְּכָל־הַצְּעָדִ֖ים הַנִּדְרָשִׁ֑ים בְּצִדָּ֛ם הֵ֥ם לְבִצּ֖וּעַ הַהַחְלָטָֽה׃ ח הַכָּרָ֣ה ז֡וֹ שֶׁל־הָאֻמּוֹ֣ת הַ֠מְּאֻחָד֠וֹת בִּזְכ֨וּת הָעָ֤ם הַיְּהוּדִי֙ לְהָקִ֣ים אֶת־מְדִינָת֔וֹ אֵ֥ינָהּ נִתֶּ֖נֶת לַהַפְקָעָֽה׃ ט ז֣וֹ זְכוּת֡וֹ הַטִּבְעִית֩ שֶׁ֨ל הָעָ֤ם הַיְּהוּדִי֙ לִהְי֣וֹת כְּכָ֣ל עַם־וְעַ֔ם עוֹמֵ֛ד בִּרְשׁ֥וּת עַצְמ֖וֹ בִּמְדִינָ֥תוֹ הָרִבּוֹנִֽית׃ י לְפִיכָ֤ךְ נִתְכַּנַּ֙סְנוּ֙ אָ֣נוּ חַבְרֵ֣י מוֹעֶצֶת־הָעָ֔ם נְצִיגֵ֨י הַיִּשּׁ֤וּב הָעִבְרִי֙ וְהַתְּנוּעָ֣ה הַצִּיּוֹ֔נִית בְּיוֹם־סִיּ֥וּם הַמַּנְדָּט־הַבְּרִיטִ֖י עַל־אֶ֣רֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּ֠בְתֹ֠קֶף זְכוּתֵנוּ֙ הַטִּבְעִ֣ית וְהַהִיסְטוֹרִ֔ית וְעַ֨ל יְס֨וֹד הַחְלָטַ֤ת עֲצֶ֙רֶת֙ הָאֻמּ֣וֹת הַמְּאֻחָד֔וֹת אָ֨נוּ מַכְרִיזִ֜ים בָּזֹא֗ת עַל־הֲקָמַ֨ת מְדִינָ֤ה יְהוּדִית֙ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הִ֖יא מְדִינַ֥ת יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃
6 On the 29th November, 1947, the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution calling for the establishment of a Jewish State in the Land of Israel; 7 the General Assembly required the inhabitants of the Land of Israel to take such steps as were necessary on their part for the implementation of that resolution. 8 This recognition by the United Nations of the right of the Jewish people to establish their State is irrevocable. 9 This right is the natural right of the Jewish people to be masters of their own fate, like all other nations, in their own sovereign State. 10 Accordingly we, members of the People’s Council, representatives of the Jewish Community of the Land of Israel and of the Zionist Movement, are here assembled on the day of the termination of the British Mandate over the Land of Israel and, by virtue of our natural and historic right and on the strength of the resolution of the United Nations General Assembly, hereby declare the establishment of a Jewish state in the Land of Israel, to be known as the State of Israel.

3 א אָ֣נוּ ׀ קוֹבְעִ֣ים שֶׁהַחֵ֗ל מֵרֶ֨גַע סִיּ֤וּם הַמַּנְדָּט֙ הַלַּיְלָה־אוֹ֣ר לְיוֹם־שַׁבָּ֔ת בְּיוֹם־הַשִׁשִׁ֣י בְּאִיָּ֣ר בִּשְׁנַת־חֲמִישָׁה־אֶ֡לֶף שְׁבַ֣ע מֵא֣וֹת וְשֵׁ֣שׁ בְּלוּחַ־הַעִבְרִ֡י זֶ֣ה יוֺם־הַחֲמִישָׁה־עֶ֣שֶׂר בְּמַ֡אי בִּשׁנַת־אֶ֣לֶף תְּשַׁע־מֵא֣וֹת אַרְבָּעִים־וְשׁמ֣וֹנֶה בְּלוּחַ־הַנוֹצְרִי֩ וְעַ֧ד לַהֲקָמַ֛ת הַשִּׁלְטוֹנ֨וֹת הַנִּבְחָרִ֤ים וְהַסְּדִירִים֙ שֶׁ֣ל הַמְּדִינָ֔ה בְּהֶתְאֵ֧ם לַחֻקָּ֛ה שֶׁתִּקָּבַ֨ע עַל־יְדֵ֤י הָאֲסֵפָה֙ הַמְּכוֹנֶ֣נֶת הַנִּבְחֶ֔רֶת לֹ֧א יְאֻחַ֛ר מיוֹם־הַרִאשׁ֧וֹן בְּאוֹקְט֛וֹבֶּר בִּשׁנַת־אֶ֥לֶף תְּשַׁע־מֵא֖וֹת אַרְבָּעִים וְשׁמ֑וֹנֶה תִּפְעַ֨ל מוֹעֶ֤צֶת הָעָם֙ כְּמוֹעֶ֣צֶת מְדִינָ֣ה זְמַנִּ֔ית וּמוֹסַד֩ הַבִּצּ֤וּעַ שֶׁלָּהּ֙ מִנְהֶ֣לֶת הָעָ֔ם יְהַוֶּ֣ה ׀ אֶת־הַמֶּמְשָׁלָ֣ה הַזְּמַנִּ֗ית שֶׁל־הַמְּדִינָ֧ה הַיְּהוּדִ֛ית אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּקָּרֵ֖א בַּשֵּׁ֥ם יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ב מְדִינַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ תְּהֵ֣א פְּתוּחָה֒ לַעֲלִיָּ֣ה ׀ יְהוּדִ֣ית ׀ וּלְקִבּ֣וּץ גָּלֻיּוֹ֗ת תִּשְׁקֹ֨ד עַל־פִּתּוּ֤חַ הָאָרֶץ֙ לְטוֹבַ֣ת כָּל־תּוֹשָׁבֶ֔יהָ תְּהֵא֩ מֻשְׁתָּתָ֧ה עַל־יְסוֹד֛וֹת הַחֵר֨וּת הַצֶּ֤דֶק וְהַשָּׁלוֹם֙ לְא֣וֹר חֲזוֹנָ֣ם שֶׁל־נְבִיאֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל תְּקַיֵּ֨ם שִׁוְי֤וֹן זְכֻיּוֹת֙ חֶבְרָתִ֣י וּמְדִינִ֔י גָּמ֧וּר לְכָל־אֶזְרָחֶ֛יהָ בְּלִי־הֶ֥בְדֵּל דָּ֖ת גֶּ֣זַע וּמִ֑ין תַּבְטִ֣יחַ חֹ֩פֶשׁ֩ דָּ֣ת מַצְפּ֣וּן לָשׁ֣וֹן חִנּ֣וּךְ וְתַרְבּ֡וּת תִּשְׁמֹ֣ר עַל־הַמְּקוֹמ֣וֹת הַקְּדוֹשִׁ֣ים שֶׁל־כָּל־הַדָּתוֹת֩ וְתִהְיֶ֤ה נֶאֱמָנָה֙ לְעֶ֣קְרוֹנוֹתֶ֔יהָ שֶׁל־מְגִלַּ֖ת הָאֻמּ֥וֹת הַמְּאֻחָדֽוֹת׃
1 We declare that, with effect from the moment of the termination of the Mandate being tonight, the eve of Sabbath, the 6th Iyar, 5708 (15th May, 1948), until the establishment of the elected, regular authorities of the State in accordance with the Constitution which shall be adopted by the Elected Constituent Assembly not later than the 1st October 1948, the People’s Council shall act as a Provisional Council of State, and its executive organ, the People’s Administration, shall be the Provisional Government of the Jewish State, to be called “Israel.” 2 The State of Israel will be open for Jewish immigration and for the Ingathering of the Exiles; it will foster the development of the country for the benefit of all its inhabitants; it will be based on freedom, justice and peace as envisaged by the prophets of Israel; it will ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, race or sex; it will guarantee freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture; it will safeguard the Holy Places of all religions; and it will be faithful to the principles of the Charter of the United Nations.

ג מְדִינַ֣ת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֣ל תְּהֵא־מוּכָנָה֘ לְשַׁתֵּ֣ף פְּעֻלָּה֒ עִ֨ם הַמּוֹסָד֤וֹת וְהַנְּצִיגִ֙ים֙ שֶׁל־הָאֻמּ֣וֹת הַמְּאֻחָד֔וֹת בְּהַגְשָׁמַ֧ת הַחְלָטַ֛ת הָעֲצֶ֛רֶת מִי֨וֹם הַעֶשְׂרִ֤ים־וְתֵּ֙שַׂע֙ בְּ֣נוֹבֶ֔מְבֶּר בִּשׂנַת־אֶ֥לֶף תְּשַׂע־מאֵ֖וֹת אַרבָּעִ֣ים וְשָׂבַ֑ע וְתִפְעַ֣ל לַהֲקָמַ֗ת הָאַחְד֤וּת הַכַּלְכָּלִית֙ שֶׁ֣ל אֶרֶץ־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בִּ֖שְׁלֵמוּתָֽהּ׃ ד אָ֨נוּ קוֹרְאִ֜ים לָאֻמּ֣וֹת הַמְּאֻחָד֗וֹת לָתֵ֤ת יָד֙ לָעָ֣ם הַיְּהוּדִ֔י בְּבִנְיַ֖ן מְדִינָת֑וֹ וּלְקַבֵּ֧ל אֶת־מְדִינַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל לְת֖וֹךְ מִשְׁפַּחַ֣ת הָעַמִּֽים׃ ה אָנ֨וּ קוֹרְאִ֜ים גַּם־בְּת֣וֹךְ הַתְקָפַת־הַדָּמִ֗ים הַנֶּעֱרֶ֥כֶת עָלֵ֖ינוּ זֶ֣ה חֳדָשִׁ֑ים לִבְנֵ֨י הָעָ֤ם הָעַרְבִי֙ תּוֹשָׁבֵ֣י מְדִינַת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לִשְׁמֹ֣ר עַל־שָׁל֔וֹם וְלִטֹּ֣ל חֶלְקָ֔ם בְּבִנְיַ֧ן הַמְּדִינָ֛ה עַל־יְס֣וֹד ׀ אֶזְרָח֣וּת מְלֵאָה־וְשָׁוָ֗ה וְעַל־יְס֤וֹד נְצִיגוּת֙ מַתְאִימָ֣ה בְּכָל־מוֹסְדוֹתֶ֔יהָ הַזְּמַנִּיִּ֖ים וְהַקְּבוּעִֽים׃ ו אָנ֨וּ מוֹשִׁיטִ֝ים יַד־שָׁל֣וֹם וּשְׁכֵנוּת־טוֹבָ֗ה לְכָל־הַמְּדִינ֥וֹת הַשְּׁכֵנ֖וֹת וְעַמֵּיהֶ֑ן וְקוֹרְאִ֧ים לָהֶ֛ם לְשִׁתּוּף֩ פְּעֻלָּה֙ וְעֶזְרָ֣ה הֲדָדִ֔ית עִם־הָעָ֥ם הָעִבְרִ֖י הָעַצְמָ֥אִי בְּאַרְצֽוֹ׃ ז מְדִינַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵל֘ מוּכָנָ֣ה לִתְרֹ֣ם חֶלְקָהּ֒ בְּמַאֲמָ֣ץ מְשֻׁתָּ֔ף לְקִדְמַ֛ת הַמִּזְרָ֥ח הַתִּיכ֖וֹן כֻּלּֽוֹ׃ ח אָנ֨וּ קוֹרְאִ֝ים אֶל־הָעָם־הַיְּהוּדִ֣י בְּכָל־הַתְּפוּצ֗וֹת לְהִתְלַכֵּ֛ד סְבִ֥יב הַיִּשּׁ֖וּב בַּעֲלִיָּ֣ה וּבְבִנְיָ֑ן וְלַעֲמֹ֧ד לִימִינ֛וֹ בַּמַּעֲרָכָ֤ה הַגְּדוֹלָה֙ עַ֣ל הַגְשָׁמַ֔ת שְׁאִיפַ֥ת הַדּוֹר֖וֹת לִגְאֻלַּ֥ת יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃
3 The State of Israel is prepared to cooperate with the agencies and representatives of the United Nations in implementing the resolution of the General Assembly of the 29th November, 1947, and will take steps to bring about the economic union of the whole of the Land of Israel. 4 We appeal to the United Nations to assist the Jewish people in the building-up of its State and to receive the State of Israel into the community of nations. 5 We appeal – in the very midst of the onslaught launched against us now for months – to the Arab inhabitants of the State of Israel to preserve peace and participate in the upbuilding of the State on the basis of full and equal citizenship and due representation in all its provisional and permanent institutions. 6 We extend our hand to all neighbouring states and their peoples in an offer of peace and good neighbourliness, and appeal to them to establish bonds of cooperation and mutual help with the sovereign Jewish people settled in its own land. 7 The State of Israel is prepared to do its share in a common effort for the advancement of the entire Middle East. 8 We appeal to the Jewish people throughout the Diaspora to rally round the Jews of the Land of Israel in the tasks of immigration and upbuilding and to stand by them in the great struggle for the realization of the age-old dream – the redemption of Israel.

4 א מִתּ֤וֹךְ בִּטָּחוֹן֙ בְּצ֣וּר יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל הִנְנ֥וּ חוֹתְמִ֖ים בַּחֲתִימַ֣ת יָדֵ֑נוּ לְעֵ֖דוּת עַל־הַכְרָזָ֥ה זֽוֹ׃ ב בְּמוֹשַׁב֩ מוֹעֶ֨צֶת הַמְּדִינָ֤ה הַזְּמַנִּית֙ עַ֣ל אַדְמַ֣ת הַמּוֹלֶ֔דֶת בָּעִ֥יר תֵּל־אָבִ֖יב הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃ ג עֶרֶ֥ב שַׁבָּ֖ת יוֹם־הַחֲמִישִׁ֣י בְּאִיָּ֑ר בִּשְׁנַ֧ת החֲמִישָׁה־אֶ֛לֶף שְׁבַע־מֵא֥וֹת וְשֵׁ֖שׁ בְּל֥וּחַ הַעִבְרִֽי׃ ד זֶ֖ה יוֺם־אַרְבָּעָה־עֶ֣שֶׂר בְּמַֽאי בִּשׁנַ֧ת אֶ֛לֶף תְּשַׁע־מֵא֥וֹת אַרְבָּעִים־וְשׁמ֖וֹנֶה בְּל֥וּחַ הַנוֹצְרִֽי׃
1 Placing our trust in the Almighty, we affix our signatures to this proclamation at this session of the provisional Council of State, on the soil of the Homeland, in the city of Tel-Aviv, 2 on this Sabbath eve, the 5th day of Iyar, 5708, 3 14th May, 1948.

The first draft of the declaration was made [in 1948] by Zvi Berenson, the Histadrut trade union’s legal advisor and later a justice of the Supreme Court, at the request of Pinchas Rosen. A revised second draft was made by three lawyers, A. Beham, A. Hintzheimer and Z.E. Baker, and was framed by a committee including David Remez, Pinchas Rosen, Haim-Moshe Shapira, Moshe Sharett and Aharon Zisling. A second committee meeting, which included David Ben-Gurion, Yehuda Leib Maimon, Sharett and Zisling produced the final text.[1]Harris, J. (1998) The Israeli Declaration of Independence: “A Camel Is a Horse Produced by a Committee” The Journal of the Society for Textual Reasoning, Vol. 7 For more on the final wording of the declaration, see here and here.

Yitzchak Harel ben Avraham Meir haKohen v’Yael writes:

Jews have read sacred texts to commemorate miracles of redemption for a long time. Purim has Megilat Esther. Many communities read Megilat Antiochus or Megilat Yehudit for Chanukah. But to many modern Jews, the most miraculous redemption in recent history was the founding of the state of Israel, as we commemorate on Yom haAtzmaut. Like Purim, the story of the founding of Israel was entirely secular on a surface level, with no big showy miracles like a sea splitting or a mountain aflame. Like Chanukah, a Jewish state in the Land of Israel won its independence against mighty forces allied in opposition. But we don’t have a megillah to read for Yom haAtzmaut.

Or do we? Just as Megillat Esther is said to be a letter written by Mordekhai to raise awareness of the events of Shushan, so too does the Israeli Scroll of Independence, Megilat haAtzmaut, raise awareness of the events of the founding of the State of Israel. In this vein, I decided to create a cantillation system for Megilat haAtzmaut. Ta’amei miqra were chosen attempting to follow Masoretic grammatical rules – since modern Hebrew has a different grammatical structure, the form is somewhat loose. Because of the thematic similarities to Purim, I chose Esther cantillation for the majority of the text. Just as some tragic lines in Esther are read in Eikhah cantillation, some lines regarding the Shoah or bearing grim portents for the wars to follow are to be sung in Eikhah cantillation. And the final phrases of chapters II and III are to be sung in the melody for the end of a book of the Chumash, or the Song of the Sea melody. They can be done in a call-and-response form, with the community reading and the reader repeating.

Sources

Download Cantillation-with-Megilat-haAtzmaut-Yitzchak-Harel-ben-Avraham-Meir-haKohen-vYael.pdf (PDF, 129KB)

Notes   [ + ]

  1. Harris, J. (1998) The Israeli Declaration of Independence: “A Camel Is a Horse Produced by a Committee” The Journal of the Society for Textual Reasoning, Vol. 7

2 comments to סדר לקריאת מגילת העצמאות | Reading of the Israeli Declaration of Independence for Yom Ha’atsma’ut

  • Avatar Eliran

    This is really good. My one question would be with the numbering system for the dates (is that how the dates are actually written in the Megillah?). For example, in 1:6, you seem to leave out the Gregorian year, and in 1:7, 2:6, and 3:3 you don’t mention that it’s Luah HaNotsriy like you do for 4:4. And 3:1 has two Gregorian dates, one saying Luah HaNotsriy and one not. I also question the use of the phrase “Luah HaNotsriy” entirely, especially since it feels slightly weird that the last word of a Jewish text is the word “Christian.” Does that phrase appear anywhere? Not sure what I’d replace it with (maybe Shnat #NUM# LeMelekh Ge’org HaShishi since prior to declaration Israel was under the British and King George VI was king of Britain then?), but still worth thinking about.

    And for the Hebrew dates, in 1:6, why didn’t you count “backwards” like in Megillat ’Ester like “Sheva ‘Esrim UMe’ah Medinah,” so you’d have Sheva‘ Hamishim Shesh Me’ot VHameishet ’Alef. Also, I feel like I’ve seen Hebrew dates written as LiVri’at Ha‘Olam, so as a corrolary to Luah HaNotsriy, you could have said that. I was surprised you didn’t follow Megillat ’Ester with naming the Hebrew month in 3:1 and all the other dates (Hebrew or not) and going with something like Hodesh Sheini, Hu’ Hodesh Iyyar, BaShishah Yom Bo’.

    Finally, I’m wondering if you want to highlight 1:6 (maybe also 2:10 and/or 3:1?) in yet another color as a Pasuq to be read by the Qahal and then repeated by the reader, like with Mordekhai’s first mention (and the Jews’ win) in Megillat ’Ester.

    Overall really impressed with your ability to put something in Modern Hebrew to trop.

    Curious to know your thoughts and what some of your thought processes were.

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