The Supplementary Hypothesis asserts that the Pentateuch was composed by several different writers. This reflects an overwhelming academic consensus on Biblical authorship, even among scholars who do not subscribe to the Supplementary Hypothesis in particular.[….] According to the Supplementary Hypothesis, Biblical narrative is layered. No editor took a blowtorch to the parts of the Bible he disagreed with and destroyed them; if he had, we would not find these repetitions and contradictions. Instead, Biblical narrative began with a coherent, foundational bedrock, which over time accreted more and more storylines. Unlike geological processes, though, this process of addition was deliberate. What happened if one author disagreed with his predecessor’s storyline or worldview? He did not simply take an axe to the narrative; instead, he attempted to bury his predecessor’s point of view by repeating his own over and over again, thus skewing our understanding of the story in new ways. Every generation of readers sees the world differently, and thus every generation of writers seeks to adapt their predecessors’ cultural heritage to their own situation. We are not meant simply to dismiss earlier stories; rather, the intention of later writers is to transform our understanding of those stories via their additions.
⬛ The oldest layer appearing in Parashat Toldōt is thought to have been composed in the late 8th or early 7th century BCE in the southern Kingdom of Judah. This layer, commonly known as ‘J’, is indicated with a BLUE text. (The earliest layer of narrative in the Torah does not appear in Parashat Toldōt.)
⬛ The next strata, thought to have been composed during the exilic to early post-exilic period (571–486 BCE) is, as Dr. Yoreh explains, “responsible for supplementing the ‘J’ narrative with dates, names, and numbers, thus ‘ordering’ and authenticating ‘J’s account.” This layer, commonly referred to as ‘P’ (for ‘Priestly’) appears here in GREEN text.
⬛ The next strata popularized Kohanite law for the remnant of Judah after the Temple was destroyed, and functioned as an intermediary between Kohanite lists and laws and the surrounding narrative. This layer, which Dr. Yoreh calls ‘H’ (for the ‘Holiness Code’) appears here in LIME-GREEN text, and only appears in Genesis in a few verses in this parashah.
Parashat Toldōt (Genesis 25:19-28:9) in the annual Torah reading cycle, is read on the first shabbat of the month of Kislev. The parashah is preceded by Ḥayyei Sarah (Genesis 23:1-25:18); parashat Vayetsei (Genesis 28:10-32:3) follows it.
|Source (Hebrew)||Translation (English)|
כה יט וְאֵ֛לֶּה תּוֹלְדֹ֥ת יִצְחָ֖ק בֶּן־אַבְרָהָ֑ם אַבְרָהָ֖ם הוֹלִ֥יד אֶת־יִצְחָֽק׃ כ וַיְהִ֤י יִצְחָק֙ בֶּן־אַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה בְּקַחְתּ֣וֹ אֶת־רִבְקָ֗ה בַּת־בְּתוּאֵל֙ הָֽאֲרַמִּ֔י מִפַּדַּ֖ן אֲרָ֑ם אֲח֛וֹת לָבָ֥ן הָאֲרַמִּ֖י ל֥וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה׃ כא וַיֶּעְתַּ֨ר יִצְחָ֤ק לַֽיהֹוָה֙ לְנֹ֣כַח אִשְׁתּ֔וֹ כִּ֥י עֲקָרָ֖ה הִ֑וא וַיֵּעָ֤תֶר לוֹ֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה וַתַּ֖הַר רִבְקָ֥ה אִשְׁתּֽוֹ׃ כב וַיִּתְרֹֽצְצ֤וּ הַבָּנִים֙ בְּקִרְבָּ֔הּ וַתֹּ֣אמֶר אִם־כֵּ֔ן לָ֥מָּה זֶּ֖ה אָנֹ֑כִי וַתֵּ֖לֶךְ לִדְרֹ֥שׁ אֶת־יְהֹוָֽה׃
25 19 Now these are the progeny of Yitsḥaq, son of Avraham. Avraham fathered Yitsḥaq. 20 Yitsḥaq was forty years old when he took Rivqah daughter of Betuel the Arami, from the country of Aram, sister of Lavan the Arami, for himself as a wife. The deaths of Abraham and Ishmael close the Priestly Abraham cycle. The life summaries of Abraham and Ishmael impart the basic information P finds so important, namely ages, names, and places of habitation. This detailed information imparts an authenticity to P absent in the action oriented Yahwistic and Elohistic narrative. Note the reference to the Cave of Machpelah (vss. 8-10), which was bought in the Priestly narrative of Chapter 23. 21 Yitsḥaq entreated YHVH on behalf of his wife, for she was barren, and YHVH granted-his-entreaty: Rivqah his wife became pregnant. 22 But the children almost crushed one another inside her, so she said: ‘If this be so, why do I exist?’ And she went to inquire of YHVH.
כג וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה לָ֗הּ
שְׁנֵ֤י [גיים] גוֹיִם֙ בְּבִטְנֵ֔ךְ
וּשְׁנֵ֣י לְאֻמִּ֔ים מִמֵּעַ֖יִךְ יִפָּרֵ֑דוּ
וּלְאֹם֙ מִלְאֹ֣ם יֶֽאֱמָ֔ץ
וְרַ֖ב יַעֲבֹ֥ד צָעִֽיר׃
23 YHVH said to her:
“Two nations are in your body,
two tribes from your belly shall be divided;
tribe shall be mightier than tribe,
elder shall be servant to younger!”
כד וַיִּמְלְא֥וּ יָמֶ֖יהָ לָלֶ֑דֶת וְהִנֵּ֥ה תוֹמִ֖ם בְּבִטְנָֽהּ׃ כה וַיֵּצֵ֤א הָרִאשׁוֹן֙ אַדְמוֹנִ֔י כֻּלּ֖וֹ כְּאַדֶּ֣רֶת שֵׂעָ֑ר וַיִּקְרְא֥וּ שְׁמ֖וֹ עֵשָֽׂו׃ כו וְאַֽחֲרֵי־כֵ֞ן יָצָ֣א אָחִ֗יו וְיָד֤וֹ אֹחֶ֙זֶת֙ בַּעֲקֵ֣ב עֵשָׂ֔ו וַיִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ יַעֲקֹ֑ב וְיִצְחָ֛ק בֶּן־שִׁשִּׁ֥ים שָׁנָ֖ה בְּלֶ֥דֶת אֹתָֽם׃
24 When her days were fulfilled for bearing, here: twins were in her body! 25 The first one came out ruddy, like a hairy mantle all over, so they called his name: ‘Esav/Rough-one.’ 26 After that his brother came out, his hand grasping Esav’s heel, so they called his name: ‘Yaaqov/Heel-holder.’ Note the abrupt change of style from informational to narratival. One of the functions of this narrative is to explain the origin of Jacob and Esau’s names. Jacob will be the name used by J throughout the book of Genesis. In P and E the name Israel is used as well, following the name change narratives in each of these sources (Chapters 32 and 35). Yitsḥaq was sixty years old when she bore them. Quantitative information typical to P.
כז וַֽיִּגְדְּלוּ֙ הַנְּעָרִ֔ים וַיְהִ֣י עֵשָׂ֗ו אִ֛ישׁ יֹדֵ֥עַ צַ֖יִד אִ֣ישׁ שָׂדֶ֑ה וְיַעֲקֹב֙ אִ֣ישׁ תָּ֔ם יֹשֵׁ֖ב אֹהָלִֽים׃ כח וַיֶּאֱהַ֥ב יִצְחָ֛ק אֶת־עֵשָׂ֖ו כִּי־צַ֣יִד בְּפִ֑יו וְרִבְקָ֖ה אֹהֶ֥בֶת אֶֽת־יַעֲקֹֽב׃ כט וַיָּ֥זֶד יַעֲקֹ֖ב נָזִ֑יד וַיָּבֹ֥א עֵשָׂ֛ו מִן־הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה וְה֥וּא עָיֵֽף׃ ל וַיֹּ֨אמֶר עֵשָׂ֜ו אֶֽל־יַעֲקֹ֗ב הַלְעִיטֵ֤נִי נָא֙ מִן־הָאָדֹ֤ם הָאָדֹם֙ הַזֶּ֔ה כִּ֥י עָיֵ֖ף אָנֹ֑כִי עַל־כֵּ֥ן קָרָֽא־שְׁמ֖וֹ אֱדֽוֹם׃
27 The lads grew up: Esav became a man who knew the hunt, a man of the field, but Yaaqov was a plain man, staying among the tents. 28 Yitsḥaq grew to love Esav, for (he brought) hunted-prey for his mouth, but Rivqah loved Yaaqov. 29 Once Yaaqov was boiling boiled-stew, when Esav came in from the field, and he was weary. 30 Esav said to Yaaqov: “Pray give me a gulp of the red-stuff, that red-stuff, for I am so weary!” Therefore they called his name: ‘Edom/Red-one.’
לא וַיֹּ֖אמֶר יַעֲקֹ֑ב מִכְרָ֥ה כַיּ֛וֹם אֶת־בְּכֹרָתְךָ֖ לִֽי׃
31 Yaaqov said: “Sell me your firstborn-right here-and-now.”
לב וַיֹּ֣אמֶר עֵשָׂ֔ו הִנֵּ֛ה אָנֹכִ֥י הוֹלֵ֖ךְ לָמ֑וּת וְלָמָּה־זֶּ֥ה לִ֖י בְּכֹרָֽה׃
32 Esav said: “Here, I am on my way to dying, so what good to me is a firstborn-right?”
לג וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יַעֲקֹ֗ב הִשָּׁ֤בְעָה לִּי֙ כַּיּ֔וֹם
33 Yaaqov said: “Swear to me here-and-now.”
וַיִּשָּׁבַ֖ע ל֑וֹ וַיִּמְכֹּ֥ר אֶת־בְּכֹרָת֖וֹ לְיַעֲקֹֽב׃ לד וְיַעֲקֹ֞ב נָתַ֣ן לְעֵשָׂ֗ו לֶ֚חֶם וּנְזִ֣יד עֲדָשִׁ֔ים וַיֹּ֣אכַל וַיֵּ֔שְׁתְּ וַיָּ֖קׇם וַיֵּלַ֑ךְ וַיִּ֥בֶז עֵשָׂ֖ו אֶת־הַבְּכֹרָֽה׃
He swore to him and sold his firstborn-right to Yaaqov. 34 Yaaqov gave Esav bread and boiled lentils; he ate and drank and arose and went off. Thus did Esav despise the firstborn-right. The Israelite heroes are painted in varied colors in J. Abraham is described as an opportunist, Jacob is depicted here as a thief and liar, and Joseph as a pompous young boy.
כו א וַיְהִ֤י רָעָב֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ מִלְּבַד֙ הָרָעָ֣ב הָרִאשׁ֔וֹן אֲשֶׁ֥ר הָיָ֖ה בִּימֵ֣י אַבְרָהָ֑ם וַיֵּ֧לֶךְ יִצְחָ֛ק אֶל־אֲבִימֶ֥לֶךְ מֶֽלֶךְ־פְּלִשְׁתִּ֖ים גְּרָֽרָה׃ ב וַיֵּרָ֤א אֵלָיו֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אַל־תֵּרֵ֣ד מִצְרָ֑יְמָה שְׁכֹ֣ן בָּאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֖ר אֹמַ֥ר אֵלֶֽיךָ׃ ג גּ֚וּר בָּאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את וְאֶֽהְיֶ֥ה עִמְּךָ֖ וַאֲבָרְכֶ֑ךָּ כִּֽי־לְךָ֣ וּֽלְזַרְעֲךָ֗ אֶתֵּן֙ אֶת־כׇּל־הָֽאֲרָצֹ֣ת הָאֵ֔ל וַהֲקִֽמֹתִי֙ אֶת־הַשְּׁבֻעָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֖עְתִּי לְאַבְרָהָ֥ם אָבִֽיךָ׃ ד וְהִרְבֵּיתִ֤י אֶֽת־זַרְעֲךָ֙ כְּכוֹכְבֵ֣י הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וְנָתַתִּ֣י לְזַרְעֲךָ֔ אֵ֥ת כׇּל־הָאֲרָצֹ֖ת הָאֵ֑ל וְהִתְבָּרְכ֣וּ בְזַרְעֲךָ֔ כֹּ֖ל גּוֹיֵ֥י הָאָֽרֶץ׃ ה עֵ֕קֶב אֲשֶׁר־שָׁמַ֥ע אַבְרָהָ֖ם בְּקֹלִ֑י וַיִּשְׁמֹר֙ מִשְׁמַרְתִּ֔י מִצְוֺתַ֖י חֻקּוֹתַ֥י וְתוֹרֹתָֽי׃
26 1 Now there was a famine in the land, aside from the former famine which there had been in the days of Avraham, so Yitsḥaq went to Avimelekh, king of the Plishtim, to Gerar. 2 And YHVH was seen by him and said: “Do not go down to Mitsrayim; continue to dwell in the land that I tell you of, 3 sojourn in this land, and I will be with you and will give you blessing – for to you and to your seed I give all these lands and will fulfill the sworn-oath that I swore to Avraham your father: 4 I will make your seed many, like the stars of the heavens, and to your seed I will give all these lands; all the nations of the earth shall enjoy blessing through your seed – 5 in consequence of Avraham’s hearkening to my voice and keeping my charge: my commandments, my laws, and my instructions.”
שני ו וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב יִצְחָ֖ק בִּגְרָֽר׃ ז וַֽיִּשְׁאֲל֞וּ אַנְשֵׁ֤י הַמָּקוֹם֙ לְאִשְׁתּ֔וֹ וַיֹּ֖אמֶר אֲחֹ֣תִי הִ֑וא כִּ֤י יָרֵא֙ לֵאמֹ֣ר אִשְׁתִּ֔י פֶּן־יַֽהַרְגֻ֜נִי אַנְשֵׁ֤י הַמָּקוֹם֙ עַל־רִבְקָ֔ה כִּֽי־טוֹבַ֥ת מַרְאֶ֖ה הִֽוא׃ ח וַיְהִ֗י כִּ֣י אָֽרְכוּ־ל֥וֹ שָׁם֙ הַיָּמִ֔ים וַיַּשְׁקֵ֗ף אֲבִימֶ֙לֶךְ֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים בְּעַ֖ד הַֽחַלּ֑וֹן וַיַּ֗רְא וְהִנֵּ֤ה יִצְחָק֙ מְצַחֵ֔ק אֵ֖ת רִבְקָ֥ה אִשְׁתּֽוֹ׃ ט וַיִּקְרָ֨א אֲבִימֶ֜לֶךְ לְיִצְחָ֗ק וַיֹּ֙אמֶר֙ אַ֣ךְ הִנֵּ֤ה אִשְׁתְּךָ֙ הִ֔וא וְאֵ֥יךְ אָמַ֖רְתָּ אֲחֹ֣תִי הִ֑וא וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ יִצְחָ֔ק כִּ֣י אָמַ֔רְתִּי פֶּן־אָמ֖וּת עָלֶֽיהָ׃ י וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲבִימֶ֔לֶךְ מַה־זֹּ֖את עָשִׂ֣יתָ לָּ֑נוּ כִּ֠מְעַ֠ט שָׁכַ֞ב אַחַ֤ד הָעָם֙ אֶת־אִשְׁתֶּ֔ךָ וְהֵבֵאתָ֥ עָלֵ֖ינוּ אָשָֽׁם׃ יא וַיְצַ֣ו אֲבִימֶ֔לֶךְ אֶת־כׇּל־הָעָ֖ם לֵאמֹ֑ר הַנֹּגֵ֜עַ בָּאִ֥ישׁ הַזֶּ֛ה וּבְאִשְׁתּ֖וֹ מ֥וֹת יוּמָֽת׃
6 So Yitsḥaq stayed in Gerar. 7 Now when the men of the place asked about his wife, he said: “She is my sister,” for he was afraid to say: ‘my wife’ – (thinking): ‘Otherwise the people of the place will kill me on account of Rivqah, for she is beautiful to look at.’ 8 But it was, when he had been there a long time, that Avimelekh, king of the Plishtim, looked out through a window and saw: there was Yitsḥaq laughing-and-loving with Rivqah his wife! 9 Avimelekh had Yitsḥaq called and said: “But here, she must be your wife! Now how could you say: ‘She is my sister?'” Yitsḥaq said to him: “Indeed, I said to myself: ‘Otherwise I will die on account of her!’ 10 Avimelekh said: “What is this that you have done to us! One of the people might well have lain with your wife, and then you would have brought guilt upon us!” 11 Avimelekh commanded the entire people, saying: “Whoever touches this man or his wife must be put to death, yes, death!”
יב וַיִּזְרַ֤ע יִצְחָק֙ בָּאָ֣רֶץ הַהִ֔וא וַיִּמְצָ֛א בַּשָּׁנָ֥ה הַהִ֖וא מֵאָ֣ה שְׁעָרִ֑ים וַֽיְבָרְכֵ֖הוּ יְהֹוָֽה׃ שלישי יג וַיִּגְדַּ֖ל הָאִ֑ישׁ וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ הָלוֹךְ֙ וְגָדֵ֔ל עַ֥ד כִּֽי־גָדַ֖ל מְאֹֽד׃ יד וַֽיְהִי־ל֤וֹ מִקְנֵה־צֹאן֙ וּמִקְנֵ֣ה בָקָ֔ר וַעֲבֻדָּ֖ה רַבָּ֑ה וַיְקַנְא֥וּ אֹת֖וֹ פְּלִשְׁתִּֽים׃ טו וְכׇל־הַבְּאֵרֹ֗ת אֲשֶׁ֤ר חָֽפְרוּ֙ עַבְדֵ֣י אָבִ֔יו בִּימֵ֖י אַבְרָהָ֣ם אָבִ֑יו סִתְּמ֣וּם פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים וַיְמַלְא֖וּם עָפָֽר׃
12 Yitsḥaq sowed in that land, and reaped in that year a hundred measures; thus did YHVH bless him. 13 The man became great, and went on, went on becoming greater, until he was exceedingly great: 14 he had herds of sheep and herds of oxen and a large retinue-of-servants, and the Plishtim envied him. 15 And all the wells which his father’s servants had dug in the days of Avraham his father, the Plishtim stopped up and filled with earth.
טז וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֲבִימֶ֖לֶךְ אֶל־יִצְחָ֑ק לֵ֚ךְ מֵֽעִמָּ֔נוּ כִּֽי־עָצַ֥מְתָּ מִמֶּ֖נּוּ מְאֹֽד׃ יז וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ מִשָּׁ֖ם יִצְחָ֑ק וַיִּ֥חַן בְּנַֽחַל־גְּרָ֖ר וַיֵּ֥שֶׁב שָֽׁם׃ יח וַיָּ֨שׇׁב יִצְחָ֜ק וַיַּחְפֹּ֣ר ׀ אֶת־בְּאֵרֹ֣ת הַמַּ֗יִם אֲשֶׁ֤ר חָֽפְרוּ֙ בִּימֵי֙ אַבְרָהָ֣ם אָבִ֔יו וַיְסַתְּמ֣וּם פְּלִשְׁתִּ֔ים אַחֲרֵ֖י מ֣וֹת אַבְרָהָ֑ם וַיִּקְרָ֤א לָהֶן֙ שֵׁמ֔וֹת כַּשֵּׁמֹ֕ת אֲשֶׁר־קָרָ֥א לָהֶ֖ן אָבִֽיו׃ יט וַיַּחְפְּר֥וּ עַבְדֵֽי־יִצְחָ֖ק בַּנָּ֑חַל וַיִּ֨מְצְאוּ־שָׁ֔ם בְּאֵ֖ר מַ֥יִם חַיִּֽים׃ כ וַיָּרִ֜יבוּ רֹעֵ֣י גְרָ֗ר עִם־רֹעֵ֥י יִצְחָ֛ק לֵאמֹ֖ר לָ֣נוּ הַמָּ֑יִם וַיִּקְרָ֤א שֵֽׁם־הַבְּאֵר֙ עֵ֔שֶׂק כִּ֥י הִֽתְעַשְּׂק֖וּ עִמּֽוֹ׃ כא וַֽיַּחְפְּרוּ֙ בְּאֵ֣ר אַחֶ֔רֶת וַיָּרִ֖יבוּ גַּם־עָלֶ֑יהָ וַיִּקְרָ֥א שְׁמָ֖הּ שִׂטְנָֽה׃ כב וַיַּעְתֵּ֣ק מִשָּׁ֗ם וַיַּחְפֹּר֙ בְּאֵ֣ר אַחֶ֔רֶת וְלֹ֥א רָב֖וּ עָלֶ֑יהָ וַיִּקְרָ֤א שְׁמָהּ֙ רְחֹב֔וֹת וַיֹּ֗אמֶר כִּֽי־עַתָּ֞ה הִרְחִ֧יב יְהֹוָ֛ה לָ֖נוּ וּפָרִ֥ינוּ בָאָֽרֶץ׃
16 Avimelekh said to Yitsḥaq: “Go away from us, for you have become exceedingly more mighty (in number) than we!” 17 So Yitsḥaq went from there, he encamped in the wadi of Gerar and settled there. 18 Yitsḥaq again dug up the wells of water which had been dug in the days of Avraham his father, the Plishtim having stopped them up after Avraham’s death, and he called them by the names, the same names, by which his father had called them. 19 Yitsḥaq’s servants also dug in the wadi, and found there a well of living water. 20 Now the shepherds of Gerar quarreled with the shepherds of Yitsḥaq, saying: “The water is ours!” So he called the name of the well: ‘Eseq/Bickering,’ because they had bickered with him. 21 They dug another well, and quarreled also over it, so he called its name: ‘Sitna/Animosity.’ 22 He moved on from there and dug another well, but they did not quarrel over it, so he called its name: ‘Reḥovot/Space,’ and said: “Indeed, now YHVH has made space for us, so that we may bear fruit in the land!”
רביעי כג וַיַּ֥עַל מִשָּׁ֖ם בְּאֵ֥ר שָֽׁבַע׃ כד וַיֵּרָ֨א אֵלָ֤יו יְהֹוָה֙ בַּלַּ֣יְלָה הַה֔וּא וַיֹּ֕אמֶר אָנֹכִ֕י אֱלֹהֵ֖י אַבְרָהָ֣ם אָבִ֑יךָ אַל־תִּירָא֙ כִּֽי־אִתְּךָ֣ אָנֹ֔כִי וּבֵֽרַכְתִּ֙יךָ֙ וְהִרְבֵּיתִ֣י אֶֽת־זַרְעֲךָ֔ בַּעֲב֖וּר אַבְרָהָ֥ם עַבְדִּֽי׃ כה וַיִּ֧בֶן שָׁ֣ם מִזְבֵּ֗חַ וַיִּקְרָא֙ בְּשֵׁ֣ם יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיֶּט־שָׁ֖ם אׇהֳל֑וֹ וַיִּכְרוּ־שָׁ֥ם עַבְדֵי־יִצְחָ֖ק בְּאֵֽר׃ כו וַאֲבִימֶ֕לֶךְ הָלַ֥ךְ אֵלָ֖יו מִגְּרָ֑ר וַאֲחֻזַּת֙ מֵֽרֵעֵ֔הוּ וּפִיכֹ֖ל שַׂר־צְבָאֽוֹ׃ כז וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֲלֵהֶם֙ יִצְחָ֔ק מַדּ֖וּעַ בָּאתֶ֣ם אֵלָ֑י וְאַתֶּם֙ שְׂנֵאתֶ֣ם אֹתִ֔י וַתְּשַׁלְּח֖וּנִי מֵאִתְּכֶֽם׃ כח וַיֹּאמְר֗וּ רָא֣וֹ רָאִ֘ינוּ֮ כִּֽי־הָיָ֣ה יְהֹוָ֣ה ׀ עִמָּךְ֒ וַנֹּ֗אמֶר תְּהִ֨י נָ֥א אָלָ֛ה בֵּינוֹתֵ֖ינוּ בֵּינֵ֣ינוּ וּבֵינֶ֑ךָ וְנִכְרְתָ֥ה בְרִ֖ית עִמָּֽךְ׃ כט אִם־תַּעֲשֵׂ֨ה עִמָּ֜נוּ רָעָ֗ה כַּאֲשֶׁר֙ לֹ֣א נְגַֽעֲנ֔וּךָ וְכַאֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשִׂ֤ינוּ עִמְּךָ֙ רַק־ט֔וֹב וַנְּשַׁלֵּֽחֲךָ֖ בְּשָׁל֑וֹם אַתָּ֥ה עַתָּ֖ה בְּר֥וּךְ יְהֹוָֽה׃ חמישי ל וַיַּ֤עַשׂ לָהֶם֙ מִשְׁתֶּ֔ה וַיֹּאכְל֖וּ וַיִּשְׁתּֽוּ׃ לא וַיַּשְׁכִּ֣ימוּ בַבֹּ֔קֶר וַיִּשָּׁבְע֖וּ אִ֣ישׁ לְאָחִ֑יו וַיְשַׁלְּחֵ֣ם יִצְחָ֔ק וַיֵּלְכ֥וּ מֵאִתּ֖וֹ בְּשָׁלֽוֹם׃ לב וַיְהִ֣י ׀ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֗וּא וַיָּבֹ֙אוּ֙ עַבְדֵ֣י יִצְחָ֔ק וַיַּגִּ֣דוּ ל֔וֹ עַל־אֹד֥וֹת הַבְּאֵ֖ר אֲשֶׁ֣ר חָפָ֑רוּ וַיֹּ֥אמְרוּ ל֖וֹ מָצָ֥אנוּ מָֽיִם׃ לג וַיִּקְרָ֥א אֹתָ֖הּ שִׁבְעָ֑ה עַל־כֵּ֤ן שֵׁם־הָעִיר֙ בְּאֵ֣ר שֶׁ֔בַע עַ֖ד הַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃
23 He went up from there to Be’er-shava. 24 Now YHVH was seen by him on that night and said: “I am the elo’ah of Avraham your father. Do not be afraid, for I am with you, I will bless you and will make your seed many, for the sake of Avraham my servant.” 25 He built a place-for-slaughter there and called out the name of YHVH. He spread his tent there, and Yitsḥaq’s servants excavated a well there. 26 Now Avimelekh went to him from Gerar, along with Aḥuzzat his aide and Pikhol the commander of his army. 27 Yitsḥaq said to them: “Why have you come to me? For you hate me and have sent me away from you!” 28 They said: “We have seen, yes, seen that YHVH has been with you, so we say: ‘Pray let there be an oath-curse between us, between us and you, we want to cut a covenant with you:’ 29 If ever you should deal badly with us . . . ! Just as we have not harmed you and just as we have only dealt well with you and have sent you away in peace – you are now blessed by YHVH!” 30 He made them a drinking-feast, and they ate and drank. 31 Early in the morning they swore (an oath) to one another; then Yitsḥaq sent them off, and they went from him in peace. 32 Now it was on that same day that Yitsḥaq’s servants came and told him about the well that they had been digging, they said to him: “We have found water!” 33 So he called it: ‘Shiv’ah/Swearing-seven’; therefore the name of the city is Be’er-shava until this day. This chapter reworks themes from the Abraham cycle and is basically a narrative filler fabricated by J to link the two pillars Abraham and Jacob (Isaac was killed in Chapter 22 (E) and was resuscitated by J to create an unbroken genealogical chain between Abraham and Jacob). Isaac presents Rebecca as his sister just like Abraham did (Chapters 12, 20). The Philistines and Isaac fight over wells Abraham dug (Chapter 21). Isaac strikes a bargain with Abimelech like his father did in Chapter 21. Isaac does not leave Canaan contrary to his father Abraham.
לד וַיְהִ֤י עֵשָׂו֙ בֶּן־אַרְבָּעִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וַיִּקַּ֤ח אִשָּׁה֙ אֶת־יְהוּדִ֔ית בַּת־בְּאֵרִ֖י הַֽחִתִּ֑י וְאֶת־בָּ֣שְׂמַ֔ת בַּת־אֵילֹ֖ן הַֽחִתִּֽי׃ לה וַתִּהְיֶ֖יןָ מֹ֣רַת ר֑וּחַ לְיִצְחָ֖ק וּלְרִבְקָֽה׃
34 When Esav was forty years old, he took to wife Yehudit daughter of B’eri the Ḥitti and Ba’semat daughter of Elon the Ḥitti. 35 And they were a bitterness of spirit to Yitsḥaq and Rivqah. Detailed information typical to P (Esau’s age and wives).
כז א וַֽיְהִי֙ כִּֽי־זָקֵ֣ן יִצְחָ֔ק וַתִּכְהֶ֥יןָ עֵינָ֖יו מֵרְאֹ֑ת וַיִּקְרָ֞א אֶת־עֵשָׂ֣ו ׀ בְּנ֣וֹ הַגָּדֹ֗ל וַיֹּ֤אמֶר אֵלָיו֙ בְּנִ֔י
27 1 Now when Yitsḥaq was old and his eyes had become too dim for seeing, he called Esav, his elder son, and said to him: “My son!”
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֵלָ֖יו הִנֵּֽנִי׃
He said to him: “Here I am.”
ב וַיֹּ֕אמֶר הִנֵּה־נָ֖א זָקַ֑נְתִּי לֹ֥א יָדַ֖עְתִּי י֥וֹם מוֹתִֽי׃ ג וְעַתָּה֙ שָׂא־נָ֣א כֵלֶ֔יךָ תֶּלְיְךָ֖ וְקַשְׁתֶּ֑ךָ וְצֵא֙ הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה וְצ֥וּדָה לִּ֖י [צידה] צָֽיִד׃ ד וַעֲשֵׂה־לִ֨י מַטְעַמִּ֜ים כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר אָהַ֛בְתִּי וְהָבִ֥יאָה לִּ֖י וְאֹכֵ֑לָה בַּעֲב֛וּר תְּבָרֶכְךָ֥ נַפְשִׁ֖י בְּטֶ֥רֶם אָמֽוּת׃
2 He said: “Now here, I have grown old, and do not know the day of my death. 3 So now, pray pick up your weapons – your hanging-quiver and your bow, go out into the field and hunt me down some hunted-prey, 4 and make me a delicacy, such as I love; bring it to me, and I will eat it, that I may give you my own blessing before I die.”
ה וְרִבְקָ֣ה שֹׁמַ֔עַת בְּדַבֵּ֣ר יִצְחָ֔ק אֶל־עֵשָׂ֖ו בְּנ֑וֹ וַיֵּ֤לֶךְ עֵשָׂו֙ הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה לָצ֥וּד צַ֖יִד לְהָבִֽיא׃ ו וְרִבְקָה֙ אָֽמְרָ֔ה אֶל־יַעֲקֹ֥ב בְּנָ֖הּ לֵאמֹ֑ר הִנֵּ֤ה שָׁמַ֙עְתִּי֙ אֶת־אָבִ֔יךָ מְדַבֵּ֛ר אֶל־עֵשָׂ֥ו אָחִ֖יךָ לֵאמֹֽר׃ ז הָבִ֨יאָה לִּ֥י צַ֛יִד וַעֲשֵׂה־לִ֥י מַטְעַמִּ֖ים וְאֹכֵ֑לָה וַאֲבָרֶכְכָ֛ה לִפְנֵ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י מוֹתִֽי׃ ח וְעַתָּ֥ה בְנִ֖י שְׁמַ֣ע בְּקֹלִ֑י לַאֲשֶׁ֥ר אֲנִ֖י מְצַוָּ֥ה אֹתָֽךְ׃ ט לֶךְ־נָא֙ אֶל־הַצֹּ֔אן וְקַֽח־לִ֣י מִשָּׁ֗ם שְׁנֵ֛י גְּדָיֵ֥י עִזִּ֖ים טֹבִ֑ים וְאֶֽעֱשֶׂ֨ה אֹתָ֧ם מַטְעַמִּ֛ים לְאָבִ֖יךָ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר אָהֵֽב׃ י וְהֵבֵאתָ֥ לְאָבִ֖יךָ וְאָכָ֑ל בַּעֲבֻ֛ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר יְבָרֶכְךָ֖ לִפְנֵ֥י מוֹתֽוֹ׃
5 Now Rivqah was listening as Yitsḥaq spoke to Esav his son, and so when Esav went off into the fields to hunt down hunted-prey to bring (to him), 6 Rivqah said to Yaaqov her son, saying: “Here, I was listening as your father spoke to Esav your brother, saying: 7 ‘Bring me some hunted-prey and make me a delicacy, I will eat it and give you blessing before YHVH, before my death.’ 8 So now, my son, listen to my voice, to what I command you: 9 Pray go to the flock and take me two fine goat kids from there, I will make them into a delicacy for your father, such as he loves; 10 you bring it to your father, and he will eat, so that he may give you blessing before his death.”
יא וַיֹּ֣אמֶר יַעֲקֹ֔ב אֶל־רִבְקָ֖ה אִמּ֑וֹ הֵ֣ן עֵשָׂ֤ו אָחִי֙ אִ֣ישׁ שָׂעִ֔ר וְאָנֹכִ֖י אִ֥ישׁ חָלָֽק׃ יב אוּלַ֤י יְמֻשֵּׁ֙נִי֙ אָבִ֔י וְהָיִ֥יתִי בְעֵינָ֖יו כִּמְתַעְתֵּ֑עַ וְהֵבֵאתִ֥י עָלַ֛י קְלָלָ֖ה וְלֹ֥א בְרָכָֽה׃
11 Yaaqov said to Rivqah his mother: “Here, Esav my brother is a hairy man, and I am a smooth man, 12 perhaps my father will feel me – then I will be like a trickster in his eyes, and I will bring a curse and not a blessing on myself!”
יג וַתֹּ֤אמֶר לוֹ֙ אִמּ֔וֹ עָלַ֥י קִלְלָתְךָ֖ בְּנִ֑י אַ֛ךְ שְׁמַ֥ע בְּקֹלִ֖י וְלֵ֥ךְ קַֽח־לִֽי׃
13 His mother said to him: “Let your curse be on me, my son! Only: listen to my voice and go, take them for me.”
יד וַיֵּ֙לֶךְ֙ וַיִּקַּ֔ח וַיָּבֵ֖א לְאִמּ֑וֹ וַתַּ֤עַשׂ אִמּוֹ֙ מַטְעַמִּ֔ים כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר אָהֵ֥ב אָבִֽיו׃ טו וַתִּקַּ֣ח רִ֠בְקָ֠ה אֶת־בִּגְדֵ֨י עֵשָׂ֜ו בְּנָ֤הּ הַגָּדֹל֙ הַחֲמֻדֹ֔ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִתָּ֖הּ בַּבָּ֑יִת וַתַּלְבֵּ֥שׁ אֶֽת־יַעֲקֹ֖ב בְּנָ֥הּ הַקָּטָֽן׃ טז וְאֵ֗ת עֹרֹת֙ גְּדָיֵ֣י הָֽעִזִּ֔ים הִלְבִּ֖ישָׁה עַל־יָדָ֑יו וְעַ֖ל חֶלְקַ֥ת צַוָּארָֽיו׃ יז וַתִּתֵּ֧ן אֶת־הַמַּטְעַמִּ֛ים וְאֶת־הַלֶּ֖חֶם אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑תָה בְּיַ֖ד יַעֲקֹ֥ב בְּנָֽהּ׃
14 He went and took and brought them to his mother, and his mother made a delicacy, such as his father loved. 15 Rivqah then took the garments of Esav, her elder son, the choicest ones that were with her in the house, 16 and clothed Yaaqov, her younger son; and with the skins of the goat kids, she clothed his hands and the smooth-parts of his neck. 17 Then she placed the delicacy and the bread that she had made in the hand of Yaaqov her son.
יח וַיָּבֹ֥א אֶל־אָבִ֖יו וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אָבִ֑י
18 He came to his father and said: “Father!”
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר הִנֶּ֔נִּי מִ֥י אַתָּ֖ה בְּנִֽי׃
He said: “Here I am. Which one are you, my son?”
יט וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יַעֲקֹ֜ב אֶל־אָבִ֗יו אָנֹכִי֙ עֵשָׂ֣ו בְּכֹרֶ֔ךָ עָשִׂ֕יתִי כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתָּ אֵלָ֑י קֽוּם־נָ֣א שְׁבָ֗ה וְאׇכְלָה֙ מִצֵּידִ֔י בַּעֲב֖וּר תְּבָרְכַ֥נִּי נַפְשֶֽׁךָ׃
19 Yaaqov said to his father: “I am Esav, your firstborn. I have done as you spoke to me: Pray arise, sit and eat from my hunted-prey, that you may give me your own blessing.”
כ וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יִצְחָק֙ אֶל־בְּנ֔וֹ מַה־זֶּ֛ה מִהַ֥רְתָּ לִמְצֹ֖א בְּנִ֑י
20 Yitsḥaq said to his son: “How did you find it so hastily, my son?”
וַיֹּ֕אמֶר כִּ֥י הִקְרָ֛ה יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לְפָנָֽי׃
He said: “Indeed, YHVH your elo’ah made it happen for me.”
כא וַיֹּ֤אמֶר יִצְחָק֙ אֶֽל־יַעֲקֹ֔ב גְּשָׁה־נָּ֥א וַאֲמֻֽשְׁךָ֖ בְּנִ֑י הַֽאַתָּ֥ה זֶ֛ה בְּנִ֥י עֵשָׂ֖ו אִם־לֹֽא׃
21 Yitsḥaq said to Yaaqov: “Pray come closer, that I may feel you, my son, whether you are really my son Esav or not.”
כב וַיִּגַּ֧שׁ יַעֲקֹ֛ב אֶל־יִצְחָ֥ק אָבִ֖יו וַיְמֻשֵּׁ֑הוּ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הַקֹּל֙ ק֣וֹל יַעֲקֹ֔ב וְהַיָּדַ֖יִם יְדֵ֥י עֵשָֽׂו׃ כג וְלֹ֣א הִכִּיר֔וֹ כִּֽי־הָי֣וּ יָדָ֗יו כִּידֵ֛י עֵשָׂ֥ו אָחִ֖יו שְׂעִרֹ֑ת וַֽיְבָרְכֵֽהוּ׃ כד וַיֹּ֕אמֶר אַתָּ֥ה זֶ֖ה בְּנִ֣י עֵשָׂ֑ו
22 Yaaqov moved closer to Yitsḥaq his father. He felt him and said: “The voice is Yaaqov’s voice, the hands are Esav’s hands” – 23 but he did not recognize him, for his hands were like the hands of Esav his brother, hairy. Now he was about to bless him, 24 when he said: “Are you he, my son Esav?”
He said: “I am.”
כה וַיֹּ֗אמֶר הַגִּ֤שָׁה לִּי֙ וְאֹֽכְלָה֙ מִצֵּ֣יד בְּנִ֔י לְמַ֥עַן תְּבָֽרֶכְךָ֖ נַפְשִׁ֑י
25 So he said: “Bring it close to me, and I will eat from the hunted-prey of my son, in order that I may give you my own blessing.”
וַיַּגֶּשׁ־לוֹ֙ וַיֹּאכַ֔ל וַיָּ֧בֵא ל֦וֹ יַ֖יִן וַיֵּֽשְׁתְּ׃ כו וַיֹּ֥אמֶר אֵלָ֖יו יִצְחָ֣ק אָבִ֑יו גְּשָׁה־נָּ֥א וּשְׁקָה־לִּ֖י בְּנִֽי׃
He put it close to him and he ate, he brought him wine and he drank. 26 Then Yitsḥaq his father said to him: “Pray come close and kiss me, my son.”
כז וַיִּגַּשׁ֙ וַיִּשַּׁק־ל֔וֹ וַיָּ֛רַח אֶת־רֵ֥יחַ בְּגָדָ֖יו וַֽיְבָרְכֵ֑הוּ וַיֹּ֗אמֶר
רְאֵה֙ רֵ֣יחַ בְּנִ֔י
כְּרֵ֣יחַ שָׂדֶ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בֵּרְכ֖וֹ יְהֹוָֽה׃
ששי כח וְיִֽתֶּן־לְךָ֙ הָאֱלֹהִ֔ים מִטַּל֙ הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם
וְרֹ֥ב דָּגָ֖ן וְתִירֹֽשׁ׃
כט יַֽעַבְד֣וּךָ עַמִּ֗ים
[וישתחו] וְיִֽשְׁתַּחֲו֤וּ לְךָ֙ לְאֻמִּ֔ים
הֱוֵ֤ה גְבִיר֙ לְאַחֶ֔יךָ
וְיִשְׁתַּחֲו֥וּ לְךָ֖ בְּנֵ֣י אִמֶּ֑ךָ
27 He came close and kissed him. Now he smelled the smell of his garments and blessed him and said:
“See, the smell of my son
is like the smell of a field that YHVH has blessed.
28 So may Elohim give you from the dew of the heavens,
from the fat of the earth,
(along with) much grain and new-wine!
29 May peoples serve you,
may tribes bow down to you;
be master to your brothers,
may your mother’s sons bow down to you!
Those who damn you, damned!
Those who bless you, blessed!”
ל וַיְהִ֗י כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר כִּלָּ֣ה יִצְחָק֮ לְבָרֵ֣ךְ אֶֽת־יַעֲקֹב֒ וַיְהִ֗י אַ֣ךְ יָצֹ֤א יָצָא֙ יַעֲקֹ֔ב מֵאֵ֥ת פְּנֵ֖י יִצְחָ֣ק אָבִ֑יו וְעֵשָׂ֣ו אָחִ֔יו בָּ֖א מִצֵּידֽוֹ׃ לא וַיַּ֤עַשׂ גַּם־הוּא֙ מַטְעַמִּ֔ים וַיָּבֵ֖א לְאָבִ֑יו וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְאָבִ֗יו יָקֻ֤ם אָבִי֙ וְיֹאכַל֙ מִצֵּ֣יד בְּנ֔וֹ בַּעֲבֻ֖ר תְּבָרְכַ֥נִּי נַפְשֶֽׁךָ׃
30 Now it was, when Yitsḥaq had finished blessing Yaaqov, yes it was – Yaaqov had just gone out, out from the presence of Yitsḥaq his father – that Esav his brother came back from his hunting. 31 He too made a delicacy and brought it to his father. He said to his father: “Let my father arise and eat from the hunted-prey of his son, that you may give me your own blessing.”
לב וַיֹּ֥אמֶר ל֛וֹ יִצְחָ֥ק אָבִ֖יו מִי־אָ֑תָּה
32 Yitsḥaq his father said to him: “Which one are you?”
וַיֹּ֕אמֶר אֲנִ֛י בִּנְךָ֥ בְכֹֽרְךָ֖ עֵשָֽׂו׃
He said: “I am your son, your firstborn, Esav.”
לג וַיֶּחֱרַ֨ד יִצְחָ֣ק חֲרָדָה֮ גְּדֹלָ֣ה עַד־מְאֹד֒ וַיֹּ֡אמֶר מִֽי־אֵפ֡וֹא ה֣וּא הַצָּֽד־צַ֩יִד֩ וַיָּ֨בֵא לִ֜י וָאֹכַ֥ל מִכֹּ֛ל בְּטֶ֥רֶם תָּב֖וֹא וָאֲבָרְכֵ֑הוּ גַּם־בָּר֖וּךְ יִהְיֶֽה׃
33 Yitsḥaq trembled with very great trembling and said: “Who then was he that hunted down hunted-prey and brought it to me – I ate it all before you came and I gave him my blessing! Now blessed he must remain!”
לד כִּשְׁמֹ֤עַ עֵשָׂו֙ אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֣י אָבִ֔יו וַיִּצְעַ֣ק צְעָקָ֔ה גְּדֹלָ֥ה וּמָרָ֖ה עַד־מְאֹ֑ד וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְאָבִ֔יו בָּרְכֵ֥נִי גַם־אָ֖נִי אָבִֽי׃
34 When Esav heard the words of his father, he cried out with a very great and bitter cry, and said to his father: “Bless me, me also, father!”
לה וַיֹּ֕אמֶר בָּ֥א אָחִ֖יךָ בְּמִרְמָ֑ה וַיִּקַּ֖ח בִּרְכָתֶֽךָ׃
35 He said: “Your brother came with deceit and took away your blessing.”
לו וַיֹּ֡אמֶר הֲכִי֩ קָרָ֨א שְׁמ֜וֹ יַעֲקֹ֗ב וַֽיַּעְקְבֵ֙נִי֙ זֶ֣ה פַעֲמַ֔יִם אֶת־בְּכֹרָתִ֣י לָקָ֔ח וְהִנֵּ֥ה עַתָּ֖ה לָקַ֣ח בִּרְכָתִ֑י וַיֹּאמַ֕ר הֲלֹא־אָצַ֥לְתָּ לִּ֖י בְּרָכָֽה׃
36 He said: “Is that why his name was called ‘Yaaqov/Heel-sneak’? For he has now sneaked against me twice: My firstborn-right he took, and now he has taken my blessing!” And he said: “Haven’t you reserved a blessing for me?”
לז וַיַּ֨עַן יִצְחָ֜ק וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְעֵשָׂ֗ו הֵ֣ן גְּבִ֞יר שַׂמְתִּ֥יו לָךְ֙ וְאֶת־כׇּל־אֶחָ֗יו נָתַ֤תִּי לוֹ֙ לַעֲבָדִ֔ים וְדָגָ֥ן וְתִירֹ֖שׁ סְמַכְתִּ֑יו וּלְכָ֣ה אֵפ֔וֹא מָ֥ה אֶֽעֱשֶׂ֖ה בְּנִֽי׃
37 Yitsḥaq answered, saying to Esav: “Here, I have made him master to you, and all his brothers I have given him as servants, with grain and new-wine I have invested him – so for you, what then can I do, my son?”
לח וַיֹּ֨אמֶר עֵשָׂ֜ו אֶל־אָבִ֗יו הַֽבְרָכָ֨ה אַחַ֤ת הִֽוא־לְךָ֙ אָבִ֔י בָּרְכֵ֥נִי גַם־אָ֖נִי אָבִ֑י וַיִּשָּׂ֥א עֵשָׂ֛ו קֹל֖וֹ וַיֵּֽבְךְּ׃
38 Esav said to his father: “Have you only a single blessing, father? Bless me, me also, father!” And Esav lifted up his voice and wept.
לט וַיַּ֛עַן יִצְחָ֥ק אָבִ֖יו וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֑יו
הִנֵּ֞ה מִשְׁמַנֵּ֤י הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ יִהְיֶ֣ה מֽוֹשָׁבֶ֔ךָ
וּמִטַּ֥ל הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם מֵעָֽל׃
מ וְעַל־חַרְבְּךָ֣ תִֽחְיֶ֔ה וְאֶת־אָחִ֖יךָ תַּעֲבֹ֑ד
וְהָיָה֙ כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר תָּרִ֔יד
וּפָרַקְתָּ֥ עֻלּ֖וֹ מֵעַ֥ל צַוָּארֶֽךָ׃
39 Then Yitsḥaq his father answered, saying to him:
“Behold, from the fat of the earth must be your dwelling-place,
from the dew of the heavens above.
40 You will live by your sword, you will serve your brother.
But it will be that when you brandish it,
you will tear his yoke from your neck.”
מא וַיִּשְׂטֹ֤ם עֵשָׂו֙ אֶֽת־יַעֲקֹ֔ב עַ֨ל־הַבְּרָכָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר בֵּרְכ֖וֹ אָבִ֑יו וַיֹּ֨אמֶר עֵשָׂ֜ו בְּלִבּ֗וֹ יִקְרְבוּ֙ יְמֵי֙ אֵ֣בֶל אָבִ֔י וְאַֽהַרְגָ֖ה אֶת־יַעֲקֹ֥ב אָחִֽי׃
41 Now Esav held a grudge against Yaaqov because of the blessing with which his father had blessed him. Esav said in his heart: “Let the days of mourning for my father draw near and then I will kill Yaaqov my brother!”
מב וַיֻּגַּ֣ד לְרִבְקָ֔ה אֶת־דִּבְרֵ֥י עֵשָׂ֖ו בְּנָ֣הּ הַגָּדֹ֑ל וַתִּשְׁלַ֞ח וַתִּקְרָ֤א לְיַעֲקֹב֙ בְּנָ֣הּ הַקָּטָ֔ן וַתֹּ֣אמֶר אֵלָ֔יו הִנֵּה֙ עֵשָׂ֣ו אָחִ֔יךָ מִתְנַחֵ֥ם לְךָ֖ לְהׇרְגֶֽךָ׃ מג וְעַתָּ֥ה בְנִ֖י שְׁמַ֣ע בְּקֹלִ֑י וְק֧וּם בְּרַח־לְךָ֛ אֶל־לָבָ֥ן אָחִ֖י חָרָֽנָה׃ מד וְיָשַׁבְתָּ֥ עִמּ֖וֹ יָמִ֣ים אֲחָדִ֑ים עַ֥ד אֲשֶׁר־תָּשׁ֖וּב חֲמַ֥ת אָחִֽיךָ׃ מה עַד־שׁ֨וּב אַף־אָחִ֜יךָ מִמְּךָ֗ וְשָׁכַח֙ אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂ֣יתָ לּ֔וֹ וְשָׁלַחְתִּ֖י וּלְקַחְתִּ֣יךָ מִשָּׁ֑ם לָמָ֥ה אֶשְׁכַּ֛ל גַּם־שְׁנֵיכֶ֖ם י֥וֹם אֶחָֽד׃
42 Rivqah was told of the words of Esav, her elder son. She sent and called for Yaaqov, her younger son, and said to him: “Here, Esav your brother is consoling himself about you, with (the thought of) killing you. 43 So now, my son, listen to my voice: Arise and flee to Lavan my brother in Ḥarran, 44 and stay with him for some days, until your brother’s fury has turned away, 45 until his anger turns away from you and he forgets what you did to him. Then I will send and have you taken from there – for should I be bereaved of you both in a single day?” Jacob’s is described here as a trickster, further explaining Jacob’s name (עקב means to cheat in Biblical Hebrew).
מו וַתֹּ֤אמֶר רִבְקָה֙ אֶל־יִצְחָ֔ק קַ֣צְתִּי בְחַיַּ֔י מִפְּנֵ֖י בְּנ֣וֹת חֵ֑ת אִם־לֹקֵ֣חַ יַ֠עֲקֹ֠ב אִשָּׁ֨ה מִבְּנֽוֹת־חֵ֤ת כָּאֵ֙לֶּה֙ מִבְּנ֣וֹת הָאָ֔רֶץ לָ֥מָּה לִּ֖י חַיִּֽים׃
46 So Rivqah said to Yitsḥaq: “I loathe my life because of those Ḥet women ; if Yaaqov should take a wife from the Ḥet women – like these, from the women of the land, why should I have life?” The theme of Esau Hittite women is taken up from last chapter. If P is supplementary to J, then Rebeccah’s statement may be understood as subterfuge – she doesn’t want to tell Isaac that Esau wishes to kill Jacob (otherwise this text simply reflects P’s version of events).
כח א וַיִּקְרָ֥א יִצְחָ֛ק אֶֽל־יַעֲקֹ֖ב וַיְבָ֣רֶךְ אֹת֑וֹ וַיְצַוֵּ֙הוּ֙ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ל֔וֹ לֹֽא־תִקַּ֥ח אִשָּׁ֖ה מִבְּנ֥וֹת כְּנָֽעַן׃ ב ק֥וּם לֵךְ֙ פַּדֶּ֣נָֽה אֲרָ֔ם בֵּ֥יתָה בְתוּאֵ֖ל אֲבִ֣י אִמֶּ֑ךָ וְקַח־לְךָ֤ מִשָּׁם֙ אִשָּׁ֔ה מִבְּנ֥וֹת לָבָ֖ן אֲחִ֥י אִמֶּֽךָ׃ ג וְאֵ֤ל שַׁדַּי֙ יְבָרֵ֣ךְ אֹֽתְךָ֔ וְיַפְרְךָ֖ וְיַרְבֶּ֑ךָ וְהָיִ֖יתָ לִקְהַ֥ל עַמִּֽים׃ ד וְיִֽתֶּן־לְךָ֙ אֶת־בִּרְכַּ֣ת אַבְרָהָ֔ם לְךָ֖ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ֣ אִתָּ֑ךְ לְרִשְׁתְּךָ֙ אֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ מְגֻרֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַ֥ן אֱלֹהִ֖ים לְאַבְרָהָֽם׃ שביעי ה וַיִּשְׁלַ֤ח יִצְחָק֙ אֶֽת־יַעֲקֹ֔ב וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ פַּדֶּ֣נָֽה אֲרָ֑ם אֶל־לָבָ֤ן בֶּן־בְּתוּאֵל֙ הָֽאֲרַמִּ֔י אֲחִ֣י רִבְקָ֔ה אֵ֥ם יַעֲקֹ֖ב וְעֵשָֽׂו׃
28 1 So Yitsḥaq called for Yaaqov, he blessed him and commanded him, saying to him: “You are not to take a wife from the women of K’naan; 2 arise, go to the country of Aram, to the house of Betuel, your mother’s father, and take yourself a wife from there, from the daughters of Lavan, your mother’s brother. 3 May El Shaddai bless you, may he make you bear fruit and make you many, so that you become a host of peoples. 4 And may he give you the blessing of Avraham, to you and to your seed with you, for you to inherit the land of your sojournings, which Elohim gave to Avraham.” 5 So Yitsḥaq sent Yaaqov off; he went to the country of Aram, to Lavan son of Betuel the Arami, the brother of Rivqah, the mother of Yaaqov and Esav.
ו וַיַּ֣רְא עֵשָׂ֗ו כִּֽי־בֵרַ֣ךְ יִצְחָק֮ אֶֽת־יַעֲקֹב֒ וְשִׁלַּ֤ח אֹתוֹ֙ פַּדֶּ֣נָֽה אֲרָ֔ם לָקַֽחַת־ל֥וֹ מִשָּׁ֖ם אִשָּׁ֑ה בְּבָרְכ֣וֹ אֹת֔וֹ וַיְצַ֤ו עָלָיו֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר לֹֽא־תִקַּ֥ח אִשָּׁ֖ה מִבְּנ֥וֹת כְּנָֽעַן׃ מפטיר ז וַיִּשְׁמַ֣ע יַעֲקֹ֔ב אֶל־אָבִ֖יו וְאֶל־אִמּ֑וֹ וַיֵּ֖לֶךְ פַּדֶּ֥נָֽה אֲרָֽם׃ ח וַיַּ֣רְא עֵשָׂ֔ו כִּ֥י רָע֖וֹת בְּנ֣וֹת כְּנָ֑עַן בְּעֵינֵ֖י יִצְחָ֥ק אָבִֽיו׃ ט וַיֵּ֥לֶךְ עֵשָׂ֖ו אֶל־יִשְׁמָעֵ֑אל וַיִּקַּ֡ח אֶֽת־מָחֲלַ֣ת ׀ בַּת־יִשְׁמָעֵ֨אל בֶּן־אַבְרָהָ֜ם אֲח֧וֹת נְבָי֛וֹת עַל־נָשָׁ֖יו ל֥וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה׃
6 Now Esav saw that Yitsḥaq had given Yaaqov farewell-blessing and had sent him to the country of Aram, to take himself a wife from there, (and that) when he had given him blessing, he had commanded him, saying: “You are not to take a wife from the women of K’naan!” 7 And Yaaqov had listened to his father and his mother and had gone to the country of Aram. 8 And Esav saw that the women of K’naan were bad in the eyes of Yitsḥaq his father, 9 so Esav went to Yishmael and took Maḥalat daughter of Yishmael son of Avraham, sister of Nevayōt, in addition to his wives as a wife. This Priestly episode follows Rebecca’s complaint regarding Esau’s Hittite wives. Isaac commands Jacob to take a wife from his brother in law’s family. Note the use of El-Shadday (God Almighty) in vs. 3 as a divine name, particularly as a name connected with blessing, and compare its usage in the Priestly sections of Genesis 17 and 48.
The Masoretic text presented here is from Rabbi Dr. Seth (Avi) Kadish’s Miqra al pi ha-Mesorah. For the translation in English, I have adapted the translation of Everett Fox in the Schocken Bible (Everett Fox 1995), mostly to re-Hebraize divine names, place names, and personal names, but also to replace “hunted-game” with “hunted-prey,” “slaughter-place” with “place-for-slaughter,” and “begettings” with “progeny.” Aside from these, I have made minor punctuation changes. (To buy a print copy of the complete translation of The Schocken Bible vol. 1: The Five Books of Moses, visit Penguin/Random House.)
|1||The deaths of Abraham and Ishmael close the Priestly Abraham cycle. The life summaries of Abraham and Ishmael impart the basic information P finds so important, namely ages, names, and places of habitation. This detailed information imparts an authenticity to P absent in the action oriented Yahwistic and Elohistic narrative. Note the reference to the Cave of Machpelah (vss. 8-10), which was bought in the Priestly narrative of Chapter 23.|
|2||Note the abrupt change of style from informational to narratival. One of the functions of this narrative is to explain the origin of Jacob and Esau’s names. Jacob will be the name used by J throughout the book of Genesis. In P and E the name Israel is used as well, following the name change narratives in each of these sources (Chapters 32 and 35).|
|3||Quantitative information typical to P.|
|4||The Israelite heroes are painted in varied colors in J. Abraham is described as an opportunist, Jacob is depicted here as a thief and liar, and Joseph as a pompous young boy.|
|5||This chapter reworks themes from the Abraham cycle and is basically a narrative filler fabricated by J to link the two pillars Abraham and Jacob (Isaac was killed in Chapter 22 (E) and was resuscitated by J to create an unbroken genealogical chain between Abraham and Jacob). Isaac presents Rebecca as his sister just like Abraham did (Chapters 12, 20). The Philistines and Isaac fight over wells Abraham dug (Chapter 21). Isaac strikes a bargain with Abimelech like his father did in Chapter 21. Isaac does not leave Canaan contrary to his father Abraham.|
|6||Detailed information typical to P (Esau’s age and wives).|
|7||Jacob’s is described here as a trickster, further explaining Jacob’s name (עקב means to cheat in Biblical Hebrew).|
|8||The theme of Esau Hittite women is taken up from last chapter. If P is supplementary to J, then Rebeccah’s statement may be understood as subterfuge – she doesn’t want to tell Isaac that Esau wishes to kill Jacob (otherwise this text simply reflects P’s version of events).|
|9||This Priestly episode follows Rebecca’s complaint regarding Esau’s Hittite wives. Isaac commands Jacob to take a wife from his brother in law’s family. Note the use of El-Shadday (God Almighty) in vs. 3 as a divine name, particularly as a name connected with blessing, and compare its usage in the Priestly sections of Genesis 17 and 48.|
“📜 פָּרָשַׁת תּוֹלְדֹת | Parashat Toldōt (Genesis 25:19-28:9), color-coded according to its narrative layers” is shared through the Open Siddur Project under their Fair Use Right (17 U.S. Code §107 - Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use), in respect to the copyrighted material included. Any additional work that is not already in the Public Domain is shared under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.
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📜 פָּרָשַׁת לֶךְ־לְךָ | Parashat Lekh Lekha (Genesis 12:1-17:27), color-coded according to its narrative layers
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