פָּרָשַׁת מַסְעֵי | Parashat Mas’ei (Numbers 33:1-36:13), color-coded according to its narrative layers

According to the poetry of the Midrash Tanḥuma, Bereshit 1:1, the words of the Torah were inscribed “black fire on white fire.” For many years, I’ve wanted to look deeply into the black fire and visualize the full spectrum of the Torah’s sources, hidden within the black fire but revealed through a critical analysis of its layers of redaction. Below, I’ve set the text of the first Torah portion in the annual Torah reading cycle, using color-coding to distinguish the stratigraphic layers forming the composition of the Masoretic text according to the Supplementary Hypothesis presented by Tsemaḥ Yoreh in his Kernel to Canon series of books (2013-2017) and his website, the Sources of Biblical Narrative. As Dr. Yoreh explains,

The Supplementary Hypothesis asserts that the Pentateuch was composed by several different writers. This reflects an overwhelming academic consensus on Biblical authorship, even among scholars who do not subscribe to the Supplementary Hypothesis in particular.[….] According to the Supplementary Hypothesis, Biblical narrative is layered. No editor took a blowtorch to the parts of the Bible he disagreed with and destroyed them; if he had, we would not find these repetitions and contradictions. Instead, Biblical narrative began with a coherent, foundational bedrock, which over time accreted more and more storylines. Unlike geological processes, though, this process of addition was deliberate. What happened if one author disagreed with his predecessor’s storyline or worldview? He did not simply take an axe to the narrative; instead, he attempted to bury his predecessor’s point of view by repeating his own over and over again, thus skewing our understanding of the story in new ways. Every generation of readers sees the world differently, and thus every generation of writers seeks to adapt their predecessors’ cultural heritage to their own situation. We are not meant simply to dismiss earlier stories; rather, the intention of later writers is to transform our understanding of those stories via their additions.

Legend

⬛ The kernel of biblical text upon which all other narratives were laid is thought to have been composed in the mid- to late eighth century BCE toward the end of the heyday of the northern Kingdom of Ephraim (one of the two kingdoms that occupied Biblical Israel). This layer, commonly referred to as ‘E’, is indicated with INDIGO text. The first parashah containing text of this layer was parashat Vayera in Sefer Bereshit.

⬛ The next oldest layer is thought to have been composed in the late 8th or early 7th century BCE in the southern Kingdom of Judah. This layer, commonly known as ‘J’, is indicated with a BLUE text.

⬛ This strata, thought to have been composed during the exilic to early post-exilic period (571–486 BCE) is, as Dr. Yoreh explains, “responsible for supplementing the ‘J’ narrative with dates, names, and numbers, thus ‘ordering’ and authenticating ‘J’s account.” This layer, commonly referred to as ‘P’ (for ‘Priestly’) appears here in GREEN text.

⬛ The next strata popularized Kohanite law for the remnant of Judah after the Temple was destroyed, and functioned as an intermediary between Kohanite lists and laws and the surrounding narrative. This layer, which Dr. Yoreh calls ‘H’ (for the ‘Holiness Code’) appears here in LIME-GREEN text.

⬛ The most recent layer of text, is a post-exilic (pre-3rd century BCE) text that Dr. Yoreh refers to as the “Bridger” which supplements earlier strata with genealogies and popular myths, providing narrative bridges between distant story cycles. This ‘B’ layer is presented here in FUCHSIA.

The ‘E’ kernel, ‘J’ and ‘B’ layer are absent from this parashah.

Parashat Mas’ei (Numbers 33:1-36:13) in the annual Torah reading cycle is the tenth and final parashah in Sefer Bamidbar. It is preceded by parashat Matōt (Numbers 30:2-32:42). Parashat Devarim (Deuteronomy 1:1-3:22), the first parashah of Sefer Devarim, follows it.

Source (Hebrew) Translation (English)

לג א אֵ֜לֶּה מַסְעֵ֣י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָצְא֛וּ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם לְצִבְאֹתָ֑ם בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁ֖ה וְאַהֲרֹֽן׃ ב וַיִּכְתֹּ֨ב מֹשֶׁ֜ה אֶת־מוֹצָאֵיהֶ֛ם לְמַסְעֵיהֶ֖ם עַל־פִּ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְאֵ֥לֶּה מַסְעֵיהֶ֖ם לְמוֹצָאֵיהֶֽם׃
33 1 These are the marching-stages of the Children of Yisra’el that they went on from the land of Mitsrayim, by their forces, through the hand of Mosheh and Aharon. 2 Mosheh wrote down their departures, by their marching-stages, by order of YHVH. Now these are their marching-stages, by their departures:[1]The following itinerary list, summarizes stations and events from the perspective of the P author. The formulae are consistent: “They set out from….they camped at”, a travel log formula, which appears throughout the narratives of Exodus – Numbers. In some instances the verses repeat the travel information recorded in / added to these narratives word for word. The events mentioned explicitly are the plague of the first born (Exodus 12:29-36), the well of Elim (Exodus 16:27), the lack of water at Rephidim (17:1-7), the death of Aaron (Numbers 20:22-29), and the war with Canaanite king of Arad (Numbers 21:1-3). The important events such as the parting of the Reed Sea and the revelation at Mount Sinai, are not recorded, there is no need, since these are the seminal events of Israelite history, and were undoubtedly very familiar. It seems likely that these events were chosen as typical of the desert sojourn, lack of water, wells, leadership, and war. Note that the events recorded in this chapter are only alluded to, i.e., the author assumes knowledge of these occurrences.

ג וַיִּסְע֤וּ מֵֽרַעְמְסֵס֙ בַּחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָֽרִאשׁ֔וֹן בַּחֲמִשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֛ר י֖וֹם לַחֹ֣דֶשׁ הָרִאשׁ֑וֹן מִֽמׇּחֳרַ֣ת הַפֶּ֗סַח יָצְא֤וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ בְּיָ֣ד רָמָ֔ה לְעֵינֵ֖י כׇּל־מִצְרָֽיִם׃ ד וּמִצְרַ֣יִם מְקַבְּרִ֗ים אֵת֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִכָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה בָּהֶ֖ם כׇּל־בְּכ֑וֹר וּבֵאלֹ֣הֵיהֶ֔ם עָשָׂ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה שְׁפָטִֽים׃ ה וַיִּסְע֥וּ בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל מֵרַעְמְסֵ֑ס וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּסֻכֹּֽת׃ ו וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִסֻּכֹּ֑ת וַיַּחֲנ֣וּ בְאֵתָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר בִּקְצֵ֥ה הַמִּדְבָּֽר׃ ז וַיִּסְעוּ֙ מֵֽאֵתָ֔ם וַיָּ֙שׇׁב֙ עַל־פִּ֣י הַחִירֹ֔ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־פְּנֵ֖י בַּ֣עַל צְפ֑וֹן וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ לִפְנֵ֥י מִגְדֹּֽל׃
3 They marched from Ra’mses, in the first New-moon, on the fifteenth day after the first New-moon; on the morrow of the Pesaḥ-meal the Children of Yisra’el departed with a high hand, before the eyes of all Mitsrayim, 4 while Mitsrayim was burying those that YHVH had struck-dead among them, all the firstborn, and on their deities, YHVH had rendered judgment. 5 And the Children of Yisra’el marched on from Ra’mses, and encamped at Sukkot; 6 they marched on from Sukkot and encamped at Eitam, which is at the edge of the wilderness. 7 And they marched on from Eitam and turned toward Pi-ha-hirot, that (runs) along the face of Baal Tsefon, and encamped before Migdol.

ח וַיִּסְעוּ֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י הַֽחִירֹ֔ת וַיַּֽעַבְר֥וּ בְתוֹךְ־הַיָּ֖ם הַמִּדְבָּ֑רָה וַיֵּ֨לְכ֜וּ דֶּ֣רֶךְ שְׁלֹ֤שֶׁת יָמִים֙ בְּמִדְבַּ֣ר אֵתָ֔ם וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּמָרָֽה׃ ט וַיִּסְעוּ֙ מִמָּרָ֔ה וַיָּבֹ֖אוּ אֵילִ֑מָה וּ֠בְאֵילִ֠ם שְׁתֵּ֣ים עֶשְׂרֵ֞ה עֵינֹ֥ת מַ֛יִם וְשִׁבְעִ֥ים תְּמָרִ֖ים וַיַּחֲנוּ־שָֽׁם׃ י וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵאֵילִ֑ם וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ עַל־יַם־סֽוּף׃
8 They marched on from Penei Ha-Ḥirot and crossed in the midst of the Sea into the wilderness; then they marched a journey of three days into the Wilderness of Eitam, and encamped at Marah. 9 They marched on from Marah and came to Eilim; now in Eilim (were) twelve springs of water and seventy palms, and they encamped there. 10 They marched on from Eilim and encamped by the Sea of Reeds.

שני יא וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִיַּם־ס֑וּף וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּמִדְבַּר־סִֽין׃ יב וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִמִּדְבַּר־סִ֑ין וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּדׇפְקָֽה׃ יג וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִדׇּפְקָ֑ה וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּאָלֽוּשׁ׃ יד וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵאָל֑וּשׁ וַֽיַּחֲנוּ֙ בִּרְפִידִ֔ם וְלֹא־הָ֨יָה שָׁ֥ם מַ֛יִם לָעָ֖ם לִשְׁתּֽוֹת׃ טו וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵרְפִידִ֑ם וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּמִדְבַּ֥ר סִינָֽי׃
11 They marched on from the Sea of Reeds and encamped in the Wilderness of Syn. 12 They marched on from the Wilderness of Syn and encamped at Dofqah. 13 They marched on from Dofqah and encamped at Alush. 14 They marched on from Alush and encamped at Refidim, but there was no water there for the people to drink. 15 They marched on from Refidim and encamped in the Wilderness of Sinai.

טז וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִמִּדְבַּ֣ר סִינָ֑י וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּקִבְרֹ֥ת הַֽתַּאֲוָֽה׃ יז וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִקִּבְרֹ֣ת הַֽתַּאֲוָ֑ה וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בַּחֲצֵרֹֽת׃ יח וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵחֲצֵרֹ֑ת וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּרִתְמָֽה׃ יט וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵרִתְמָ֑ה וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּרִמֹּ֥ן פָּֽרֶץ׃ כ וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵרִמֹּ֣ן פָּ֑רֶץ וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּלִבְנָֽה׃ כא וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִלִּבְנָ֑ה וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּרִסָּֽה׃ כב וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵרִסָּ֑ה וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בִּקְהֵלָֽתָה׃ כג וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִקְּהֵלָ֑תָה וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּהַר־שָֽׁפֶר׃
16 They marched on from the Wilderness of Sinai and encamped at Kivrot Ha-Taavah. 17 They marched on from Kivrot Ha-Taavah and encamped at Ḥatserot. 18 They marched on from Ḥatserot and encamped at Ritmah. 19 They marched on from Ritmah and encamped at Rimmon Perets. 20 They marched on from Rimmon Perets and encamped at Livnah. 21 They marched on from Livnah and encamped at Rissah. 22 They marched on from Rissah and encamped at Qehelatah. 23 They marched on from Qehelatah and encamped at Mount Shefer.

כד וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽהַר־שָׁ֑פֶר וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בַּחֲרָדָֽה׃ כה וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵחֲרָדָ֑ה וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּמַקְהֵלֹֽת׃ כו וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִמַּקְהֵלֹ֑ת וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּתָֽחַת׃ כז וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִתָּ֑חַת וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּתָֽרַח׃ כח וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִתָּ֑רַח וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּמִתְקָֽה׃ כט וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִמִּתְקָ֑ה וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּחַשְׁמֹנָֽה׃ ל וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽחַשְׁמֹנָ֑ה וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּמֹסֵרֽוֹת׃ לא וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִמֹּסֵר֑וֹת וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בִּבְנֵ֥י יַעֲקָֽן׃ לב וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִבְּנֵ֣י יַעֲקָ֑ן וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּחֹ֥ר הַגִּדְגָּֽד׃
24 They marched on from Mount Shefer and encamped at Ḥaradah. 25 They marched on from Ḥaradah and encamped at Mak’helot. 26 They marched on from Mak’helot and encamped at Taḥat. 27 They marched on from Taḥat and encamped at Taraḥ. 28 They marched on from Taraḥ and encamped at Mitqah. 29 They marched on from Mitqah and encamped at Ḥashmonah. 30 They marched on from Ḥashmonah and encamped at Moserot. 31 They marched on from Moserot and encamped at Benei Ya’qan. 32 They marched on from Benei Ya’qan and encamped at Ḥor Ha-Gidgad.

לג וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵחֹ֣ר הַגִּדְגָּ֑ד וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּיׇטְבָֽתָה׃ לד וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִיׇּטְבָ֑תָה וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּעַבְרֹנָֽה׃ לה וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵֽעַבְרֹנָ֑ה וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּעֶצְיֹ֥ן גָּֽבֶר׃ לו וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵעֶצְיֹ֣ן גָּ֑בֶר וַיַּחֲנ֥וּ בְמִדְבַּר־צִ֖ן הִ֥וא קָדֵֽשׁ׃ לז וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִקָּדֵ֑שׁ וַֽיַּחֲנוּ֙ בְּהֹ֣ר הָהָ֔ר בִּקְצֵ֖ה אֶ֥רֶץ אֱדֽוֹם׃ לח וַיַּ֩עַל֩ אַהֲרֹ֨ן הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֶל־הֹ֥ר הָהָ֛ר עַל־פִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה וַיָּ֣מׇת שָׁ֑ם בִּשְׁנַ֣ת הָֽאַרְבָּעִ֗ים לְצֵ֤את בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם בַּחֹ֥דֶשׁ הַחֲמִישִׁ֖י בְּאֶחָ֥ד לַחֹֽדֶשׁ׃ לט וְאַהֲרֹ֔ן בֶּן־שָׁלֹ֧שׁ וְעֶשְׂרִ֛ים וּמְאַ֖ת שָׁנָ֑ה בְּמֹת֖וֹ בְּהֹ֥ר הָהָֽר׃
33 They marched on from Ḥor Ha-Gidgad and encamped at Yotvatah. 34 They marched on from Yotvatah and encamped at Avronah. 35 They marched on from Avronah and encamped at Etsyon Gever. 36 They marched on from Etsyon Gever and encamped in the Wilderness of Tsyn — that is Qadesh. 37 They marched on from Qadesh and encamped at Hor Ha-Har, at the edge of the land of Edom. 38 Now Aharon the priest went up on Hor Ha-Har, by order of YHVH, and died there, in the fortieth year after the going-out of the Children of Yisra’el from the land of Mitsrayim, in the fifth New-moon, on the first of the New-moon. 39 Aharon was three and twenty and a hundred years old when he died at Hor Ha-Har.

מ וַיִּשְׁמַ֗ע הַֽכְּנַעֲנִי֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ עֲרָ֔ד וְהֽוּא־יֹשֵׁ֥ב בַּנֶּ֖גֶב בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן בְּבֹ֖א בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ מא וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵהֹ֣ר הָהָ֑ר וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּצַלְמֹנָֽה׃ מב וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִצַּלְמֹנָ֑ה וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּפוּנֹֽן׃ מג וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִפּוּנֹ֑ן וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּאֹבֹֽת׃ מד וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵאֹבֹ֑ת וַֽיַּחֲנ֛וּ בְּעִיֵּ֥י הָעֲבָרִ֖ים בִּגְב֥וּל מוֹאָֽב׃ מה וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵעִיִּ֑ים וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּדִיבֹ֥ן גָּֽד׃ מו וַיִּסְע֖וּ מִדִּיבֹ֣ן גָּ֑ד וַֽיַּחֲנ֖וּ בְּעַלְמֹ֥ן דִּבְלָתָֽיְמָה׃ מז וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵעַלְמֹ֣ן דִּבְלָתָ֑יְמָה וַֽיַּחֲנ֛וּ בְּהָרֵ֥י הָעֲבָרִ֖ים לִפְנֵ֥י נְבֽוֹ׃ מח וַיִּסְע֖וּ מֵהָרֵ֣י הָעֲבָרִ֑ים וַֽיַּחֲנוּ֙ בְּעַֽרְבֹ֣ת מוֹאָ֔ב עַ֖ל יַרְדֵּ֥ן יְרֵחֽוֹ׃ מט וַיַּחֲנ֤וּ עַל־הַיַּרְדֵּן֙ מִבֵּ֣ית הַיְשִׁמֹ֔ת עַ֖ד אָבֵ֣ל הַשִּׁטִּ֑ים בְּעַֽרְבֹ֖ת מוֹאָֽב׃
40 Now the K’naani, the king of Arad — he sat-as-ruler in the Negev, in the land of K’naan — heard of the coming of the Children of Yisra’el. 41 They marched on from Hor Ha-Har and encamped at Tsalmonah. 42 They marched on from Tsalmonah and encamped at Phunōn. 43 They marched on from Phunōn and encamped at Ovot. 44 They marched on from Ovot and encamped at Iyyei Ha-Avarim, in the territory of Moav. 45 They marched on from Iyyim and encamped at Divon Gad. 46 They marched on from Divon Gad and encamped at Almon Divlatayim. 47 They marched on from Almon Divlatayim and encamped in the hills of Avarim/The Region-Across, facing Nevo. 48 They marched on from the hills of the Avarim and encamped in the Plains of Moav, by Yarden-Yereḥo. 49 And they encamped along the Yarden, from Bet Yeshimot as far as Avel Shittim/Acacia Meadow, in the Plains of Moav.

שלישי (חמישי) נ וַיְדַבֵּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֖ה בְּעַֽרְבֹ֣ת מוֹאָ֑ב עַל־יַרְדֵּ֥ן יְרֵח֖וֹ לֵאמֹֽר׃ נא דַּבֵּר֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵהֶ֑ם כִּ֥י אַתֶּ֛ם עֹבְרִ֥ים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן אֶל־אֶ֥רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן׃ נב וְה֨וֹרַשְׁתֶּ֜ם אֶת־כׇּל־יֹשְׁבֵ֤י הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ מִפְּנֵיכֶ֔ם וְאִ֨בַּדְתֶּ֔ם אֵ֖ת כׇּל־מַשְׂכִּיֹּתָ֑ם וְאֵ֨ת כׇּל־צַלְמֵ֤י מַסֵּֽכֹתָם֙ תְּאַבֵּ֔דוּ וְאֵ֥ת כׇּל־בָּמוֹתָ֖ם תַּשְׁמִֽידוּ׃ נג וְהוֹרַשְׁתֶּ֥ם אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ וִֽישַׁבְתֶּם־בָּ֑הּ כִּ֥י לָכֶ֛ם נָתַ֥תִּי אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ לָרֶ֥שֶׁת אֹתָֽהּ׃ נד וְהִתְנַחַלְתֶּם֩ אֶת־הָאָ֨רֶץ בְּגוֹרָ֜ל לְמִשְׁפְּחֹֽתֵיכֶ֗ם לָרַ֞ב תַּרְבּ֤וּ אֶת־נַחֲלָתוֹ֙ וְלַמְעַט֙ תַּמְעִ֣יט אֶת־נַחֲלָת֔וֹ אֶל֩ אֲשֶׁר־יֵ֨צֵא ל֥וֹ שָׁ֛מָּה הַגּוֹרָ֖ל ל֣וֹ יִהְיֶ֑ה לְמַטּ֥וֹת אֲבֹתֵיכֶ֖ם תִּתְנֶחָֽלוּ׃ נה וְאִם־לֹ֨א תוֹרִ֜ישׁוּ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵ֣י הָאָ֘רֶץ֮ מִפְּנֵיכֶם֒ וְהָיָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תּוֹתִ֣ירוּ מֵהֶ֔ם לְשִׂכִּים֙ בְּעֵ֣ינֵיכֶ֔ם וְלִצְנִינִ֖ם בְּצִדֵּיכֶ֑ם וְצָרְר֣וּ אֶתְכֶ֔ם עַל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתֶּ֖ם יֹשְׁבִ֥ים בָּֽהּ׃ נו וְהָיָ֗ה כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּמִּ֛יתִי לַעֲשׂ֥וֹת לָהֶ֖ם אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֥ה לָכֶֽם׃
50 Now YHVH spoke to Mosheh in the Plains of Moav, by Yarden-Yereḥo, saying: 51 “Speak to the Children of Yisra’el, and say to them: ‘When you cross the Yarden into the land of K’naan, 52 you are to dispossess all the settled-folk of the land from before you. You are to destroy all their figured-objects, all their molten images you are to destroy, all their high-places you are to annihilate, 53 that you may take-possession of the land and settle in it, for to you I have given the land, to possess it. 54 You shall arrange-inheritance of the land by lots, according to your clans: for the many, you are to make-much their inheritance, for the few, you are to make-little their inheritance, wherever the lot comes out for them there, (so) shall theirs be; by the tribes of your fathers you are to receive-inheritance. 55 But if you do not dispossess the settled-folk of the land from before you, those who are left of them shall be as barbs in your eyes, as spines in your sides; they will assault you on the land that you are settling in, 56 and it shall be: as I thought to do to them, so I will do to you!”

לד א וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר׃ ב צַ֞ו אֶת־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם כִּֽי־אַתֶּ֥ם בָּאִ֖ים אֶל־הָאָ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן זֹ֣את הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּפֹּ֤ל לָכֶם֙ בְּֽנַחֲלָ֔ה אֶ֥רֶץ כְּנַ֖עַן לִגְבֻלֹתֶֽיהָ׃ ג וְהָיָ֨ה לָכֶ֧ם פְּאַת־נֶ֛גֶב מִמִּדְבַּר־צִ֖ן עַל־יְדֵ֣י אֱד֑וֹם וְהָיָ֤ה לָכֶם֙ גְּב֣וּל נֶ֔גֶב מִקְצֵ֥ה יָם־הַמֶּ֖לַח קֵֽדְמָה׃ ד וְנָסַ֣ב לָכֶם֩ הַגְּב֨וּל מִנֶּ֜גֶב לְמַעֲלֵ֤ה עַקְרַבִּים֙ וְעָ֣בַר צִ֔נָה [והיה] וְהָיוּ֙ תּֽוֹצְאֹתָ֔יו מִנֶּ֖גֶב לְקָדֵ֣שׁ בַּרְנֵ֑עַ וְיָצָ֥א חֲצַר־אַדָּ֖ר וְעָבַ֥ר עַצְמֹֽנָה׃ ה וְנָסַ֧ב הַגְּב֛וּל מֵעַצְמ֖וֹן נַ֣חְלָה מִצְרָ֑יִם וְהָי֥וּ תוֹצְאֹתָ֖יו הַיָּֽמָּה׃ ו וּגְב֣וּל יָ֔ם וְהָיָ֥ה לָכֶ֛ם הַיָּ֥ם הַגָּד֖וֹל וּגְב֑וּל זֶֽה־יִהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם גְּב֥וּל יָֽם׃ ז וְזֶֽה־יִהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם גְּב֣וּל צָפ֑וֹן מִן־הַיָּם֙ הַגָּדֹ֔ל תְּתָא֥וּ לָכֶ֖ם הֹ֥ר הָהָֽר׃ ח מֵהֹ֣ר הָהָ֔ר תְּתָא֖וּ לְבֹ֣א חֲמָ֑ת וְהָי֛וּ תּוֹצְאֹ֥ת הַגְּבֻ֖ל צְדָֽדָה׃ ט וְיָצָ֤א הַגְּבֻל֙ זִפְרֹ֔נָה וְהָי֥וּ תוֹצְאֹתָ֖יו חֲצַ֣ר עֵינָ֑ן זֶֽה־יִהְיֶ֥ה לָכֶ֖ם גְּב֥וּל צָפֽוֹן׃ י וְהִתְאַוִּיתֶ֥ם לָכֶ֖ם לִגְב֣וּל קֵ֑דְמָה מֵחֲצַ֥ר עֵינָ֖ן שְׁפָֽמָה׃ יא וְיָרַ֨ד הַגְּבֻ֧ל מִשְּׁפָ֛ם הָרִבְלָ֖ה מִקֶּ֣דֶם לָעָ֑יִן וְיָרַ֣ד הַגְּבֻ֔ל וּמָחָ֛ה עַל־כֶּ֥תֶף יָם־כִּנֶּ֖רֶת קֵֽדְמָה׃ יב וְיָרַ֤ד הַגְּבוּל֙ הַיַּרְדֵּ֔נָה וְהָי֥וּ תוֹצְאֹתָ֖יו יָ֣ם הַמֶּ֑לַח זֹאת֩ תִּהְיֶ֨ה לָכֶ֥ם הָאָ֛רֶץ לִגְבֻלֹתֶ֖יהָ סָבִֽיב׃
34 1 YHVH spoke to Mosheh, saying: 2 “Command the Children of Yisra’el and say to them: ‘When you enter the land, K’naan, this is the land that will fall to you as an inheritance, the land of K’naan by its borders: 3 the Negev limit will be for you from the Wilderness of Tsyn alongside Edom; the Negev border will be for you from the edge of the Sea of Salt, on the east; 4 the border will then turn for you from the Negev-side of Scorpions’ Pass, crossing on to Tsyn; its outer-lines will be from the Negev-side of Qadesh Barne’a, (then) going out to Ḥatsar Addar and crossing on to Atsmon. 5 The border will then turn from Atsmon toward the Wadi of Mitsrayim, its outer-lines will be at the Sea. 6 As the seaward border will be for you the Great Sea and (its own) border; this will be for you the seaward border. 7 And this will be for you the northern border: from the Great Sea you are to mark yourselves (a line) to Hor Ha-Har. 8 From Hor Ha-Har you are to mark going to Ḥamat, and the outer-lines of the border shall be at Taedad. 9 Then the border will go out to Zifron, and its outer-lines will be Ḥatsar Einan; this will be for you the northern border. 10 And you are to mark for yourselves, for the border eastward: from Ḥatsar Einan to Shefam. 11 And the border will go down from Shefam to Rivlah, on the east of Ayin/The Spring, then the border will go down and brush the shoulder of the Sea of Kinneret, eastward, 12 then the border will go down along the Yarden, its outer-lines will be the Sea of Salt. This will be for you the land, in all its borders round about!'”

יג וַיְצַ֣ו מֹשֶׁ֔ה אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר זֹ֣את הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר תִּתְנַחֲל֤וּ אֹתָהּ֙ בְּגוֹרָ֔ל אֲשֶׁר֙ צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה לָתֵ֛ת לְתִשְׁעַ֥ת הַמַּטּ֖וֹת וַחֲצִ֥י הַמַּטֶּֽה׃ יד כִּ֣י לָקְח֞וּ מַטֵּ֨ה בְנֵ֤י הָראוּבֵנִי֙ לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֔ם וּמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־הַגָּדִ֖י לְבֵ֣ית אֲבֹתָ֑ם וַחֲצִי֙ מַטֵּ֣ה מְנַשֶּׁ֔ה לָקְח֖וּ נַחֲלָתָֽם׃ טו שְׁנֵ֥י הַמַּטּ֖וֹת וַחֲצִ֣י הַמַּטֶּ֑ה לָקְח֣וּ נַחֲלָתָ֗ם מֵעֵ֛בֶר לְיַרְדֵּ֥ן יְרֵח֖וֹ קֵ֥דְמָה מִזְרָֽחָה׃
13 So Mosheh commanded the Children of Yisra’el, saying: “This is the land for which you are to arrange-inheritance by lot, that YHVH commanded to be given to the nine tribes and the half tribe. 14 For the tribe of the Sons of the Re’uvenites, according to their Fathers’ House, and the tribe of the Sons of the Gadites, according to their Fathers’ House, and half of the tribe of Menasheh have (already) taken their inheritance; 15 two tribes and the half tribe have taken their inheritance across from Yarden-Yereḥo, eastward, toward sunrise.”

רביעי (ששי) טז וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר׃ יז אֵ֚לֶּה שְׁמ֣וֹת הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים אֲשֶׁר־יִנְחֲל֥וּ לָכֶ֖ם אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ אֶלְעָזָר֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וִיהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ בִּן־נֽוּן׃ יח וְנָשִׂ֥יא אֶחָ֛ד נָשִׂ֥יא אֶחָ֖ד מִמַּטֶּ֑ה תִּקְח֖וּ לִנְחֹ֥ל אֶת־הָאָֽרֶץ׃ יט וְאֵ֖לֶּה שְׁמ֣וֹת הָאֲנָשִׁ֑ים לְמַטֵּ֣ה יְהוּדָ֔ה כָּלֵ֖ב בֶּן־יְפֻנֶּֽה׃ כ וּלְמַטֵּה֙ בְּנֵ֣י שִׁמְע֔וֹן שְׁמוּאֵ֖ל בֶּן־עַמִּיהֽוּד׃ כא לְמַטֵּ֣ה בִנְיָמִ֔ן אֱלִידָ֖ד בֶּן־כִּסְלֽוֹן׃ כב וּלְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵי־דָ֖ן נָשִׂ֑יא בֻּקִּ֖י בֶּן־יׇגְלִֽי׃ כג לִבְנֵ֣י יוֹסֵ֔ף לְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־מְנַשֶּׁ֖ה נָשִׂ֑יא חַנִּיאֵ֖ל בֶּן־אֵפֹֽד׃ כד וּלְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־אֶפְרַ֖יִם נָשִׂ֑יא קְמוּאֵ֖ל בֶּן־שִׁפְטָֽן׃ כה וּלְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־זְבוּלֻ֖ן נָשִׂ֑יא אֱלִיצָפָ֖ן בֶּן־פַּרְנָֽךְ׃ כו וּלְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־יִשָּׂשכָ֖ר נָשִׂ֑יא פַּלְטִיאֵ֖ל בֶּן־עַזָּֽן׃ כז וּלְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵי־אָשֵׁ֖ר נָשִׂ֑יא אֲחִיה֖וּד בֶּן־שְׁלֹמִֽי׃ כח וּלְמַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־נַפְתָּלִ֖י נָשִׂ֑יא פְּדַהְאֵ֖ל בֶּן־עַמִּיהֽוּד׃ כט אֵ֕לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֖ר צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֑ה לְנַחֵ֥ל אֶת־בְּנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל בְּאֶ֥רֶץ כְּנָֽעַן׃
16 YHVH spoke to Mosheh, saying: 17 “These are the names of the men that will arrange-for-your-inheritance of the land: El’azar the priest and Yehoshua son of Nun, 18 and one leader, one leader per tribe you are to take for arranging-inheritance of the land. 19 And these are the names of the men: of the tribe of Yehudah: Kalev son of Yefunneh 20 Of the tribe of the Sons of Shim’on: Shemuel son of Ammihud. 21 Of the tribe of Binyamin: Elidad son of Kislon. 22 Of the tribe of the Sons of Dan, leader: Buqqi son of Yogli. 23 Of the Sons of Yosef: of the tribe of the Sons of Menasheh, leader: Ḥanniel son of Efod, 24 of the tribe of the Sons of Efrayim, leader: Qemuel son of Shiftan. 25 Of the tribe of the Sons of Zevulun, leader: Elitsafan son of Parnakh. 26 Of the tribe of the Sons of Yissakhar, leader: Paltiel son of Azzan. 27 Of the tribe of the Sons of Asher, leader: Aḥihud son of Shelomi. 28 Of the tribe of the Sons of Naftali, leader: Pedah’el son of Ammihud.” 29 These (are they) whom YHVH commanded to parcel-out-inheritance for the Children of Yisra’el, in the land of K’naan.

חמישי לה א וַיְדַבֵּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֖ה בְּעַֽרְבֹ֣ת מוֹאָ֑ב עַל־יַרְדֵּ֥ן יְרֵח֖וֹ לֵאמֹֽר׃ ב צַו֮ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וְנָתְנ֣וּ לַלְוִיִּ֗ם מִֽנַּחֲלַ֛ת אֲחֻזָּתָ֖ם עָרִ֣ים לָשָׁ֑בֶת וּמִגְרָ֗שׁ לֶֽעָרִים֙ סְבִיבֹ֣תֵיהֶ֔ם תִּתְּנ֖וּ לַלְוִיִּֽם׃ ג וְהָי֧וּ הֶֽעָרִ֛ים לָהֶ֖ם לָשָׁ֑בֶת וּמִגְרְשֵׁיהֶ֗ם יִהְי֤וּ לִבְהֶמְתָּם֙ וְלִרְכֻשָׁ֔ם וּלְכֹ֖ל חַיָּתָֽם׃ ד וּמִגְרְשֵׁי֙ הֶֽעָרִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּתְּנ֖וּ לַלְוִיִּ֑ם מִקִּ֤יר הָעִיר֙ וָח֔וּצָה אֶ֥לֶף אַמָּ֖ה סָבִֽיב׃ ה וּמַדֹּתֶ֞ם מִח֣וּץ לָעִ֗יר אֶת־פְּאַת־קֵ֣דְמָה אַלְפַּ֪יִם בָּֽאַמָּ֟ה וְאֶת־פְּאַת־נֶ֩גֶב֩ אַלְפַּ֨יִם בָּאַמָּ֜ה וְאֶת־פְּאַת־יָ֣ם ׀ אַלְפַּ֣יִם בָּֽאַמָּ֗ה וְאֵ֨ת פְּאַ֥ת צָפ֛וֹן אַלְפַּ֥יִם בָּאַמָּ֖ה וְהָעִ֣יר בַּתָּ֑וֶךְ זֶ֚ה יִהְיֶ֣ה לָהֶ֔ם מִגְרְשֵׁ֖י הֶעָרִֽים׃
35 1 YHVH spoke to Mosheh, in the Plains of Moav, by Yarden-Yereḥo, saying: 2 “Command the Children of Yisra’el, that they may give over to the Levi’im, from their inherited holdings, towns to settle in, and migrash/pasture-land for the towns around them, give to the Levi’im. 3 The towns shall be for them to settle in, and their pasture-lands shall be for their grazing-animals, their property, and for all their living creatures. 4 And the pasture-lands of the towns that you give to the Levi’im (shall be) from the wall of the town and outward, a thousand cubits all around; 5 you are to measure outside the city, the eastern limit: two thousand by the amah/cubit, and the Negev limit, two thousand by the amah, and the seaward limit, two thousand by the amah, and the northern limit, two thousand by the amah, with the town in the middle. This shall be for them the pasture-lands of the towns.”

ו וְאֵ֣ת הֶֽעָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר תִּתְּנוּ֙ לַלְוִיִּ֔ם אֵ֚ת שֵׁשׁ־עָרֵ֣י הַמִּקְלָ֔ט אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּתְּנ֔וּ לָנֻ֥ס שָׁ֖מָּה הָרֹצֵ֑חַ וַעֲלֵיהֶ֣ם תִּתְּנ֔וּ אַרְבָּעִ֥ים וּשְׁתַּ֖יִם עִֽיר׃ ז כׇּל־הֶעָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר תִּתְּנוּ֙ לַלְוִיִּ֔ם אַרְבָּעִ֥ים וּשְׁמֹנֶ֖ה עִ֑יר אֶתְהֶ֖ן וְאֶת־מִגְרְשֵׁיהֶֽן׃ ח וְהֶֽעָרִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֤ר תִּתְּנוּ֙ מֵאֲחֻזַּ֣ת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מֵאֵ֤ת הָרַב֙ תַּרְבּ֔וּ וּמֵאֵ֥ת הַמְעַ֖ט תַּמְעִ֑יטוּ אִ֗ישׁ כְּפִ֤י נַחֲלָתוֹ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִנְחָ֔לוּ יִתֵּ֥ן מֵעָרָ֖יו לַלְוִיִּֽם׃
6 “And with the towns that you give to the Levi’im, with the six towns of asylum that you give for fleeing-to for the accidental-murderer — along with them you are to give forty-two towns. 7 All the towns that you are to give the Levi’im: forty-eight towns, them and their pasture-lands. 8 And the towns that you give (them) from the holdings of the Children of Yisra’el — from those that have — many you are to take-many, from those that have-few you are to take-few, each-one according to his inheritance that they receive-as-inheritance is to give of its towns for the Levi’im.”

ששי (שביעי) ט וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר׃ י דַּבֵּר֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵהֶ֑ם כִּ֥י אַתֶּ֛ם עֹבְרִ֥ים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֖ן אַ֥רְצָה כְּנָֽעַן׃ יא וְהִקְרִיתֶ֤ם לָכֶם֙ עָרִ֔ים עָרֵ֥י מִקְלָ֖ט תִּהְיֶ֣ינָה לָכֶ֑ם וְנָ֥ס שָׁ֙מָּה֙ רֹצֵ֔חַ מַכֵּה־נֶ֖פֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָֽה׃ יב וְהָי֨וּ לָכֶ֧ם הֶעָרִ֛ים לְמִקְלָ֖ט מִגֹּאֵ֑ל וְלֹ֤א יָמוּת֙ הָרֹצֵ֔חַ עַד־עׇמְד֛וֹ לִפְנֵ֥י הָעֵדָ֖ה לַמִּשְׁפָּֽט׃ יג וְהֶעָרִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּתֵּ֑נוּ שֵׁשׁ־עָרֵ֥י מִקְלָ֖ט תִּהְיֶ֥ינָה לָכֶֽם׃ יד אֵ֣ת ׀ שְׁלֹ֣שׁ הֶעָרִ֗ים תִּתְּנוּ֙ מֵעֵ֣בֶר לַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וְאֵת֙ שְׁלֹ֣שׁ הֶֽעָרִ֔ים תִּתְּנ֖וּ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ כְּנָ֑עַן עָרֵ֥י מִקְלָ֖ט תִּהְיֶֽינָה׃ טו לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל וְלַגֵּ֤ר וְלַתּוֹשָׁב֙ בְּתוֹכָ֔ם תִּהְיֶ֛ינָה שֵׁשׁ־הֶעָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖לֶּה לְמִקְלָ֑ט לָנ֣וּס שָׁ֔מָּה כׇּל־מַכֵּה־נֶ֖פֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָֽה׃
9 YHVH spoke to Mosheh, saying: 10 “Speak to the Children of Yisra’el and say to them: ‘When you cross over the Yarden, into the land of K’naan: 11 You are to select for yourselves (certain) towns, towns of asylum shall they be for you, for fleeing-to for the accidental-murderer, one who strikes down a life in error. 12 The towns shall be for you for asylum from the (blood) redeemer, that the murderer not die until he can come before the community for judgment. 13 And the towns that you provide — six towns of asylum shall there be for you. 14 Three of the towns you are to provide across the Yarden, and three of the towns you are to provide in the land of K’naan, towns of asylum they are to be, 15 for the Children of Yisra’el, for the sojourner and for the temporary-settler among them, these six towns are to be for asylum, for fleeing-to for anyone who strikes down a person in error.”

טז וְאִם־בִּכְלִ֨י בַרְזֶ֧ל ׀ הִכָּ֛הוּ וַיָּמֹ֖ת רֹצֵ֣חַֽ ה֑וּא מ֥וֹת יוּמַ֖ת הָרֹצֵֽחַ׃ יז וְאִ֡ם בְּאֶ֣בֶן יָד֩ אֲשֶׁר־יָמ֨וּת בָּ֥הּ הִכָּ֛הוּ וַיָּמֹ֖ת רֹצֵ֣חַֽ ה֑וּא מ֥וֹת יוּמַ֖ת הָרֹצֵֽחַ׃ יח א֡וֹ בִּכְלִ֣י עֵֽץ־יָד֩ אֲשֶׁר־יָמ֨וּת בּ֥וֹ הִכָּ֛הוּ וַיָּמֹ֖ת רֹצֵ֣חַֽ ה֑וּא מ֥וֹת יוּמַ֖ת הָרֹצֵֽחַ׃ יט גֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּ֔ם ה֥וּא יָמִ֖ית אֶת־הָרֹצֵ֑חַ בְּפִגְעוֹ־ב֖וֹ ה֥וּא יְמִתֶֽנּוּ׃ כ וְאִם־בְּשִׂנְאָ֖ה יֶהְדֳּפֶ֑נּוּ אֽוֹ־הִשְׁלִ֥יךְ עָלָ֛יו בִּצְדִיָּ֖ה וַיָּמֹֽת׃ כא א֣וֹ בְאֵיבָ֞ה הִכָּ֤הוּ בְיָדוֹ֙ וַיָּמֹ֔ת מֽוֹת־יוּמַ֥ת הַמַּכֶּ֖ה רֹצֵ֣חַֽ ה֑וּא גֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּ֗ם יָמִ֛ית אֶת־הָרֹצֵ֖חַ בְּפִגְעוֹ־בֽוֹ׃
16 “But if with an iron instrument he struck him down, so that he died, he is a murderer: put-to-death, put-to-death must the murderer be! 17 And if with a stone in hand through which one can die he struck him down, so that he died, he is a murderer: put-to-death, put-to-death must the murderer be! 18 Or with a wooden instrument in hand through which one can die he struck him down, so that he died, he is a murderer: put-to-death, put-to-death must the murderer be! 19 As for the blood redeemer — he may put-to-death the murderer, upon meeting him, he may put-him-to-death. 20 Now if in hatred he pushed him, or threw (something) at him lying-in-wait, so that he died, 21 or in enmity struck him with his hand, so that he died, put-to-death, put-to-death must be he who has struck, he is a murderer: the blood redeemer may put the murderer to death, upon meeting him.”

כב וְאִם־בְּפֶ֥תַע בְּלֹא־אֵיבָ֖ה הֲדָפ֑וֹ אוֹ־הִשְׁלִ֥יךְ עָלָ֛יו כׇּל־כְּלִ֖י בְּלֹ֥א צְדִיָּֽה׃ כג א֣וֹ בְכׇל־אֶ֜בֶן אֲשֶׁר־יָמ֥וּת בָּהּ֙ בְּלֹ֣א רְא֔וֹת וַיַּפֵּ֥ל עָלָ֖יו וַיָּמֹ֑ת וְהוּא֙ לֹא־אוֹיֵ֣ב ל֔וֹ וְלֹ֥א מְבַקֵּ֖שׁ רָעָתֽוֹ׃ כד וְשָֽׁפְטוּ֙ הָֽעֵדָ֔ה בֵּ֚ין הַמַּכֶּ֔ה וּבֵ֖ין גֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּ֑ם עַ֥ל הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֖ים הָאֵֽלֶּה׃ כה וְהִצִּ֨ילוּ הָעֵדָ֜ה אֶת־הָרֹצֵ֗חַ מִיַּד֮ גֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּם֒ וְהֵשִׁ֤יבוּ אֹתוֹ֙ הָֽעֵדָ֔ה אֶל־עִ֥יר מִקְלָט֖וֹ אֲשֶׁר־נָ֣ס שָׁ֑מָּה וְיָ֣שַׁב בָּ֗הּ עַד־מוֹת֙ הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּדֹ֔ל אֲשֶׁר־מָשַׁ֥ח אֹת֖וֹ בְּשֶׁ֥מֶן הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ׃
22 “But if with suddenness, with no (previous) enmity, he pushed him, or threw at him any instrument, without lying-in-wait, 23 or with any stone instrument through which one can die, without seeing (him), he dropped it on him, so that he died — now he was not his enemy, not one seeking his ill — 24 the community is to judge between the striker and the blood redeemer, according to these regulations; 25 the community is to rescue the murderer from the hand of the blood redeemer, and the community is to return him to his town of asylum, to which he fled; he is to stay in it until the death of the Kohen haGadol who was anointed with the oil of holiness.”

כו וְאִם־יָצֹ֥א יֵצֵ֖א הָרֹצֵ֑חַ אֶת־גְּבוּל֙ עִ֣יר מִקְלָט֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר יָנ֖וּס שָֽׁמָּה׃ כז וּמָצָ֤א אֹתוֹ֙ גֹּאֵ֣ל הַדָּ֔ם מִח֕וּץ לִגְב֖וּל עִ֣יר מִקְלָט֑וֹ וְרָצַ֞ח גֹּאֵ֤ל הַדָּם֙ אֶת־הָ֣רֹצֵ֔חַ אֵ֥ין ל֖וֹ דָּֽם׃ כח כִּ֣י בְעִ֤יר מִקְלָטוֹ֙ יֵשֵׁ֔ב עַד־מ֖וֹת הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּדֹ֑ל וְאַחֲרֵ֥י מוֹת֙ הַכֹּהֵ֣ן הַגָּדֹ֔ל יָשׁוּב֙ הָרֹצֵ֔חַ אֶל־אֶ֖רֶץ אֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ׃
26 “But if the murderer goes out, yes, goes out from the border of his town of asylum, whence he fled, 27 and the blood redeemer finds him, outside the border of his town of asylum, the blood redeemer may murder the murderer, he has no bloodguilt. 28 Indeed, in his town of asylum he must stay, until the death of the Kohen haGadol; after the death of the Kohen haGadol the murderer may return to the land of his holding.”

כט וְהָי֨וּ אֵ֧לֶּה לָכֶ֛ם לְחֻקַּ֥ת מִשְׁפָּ֖ט לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶ֑ם בְּכֹ֖ל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶֽם׃ ל כׇּ֨ל־מַכֵּה־נֶ֔פֶשׁ לְפִ֣י עֵדִ֔ים יִרְצַ֖ח אֶת־הָרֹצֵ֑חַ וְעֵ֣ד אֶחָ֔ד לֹא־יַעֲנֶ֥ה בְנֶ֖פֶשׁ לָמֽוּת׃ לא וְלֹֽא־תִקְח֥וּ כֹ֙פֶר֙ לְנֶ֣פֶשׁ רֹצֵ֔חַ אֲשֶׁר־ה֥וּא רָשָׁ֖ע לָמ֑וּת כִּי־מ֖וֹת יוּמָֽת׃ לב וְלֹא־תִקְח֣וּ כֹ֔פֶר לָנ֖וּס אֶל־עִ֣יר מִקְלָט֑וֹ לָשׁוּב֙ לָשֶׁ֣בֶת בָּאָ֔רֶץ עַד־מ֖וֹת הַכֹּהֵֽן׃ לג וְלֹֽא־תַחֲנִ֣יפוּ אֶת־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתֶּם֙ בָּ֔הּ כִּ֣י הַדָּ֔ם ה֥וּא יַחֲנִ֖יף אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְלָאָ֣רֶץ לֹֽא־יְכֻפַּ֗ר לַדָּם֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר שֻׁפַּךְ־בָּ֔הּ כִּי־אִ֖ם בְּדַ֥ם שֹׁפְכֽוֹ׃ לד וְלֹ֧א תְטַמֵּ֣א אֶת־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתֶּם֙ יֹשְׁבִ֣ים בָּ֔הּ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲנִ֖י שֹׁכֵ֣ן בְּתוֹכָ֑הּ כִּ֚י אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה שֹׁכֵ֕ן בְּת֖וֹךְ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃
29 “These shall be for you as a law of procedure into your generations, throughout all your settlements: 30 whoever strikes down a person, at the mouth of witnesses (only) may a murderer be murdered; one witness (alone) may not testify against the person, to have-him-put-to-death. 31 You are not to accept a ransom for the life of a murderer, since he is culpable, (deserving) the death-penalty, indeed, he is to be put-to-death, put-to-death! 32 And you are not to accept a ransom for (him to) flee to his town of asylum, for (him to) return to settle in the land, until the death of the Kohen (haGadol). 33 You are not to corrupt the land that you are in, for the blood — it will corrupt the land, and the land will not be purged/atoned of the blood that has been shed upon it except through the blood of him who shed it. 34 You are not to make-tamei the land in which you are settling, in whose midst I dwell, for I am YHVH, Shokhen/Dweller in the midst of Yisra’el!”

שביעי לו א וַֽיִּקְרְב֞וּ רָאשֵׁ֣י הָֽאָב֗וֹת לְמִשְׁפַּ֤חַת בְּנֵֽי־גִלְעָד֙ בֶּן־מָכִ֣יר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁ֔ה מִֽמִּשְׁפְּחֹ֖ת בְּנֵ֣י יוֹסֵ֑ף וַֽיְדַבְּר֞וּ לִפְנֵ֤י מֹשֶׁה֙ וְלִפְנֵ֣י הַנְּשִׂאִ֔ים רָאשֵׁ֥י אָב֖וֹת לִבְנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ב וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ אֶת־אֲדֹנִי֙ צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֔ה לָתֵ֨ת אֶת־הָאָ֧רֶץ בְּנַחֲלָ֛ה בְּגוֹרָ֖ל לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַֽאדֹנִי֙ צֻוָּ֣ה בַֽיהֹוָ֔ה לָתֵ֗ת אֶֽת־נַחֲלַ֛ת צְלׇפְחָ֥ד אָחִ֖ינוּ לִבְנֹתָֽיו׃ ג וְ֠הָי֠וּ לְאֶחָ֞ד מִבְּנֵ֨י שִׁבְטֵ֥י בְנֵֽי־יִשְׂרָאֵל֮ לְנָשִׁים֒ וְנִגְרְעָ֤ה נַחֲלָתָן֙ מִנַּחֲלַ֣ת אֲבֹתֵ֔ינוּ וְנוֹסַ֕ף עַ֚ל נַחֲלַ֣ת הַמַּטֶּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּהְיֶ֖ינָה לָהֶ֑ם וּמִגֹּרַ֥ל נַחֲלָתֵ֖נוּ יִגָּרֵֽעַ׃ ד וְאִם־יִהְיֶ֣ה הַיֹּבֵל֮ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וְנֽוֹסְפָה֙ נַחֲלָתָ֔ן עַ֚ל נַחֲלַ֣ת הַמַּטֶּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּהְיֶ֖ינָה לָהֶ֑ם וּמִֽנַּחֲלַת֙ מַטֵּ֣ה אֲבֹתֵ֔ינוּ יִגָּרַ֖ע נַחֲלָתָֽן׃
36 1 Now there came-near the heads of the Fathers’ (Houses) of a clan of the Sons of Gil’ad son of Makhir son of Menasheh, of the clans of the Sons of Yosef, they spoke before Mosheh and before the leaders, the heads of the Father(s’ Houses) of the Children of Yisra’el, 2 they said: “It is my lord that YHVH has commanded to give out the land in inheritance, by lot, to the Children of Yisra’el, and my lord was commanded by YHVH to give out the inheritance of Tselofḥad our brother, to his daughters. 3 Now should they be for one of the members of (another) tribe of the Children of Yisra’el as wives, their inheritance will be taken-away from the inheritance of their fathers and be added to the inheritance of the tribe for whom they become (wives); from our allotted inheritance it will be taken-away! 4 And when there is a Yovel/Homebringing for the Children of Yisra’el and their inheritance is added to the inheritance of the tribe for which they are (wives) from the inheritance of our fathers’ tribe, their inheritance will be taken-away!”

ה וַיְצַ֤ו מֹשֶׁה֙ אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל עַל־פִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה לֵאמֹ֑ר כֵּ֛ן מַטֵּ֥ה בְנֵֽי־יוֹסֵ֖ף דֹּבְרִֽים׃ ו זֶ֣ה הַדָּבָ֞ר אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֗ה לִבְנ֤וֹת צְלׇפְחָד֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לַטּ֥וֹב בְּעֵינֵיהֶ֖ם תִּהְיֶ֣ינָה לְנָשִׁ֑ים אַ֗ךְ לְמִשְׁפַּ֛חַת מַטֵּ֥ה אֲבִיהֶ֖ם תִּהְיֶ֥ינָה לְנָשִֽׁים׃ ז וְלֹֽא־תִסֹּ֤ב נַחֲלָה֙ לִבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מִמַּטֶּ֖ה אֶל־מַטֶּ֑ה כִּ֣י אִ֗ישׁ בְּנַחֲלַת֙ מַטֵּ֣ה אֲבֹתָ֔יו יִדְבְּק֖וּ בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ח וְכׇל־בַּ֞ת יֹרֶ֣שֶׁת נַחֲלָ֗ה מִמַּטּוֹת֮ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ לְאֶחָ֗ד מִמִּשְׁפַּ֛חַת מַטֵּ֥ה אָבִ֖יהָ תִּהְיֶ֣ה לְאִשָּׁ֑ה לְמַ֗עַן יִֽירְשׁוּ֙ בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל אִ֖ישׁ נַחֲלַ֥ת אֲבֹתָֽיו׃ ט וְלֹֽא־תִסֹּ֧ב נַחֲלָ֛ה מִמַּטֶּ֖ה לְמַטֶּ֣ה אַחֵ֑ר כִּי־אִישׁ֙ בְּנַ֣חֲלָת֔וֹ יִדְבְּק֕וּ מַטּ֖וֹת בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃
5 So Mosheh commanded the Children of Yisra’el by order of YHVH, saying: “Rightfully has the tribe of the Sons of Yosef spoken! 6 This is the word that YHVH commands concerning the daughters of Tselofḥad, saying: ‘for those good in their eyes, they may become wives, however, (only) for a clan from the tribe of their father, may they become wives. 7 The inheritance of the Children of Yisra’el is not to go round from tribe to tribe; indeed, each-one to the inheritance of his father’s tribe is to cleave, (among) the Children of Yisra’el. 8 And every daughter who comes-into-possession of inheritance from the tribes of the Children of Yisra’el — for someone from the clan of her father’s tribe she must become a wife, in order that the Children of Yisra’el may remain-in-possession, each-man, of the inheritance of his fathers. 9 There shall not go round the inheritance of a tribe to another tribe, indeed, each-one to his inheritance is to cleave, (among) the tribes of the Children of Yisra’el.'”[2]The issue of daughters inheriting which was brought up by the daughters of Tzelophchad in Numbers 27:1ff (H), has a legal corollary, that of Tzelophchad’s portion in the land, going to a non-Menassite family, following the marriage of the daughters of Tzelophchad, this is neatly solved by marrying the daughters of Tzelophchad to their cousins. The genre of legal corollaries in the Pentateuch is relatively rare, and reflects a mindset which views the already imparted law code as sacrosanct but not completely understood and worthy of debate, i.e. a later almost rabbinic mindset, compare the sin-offering at the conclusion of Leviticus 10, which was burnt when Moses’ thought it shouldn’t be – the only source that fits the bill is H, which continually seeks to elucidate and refine the previous Priestly laws.

י כַּאֲשֶׁ֛ר צִוָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֑ה כֵּ֥ן עָשׂ֖וּ בְּנ֥וֹת צְלׇפְחָֽד׃ מפטיר יא וַתִּהְיֶ֜ינָה מַחְלָ֣ה תִרְצָ֗ה וְחׇגְלָ֧ה וּמִלְכָּ֛ה וְנֹעָ֖ה בְּנ֣וֹת צְלׇפְחָ֑ד לִבְנֵ֥י דֹדֵיהֶ֖ן לְנָשִֽׁים׃ יב מִֽמִּשְׁפְּחֹ֛ת בְּנֵֽי־מְנַשֶּׁ֥ה בֶן־יוֹסֵ֖ף הָי֣וּ לְנָשִׁ֑ים וַתְּהִי֙ נַחֲלָתָ֔ן עַל־מַטֵּ֖ה מִשְׁפַּ֥חַת אֲבִיהֶֽן׃ יג אֵ֣לֶּה הַמִּצְוֺ֞ת וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁ֖ה אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּעַֽרְבֹ֣ת מוֹאָ֔ב עַ֖ל יַרְדֵּ֥ן יְרֵחֽוֹ׃
10 As YHVH had commanded Mosheh, thus did the daughters of Tselofḥad. 11 They became, Maḥlah, Tirtsah, Ḥoglah, Milkah and No’ah, the daughters of Tselofḥad, wives for the sons of their uncles, 12 in the clans of the Sons of Menasheh son of Yosef they became wives, so that their inheritance went along with the tribe of the clan of their father. 13 These are the commandments and the regulations that YHVH commanded by the hand of Mosheh to the Children of Yisra’el, in the Plains of Moav, by Yarden-Yereḥo.

The Masoretic text presented here is from Rabbi Dr. Seth (Avi) Kadish’s Miqra al pi ha-Mesorah. For the translation in English, I have adapted the translation of Everett Fox in the Schocken Bible (1997), mostly to re-Hebraize divine names, place names, and personal names. Instead of “gods,” I use “deities.” Instead of “cattle,” I have used “grazing-animals” and instead of “animals,” I have “living creatures.” Aside from these, I have made minor punctuation changes.

Notes   [ + ]

  1. The following itinerary list, summarizes stations and events from the perspective of the P author. The formulae are consistent: “They set out from….they camped at”, a travel log formula, which appears throughout the narratives of Exodus – Numbers. In some instances the verses repeat the travel information recorded in / added to these narratives word for word. The events mentioned explicitly are the plague of the first born (Exodus 12:29-36), the well of Elim (Exodus 16:27), the lack of water at Rephidim (17:1-7), the death of Aaron (Numbers 20:22-29), and the war with Canaanite king of Arad (Numbers 21:1-3). The important events such as the parting of the Reed Sea and the revelation at Mount Sinai, are not recorded, there is no need, since these are the seminal events of Israelite history, and were undoubtedly very familiar. It seems likely that these events were chosen as typical of the desert sojourn, lack of water, wells, leadership, and war. Note that the events recorded in this chapter are only alluded to, i.e., the author assumes knowledge of these occurrences.
  2. The issue of daughters inheriting which was brought up by the daughters of Tzelophchad in Numbers 27:1ff (H), has a legal corollary, that of Tzelophchad’s portion in the land, going to a non-Menassite family, following the marriage of the daughters of Tzelophchad, this is neatly solved by marrying the daughters of Tzelophchad to their cousins. The genre of legal corollaries in the Pentateuch is relatively rare, and reflects a mindset which views the already imparted law code as sacrosanct but not completely understood and worthy of debate, i.e. a later almost rabbinic mindset, compare the sin-offering at the conclusion of Leviticus 10, which was burnt when Moses’ thought it shouldn’t be – the only source that fits the bill is H, which continually seeks to elucidate and refine the previous Priestly laws.

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