בסיעתא דשמיא
//  Home  //   Public Readings, Sources, and Cantillation   //   Weekly Torah and Haftarah Readings   //   Annual Cycle   //   Sefer Devarim   //   Parashat Ki Tetsei
Search
Exact matches only

פָּרָשַׁת כִּי־תֵצֵא | Parashat Ki Tetsei (Deuteronomy 21:10-25:19), color-coded according to its narrative layers

https://opensiddur.org/?p=38628 פָּרָשַׁת כִּי־תֵצֵא | Parashat Ki Tetsei (Deuteronomy 21:10-25:19), color-coded according to its narrative layers 2021-08-17 03:59:50 The text of parashat Ki Tetsei, distinguished according to the stratigraphic layers of its composition according to the Supplementary Hypothesis. Text the Open Siddur Project Aharon N. Varady (transcription) Aharon N. Varady (transcription) Len Fellman (translation) Tzemaḥ Yoreh the Masoretic Text Masoretic layer 'D1' Masoretic layer 'D2' Masoretic layer 'Dp' https://opensiddur.org/copyright-policy/ Aharon N. Varady (transcription) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Sefer Devarim (Deuteronomy) Parashat Ki Tetsei צער באלי חיים tsa'ar baalei ḥayyim predation predatory gaze anti-predatory predatory nature sexual predation mythopoesis supplementary hypothesis annual Torah reading cycle פרשת השבוע Parashat haShavua redaction criticism פרשות parashot the Plains of Moav 7th century B.C.E. 34th century A.M. let's review כי־תצא Ki Tetsei
According to the poetry of the Midrash Tanḥuma, Bereshit 1:1, the words of the Torah were inscribed “black fire on white fire.” For many years, I’ve wanted to look deeply into the black fire and visualize the full spectrum of the Torah’s sources, hidden within the black fire but revealed through a critical analysis of its layers of redaction. Below, I’ve set the text of the Torah portion in the annual Torah reading cycle, using color-coding to distinguish the stratigraphic layers forming the composition of the Masoretic text according to the Supplementary Hypothesis presented by Tsemaḥ Yoreh in his Kernel to Canon series of books (2013-2017) and his website, the Sources of Biblical Narrative. As Dr. Yoreh explains,

The Supplementary Hypothesis asserts that the Pentateuch was composed by several different writers. This reflects an overwhelming academic consensus on Biblical authorship, even among scholars who do not subscribe to the Supplementary Hypothesis in particular.[….] According to the Supplementary Hypothesis, Biblical narrative is layered. No editor took a blowtorch to the parts of the Bible he disagreed with and destroyed them; if he had, we would not find these repetitions and contradictions. Instead, Biblical narrative began with a coherent, foundational bedrock, which over time accreted more and more storylines. Unlike geological processes, though, this process of addition was deliberate. What happened if one author disagreed with his predecessor’s storyline or worldview? He did not simply take an axe to the narrative; instead, he attempted to bury his predecessor’s point of view by repeating his own over and over again, thus skewing our understanding of the story in new ways. Every generation of readers sees the world differently, and thus every generation of writers seeks to adapt their predecessors’ cultural heritage to their own situation. We are not meant simply to dismiss earlier stories; rather, the intention of later writers is to transform our understanding of those stories via their additions.

Legend

Most of the book of Deuteronomy (sefer Devarim) is considered the composite of three layers of redaction, ‘D1,’ ‘D2,’ and ‘Dp.’ Together, these layers (commonly referred to as the ‘Deuteronomist’) are thought to have formed by a complex process that reached probably from the 7th century BCE to the early 5th.

⬛ This strata is primarily responsible for incorporating the law code of Deuteronomy into the Pentateuch. D1, as it is called, also adds a layer of redaction concerned with theodicy in the books of Joshua-Kings. D1 appears here in BLACK text.

⬛ This strata, called D2, shares a particularly non-Judean perspective following the split between the north (Ephraim/Yisrael) and the south (Yehudah) after the reign of Shlomo haMelekh, a perspective that was ignored by D1 (and successive authors). In Deuteronomy, D2 adds hortatory (sermons) to D1’s narrative introduction at the beginning of Deuteronomy (the focus of which is the observation of the commandments and divine justice), and otherwise supplements D1’s work. (A few verses in Parashat Bo in the book of Exodus are also attributed to D2.) D2 appears here in RUST-BROWN text.

⬛ This strata “reflects the strength and demands of the Jerusalem priesthood” following upon the reforms of King Yoshiyahu in the mid- to late 7th century BCE. The third Deuteronomist (and the latest) is the most easily identified, since they are the Deuteronomist most interested in Priestly themes such as purity, proper sacrifice, and the priests. This third Deuteronomist seems to have confined his additions to the book of Deuteronomy (almost exclusively confining himself to hortatory and laws). This layer, referred to as ‘Dp’ (for ‘Priestly’), appears here in DARK GREEN text.

Parashat Ki Tetsei (Deuteronomy 21:10-25:19) in the annual Torah reading cycle is the sixth parashah in Sefer Devarim. It is preceded by parashat Shōftim (Deuteronomy 16:18-21:9). Parashat Ki Tavō (Deuteronomy 26:1-29:8), follows it.

Source (Hebrew) Translation (English)
כא י כִּֽי־תֵצֵ֥א לַמִּלְחָמָ֖ה עַל־אֹיְבֶ֑יךָ וּנְתָנ֞וֹ יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ בְּיָדֶ֖ךָ וְשָׁבִ֥יתָ שִׁבְיֽוֹ׃ יא וְרָאִ֙יתָ֙ בַּשִּׁבְיָ֔ה אֵ֖שֶׁת יְפַת־תֹּ֑אַר וְחָשַׁקְתָּ֣ בָ֔הּ וְלָקַחְתָּ֥ לְךָ֖ לְאִשָּֽׁה׃ יב וַהֲבֵאתָ֖הּ אֶל־תּ֣וֹךְ בֵּיתֶ֑ךָ וְגִלְּחָה֙ אֶת־רֹאשָׁ֔הּ וְעָשְׂתָ֖ה אֶת־צִפׇּרְנֶֽיהָ׃ יג וְהֵסִ֩ירָה֩ אֶת־שִׂמְלַ֨ת שִׁבְיָ֜הּ מֵעָלֶ֗יהָ וְיָֽשְׁבָה֙ בְּבֵיתֶ֔ךָ וּבָ֥כְתָ֛ה אֶת־אָבִ֥יהָ וְאֶת־אִמָּ֖הּ יֶ֣רַח יָמִ֑ים וְאַ֨חַר כֵּ֜ן תָּב֤וֹא אֵלֶ֙יהָ֙ וּבְעַלְתָּ֔הּ וְהָיְתָ֥ה לְךָ֖ לְאִשָּֽׁה׃ יד וְהָיָ֞ה אִם־לֹ֧א חָפַ֣צְתָּ בָּ֗הּ וְשִׁלַּחְתָּהּ֙ לְנַפְשָׁ֔הּ וּמָכֹ֥ר לֹא־תִמְכְּרֶ֖נָּה בַּכָּ֑סֶף לֹא־תִתְעַמֵּ֣ר בָּ֔הּ תַּ֖חַת אֲשֶׁ֥ר עִנִּיתָֽהּ׃ {ס}
21 10 “When you go out to battle against your enemies, they will be given over by 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah into your hand; and you will take prisoners captive, 11 if you see among the captives a woman, beautiful of form, and you will desire her, and take her for yourself as a wife, 12 you shall bring her into your house, and she shall shave her head, and she will do her nails, 13 and she shall remove the garb of her captivity from herself, and remain in your house, and she will bewail her father and her mother for a month of days. After that you may come to her and possess her, thus making her your wife. 14 But it shall be, if you do not have desire for her, you will send her away as her own nefesh (person), but by no means sell her for money: you must get no profit from her, because you abused her!”
טו כִּֽי־תִהְיֶ֨יןָ לְאִ֜ישׁ שְׁתֵּ֣י נָשִׁ֗ים הָאַחַ֤ת אֲהוּבָה֙ וְהָאַחַ֣ת שְׂנוּאָ֔ה וְיָֽלְדוּ־ל֣וֹ בָנִ֔ים הָאֲהוּבָ֖ה וְהַשְּׂנוּאָ֑ה וְהָיָ֛ה הַבֵּ֥ן הַבְּכֹ֖ר לַשְּׂנִיאָֽה׃ טז וְהָיָ֗ה בְּיוֹם֙ הַנְחִיל֣וֹ אֶת־בָּנָ֔יו אֵ֥ת אֲשֶׁר־יִהְיֶ֖ה ל֑וֹ לֹ֣א יוּכַ֗ל לְבַכֵּר֙ אֶת־בֶּן־הָ֣אֲהוּבָ֔ה עַל־פְּנֵ֥י בֶן־הַשְּׂנוּאָ֖ה הַבְּכֹֽר׃ יז כִּי֩ אֶת־הַבְּכֹ֨ר בֶּן־הַשְּׂנוּאָ֜ה יַכִּ֗יר לָ֤תֶת לוֹ֙ פִּ֣י שְׁנַ֔יִם בְּכֹ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יִמָּצֵ֖א ל֑וֹ כִּי־הוּא֙ רֵאשִׁ֣ית אֹנ֔וֹ ל֖וֹ מִשְׁפַּ֥ט הַבְּכֹרָֽה׃ {ס}
15 “If it happens that a man has two wives—one whom is loved and the other one hated, and they bear him sons—both the one loved, and the one hated—and the son that is firstborn is from the one hated, 16 then it will be on the day he grants estate to his sons—that which belongs to him—he must surely not treat as firstborn the son of the loved one al p’nei (ahead) of the son of the hated one: the true firstborn. 17 Because indeed the firstborn son of the hated one he must recognize, giving to him an amount that is twofold, of all that is found to be his, for this son is the first-fruit of his vigor: his is the right of the firstborn.”
יח כִּֽי־יִהְיֶ֣ה לְאִ֗ישׁ בֵּ֚ן סוֹרֵ֣ר וּמוֹרֶ֔ה אֵינֶ֣נּוּ שֹׁמֵ֔עַ בְּק֥וֹל אָבִ֖יו וּבְק֣וֹל אִמּ֑וֹ וְיִסְּר֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ וְלֹ֥א יִשְׁמַ֖ע אֲלֵיהֶֽם׃ יט וְתָ֥פְשׂוּ ב֖וֹ אָבִ֣יו וְאִמּ֑וֹ וְהוֹצִ֧יאוּ אֹת֛וֹ אֶל־זִקְנֵ֥י עִיר֖וֹ וְאֶל־שַׁ֥עַר מְקֹמֽוֹ׃ כ וְאָמְר֞וּ אֶל־זִקְנֵ֣י עִיר֗וֹ בְּנֵ֤נוּ זֶה֙ סוֹרֵ֣ר וּמֹרֶ֔ה אֵינֶ֥נּוּ שֹׁמֵ֖עַ בְּקֹלֵ֑נוּ זוֹלֵ֖ל וְסֹבֵֽא׃ כא וּ֠רְגָמֻ֠הוּ כׇּל־אַנְשֵׁ֨י עִיר֤וֹ בָֽאֲבָנִים֙ וָמֵ֔ת וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּ֑ךָ וְכׇל־יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל יִשְׁמְע֥וּ וְיִרָֽאוּ׃ {ס}
18 “If there should be a man who has a son who is wayward and rebellious, who does not hearken to the voice of his father or the voice of his mother, and they punish him, yet he still won’t listen to them, 19 they must take hold of him—his father and his mother—and bring him out, taking him to the elders of the city, at the gate of that place, 20 and they shall say to the elders of his town, “This son of ours is wayward and rebellious. He will not pay heed to our voice. He is a glutton and a drunkard!” 21 They shall then pelt him with stones—all the people of his town will stone him till he dies, thus burning out the evil from your midst. And then all Yisrael will hear and be afraid!”
שני כב וְכִֽי־יִהְיֶ֣ה בְאִ֗ישׁ חֵ֛טְא מִשְׁפַּט־מָ֖וֶת וְהוּמָ֑ת וְתָלִ֥יתָ אֹת֖וֹ עַל־עֵֽץ׃ כג לֹא־תָלִ֨ין נִבְלָת֜וֹ עַל־הָעֵ֗ץ כִּֽי־קָב֤וֹר תִּקְבְּרֶ֙נּוּ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא כִּֽי־קִלְלַ֥ת אֱלֹהִ֖ים תָּל֑וּי וְלֹ֤א תְטַמֵּא֙ אֶת־אַדְמָ֣תְךָ֔ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ נַחֲלָֽה׃ {ס}
22 “If there should be a man who for some offence was sentenced to death and is killed, and you hang him up on an ets (stake), 23 do not leave his body overnight on the stake. He must be buried—surely buried, on the same day, since a qlalah (affront) to Elohim is a hanged man. You shall not defile your land—the land that 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah is giving to you as an inheritance. “
כב א לֹֽא־תִרְאֶה֩ אֶת־שׁ֨וֹר אָחִ֜יךָ א֤וֹ אֶת־שֵׂיוֹ֙ נִדָּחִ֔ים וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ֖ מֵהֶ֑ם הָשֵׁ֥ב תְּשִׁיבֵ֖ם לְאָחִֽיךָ׃ ב וְאִם־לֹ֨א קָר֥וֹב אָחִ֛יךָ אֵלֶ֖יךָ וְלֹ֣א יְדַעְתּ֑וֹ וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ֙ אֶל־תּ֣וֹךְ בֵּיתֶ֔ךָ וְהָיָ֣ה עִמְּךָ֗ עַ֣ד דְּרֹ֤שׁ אָחִ֙יךָ֙ אֹת֔וֹ וַהֲשֵׁבֹת֖וֹ לֽוֹ׃ ג וְכֵ֧ן תַּעֲשֶׂ֣ה לַחֲמֹר֗וֹ וְכֵ֣ן תַּעֲשֶׂה֮ לְשִׂמְלָתוֹ֒ וְכֵ֣ן תַּעֲשֶׂ֗ה לְכׇל־אֲבֵדַ֥ת אָחִ֛יךָ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאבַ֥ד מִמֶּ֖נּוּ וּמְצָאתָ֑הּ לֹ֥א תוּכַ֖ל לְהִתְעַלֵּֽם׃ {ס}
22 1 “You must not see the ox of your brother or his sheep going astray, and hide yourself from them (i.e. ignore them). Indeed you must return them to your brother. 2 If he is not near—your brother is not close to you, or you do not know him, you must bring it inside your house. The animal must remain there with you until such time as there inquires your brother about it. Then you must return it to him. 3 And thus you must do with his donkey, and also you must even do this with his clothing. Thus you must do with any lost item of your brother that is lost by him, and you should find it. You may not hide yourself from it (i.e. ignore it).”
ד לֹא־תִרְאֶה֩ אֶת־חֲמ֨וֹר אָחִ֜יךָ א֤וֹ שׁוֹרוֹ֙ נֹפְלִ֣ים בַּדֶּ֔רֶךְ וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ֖ מֵהֶ֑ם הָקֵ֥ם תָּקִ֖ים עִמּֽוֹ׃ {ס}
4 “You must not see the donkey of your brother or his ox that is fallen by the wayside, and hide yourself from it. Raise it up—help him raise it back up.”
ה לֹא־יִהְיֶ֤ה כְלִי־גֶ֙בֶר֙ עַל־אִשָּׁ֔ה וְלֹא־יִלְבַּ֥שׁ גֶּ֖בֶר שִׂמְלַ֣ת אִשָּׁ֑ה כִּ֧י תוֹעֲבַ֛ת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ כׇּל־עֹ֥שֵׂה אֵֽלֶּה׃ {פ}
5 “There must not be the apparel of a man on a woman. There must not dress a man in the garment of a woman, because indeed abhorrent they are to 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah, those who do this!”
ו כִּ֣י יִקָּרֵ֣א ‏[1] בספרי תימן קַן בקו”ף גדולה קַן־צִפּ֣וֹר ׀ לְפָנֶ֡יךָ בַּדֶּ֜רֶךְ בְּכׇל־עֵ֣ץ ׀ א֣וֹ עַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ אֶפְרֹחִים֙ א֣וֹ בֵיצִ֔ים וְהָאֵ֤ם רֹבֶ֙צֶת֙ עַל־הָֽאֶפְרֹחִ֔ים א֖וֹ עַל־הַבֵּיצִ֑ים לֹא־תִקַּ֥ח הָאֵ֖ם עַל־הַבָּנִֽים׃ ז שַׁלֵּ֤חַ תְּשַׁלַּח֙ אֶת־הָאֵ֔ם וְאֶת־הַבָּנִ֖ים תִּֽקַּֽח־לָ֑ךְ לְמַ֙עַן֙ יִ֣יטַב לָ֔ךְ וְהַאֲרַכְתָּ֖ יָמִֽים׃ {ס}
6 “Should you encounter the nest of a bird somewhere around you, there on the road, or in any tree or right on the ground, with baby birds or with eggs, and the mother crouched over the baby birds, or over the eggs, do not take away the mother with the children. 7 Rather send off—set free—the mother: the children you may take for yourself. In order that it go well with you and you may prolong your days.”
שלישי ח כִּ֤י תִבְנֶה֙ בַּ֣יִת חָדָ֔שׁ וְעָשִׂ֥יתָ מַעֲקֶ֖ה לְגַגֶּ֑ךָ וְלֹֽא־תָשִׂ֤ים דָּמִים֙ בְּבֵיתֶ֔ךָ כִּֽי־יִפֹּ֥ל הַנֹּפֵ֖ל מִמֶּֽנּוּ׃
8 “If you should build a new house, you must make a guard-rail for your roof, so as not to put blood-guilt on your house: thus if someone falls, he won’t fall off of it.”
ט לֹא־תִזְרַ֥ע כַּרְמְךָ֖ כִּלְאָ֑יִם פֶּן־תִּקְדַּ֗שׁ הַֽמְלֵאָ֤ה הַזֶּ֙רַע֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תִּזְרָ֔ע וּתְבוּאַ֖ת הַכָּֽרֶם׃ {ס}
9 “Do not seed your vineyard with kil’ayim (two kinds), lest it be tiqdash (proscribed)—the whole of the seed that you plant, as well as the yield of the vineyard.”
י לֹֽא־תַחֲרֹ֥שׁ בְּשׁוֹר־וּבַחֲמֹ֖ר יַחְדָּֽו׃
10 “Do not plow with an ox and a donkey together.”
יא לֹ֤א תִלְבַּשׁ֙ שַֽׁעַטְנֵ֔ז צֶ֥מֶר וּפִשְׁתִּ֖ים יַחְדָּֽו׃ {ס}
11 “You shall not wear sha`atnez: meaning wool and linen together.”
יב גְּדִלִ֖ים תַּעֲשֶׂה־לָּ֑ךְ עַל־אַרְבַּ֛ע כַּנְפ֥וֹת כְּסוּתְךָ֖ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תְּכַסֶּה־בָּֽהּ׃ {ס}
12 “Gedilim (tassels) you must make for yourselves on the four corners of the garment you use to cover yourself.”
יג כִּֽי־יִקַּ֥ח אִ֖ישׁ אִשָּׁ֑ה וּבָ֥א אֵלֶ֖יהָ וּשְׂנֵאָֽהּ׃ יד וְשָׂ֥ם לָהּ֙ עֲלִילֹ֣ת דְּבָרִ֔ים וְהוֹצִ֥א עָלֶ֖יהָ שֵׁ֣ם רָ֑ע וְאָמַ֗ר אֶת־הָאִשָּׁ֤ה הַזֹּאת֙ לָקַ֔חְתִּי וָאֶקְרַ֣ב אֵלֶ֔יהָ וְלֹא־מָצָ֥אתִי לָ֖הּ בְּתוּלִֽים׃ טו וְלָקַ֛ח אֲבִ֥י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֖ וְאִמָּ֑הּ וְהוֹצִ֜יאוּ אֶת־בְּתוּלֵ֧י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֛ אֶל־זִקְנֵ֥י הָעִ֖יר הַשָּֽׁעְרָה׃ טז וְאָמַ֛ר אֲבִ֥י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֖ אֶל־הַזְּקֵנִ֑ים אֶת־בִּתִּ֗י נָתַ֜תִּי לָאִ֥ישׁ הַזֶּ֛ה לְאִשָּׁ֖ה וַיִּשְׂנָאֶֽהָ׃ יז וְהִנֵּה־ה֡וּא שָׂם֩ עֲלִילֹ֨ת דְּבָרִ֜ים לֵאמֹ֗ר לֹֽא־מָצָ֤אתִי לְבִתְּךָ֙ בְּתוּלִ֔ים וְאֵ֖לֶּה בְּתוּלֵ֣י בִתִּ֑י וּפָֽרְשׂוּ֙ הַשִּׂמְלָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י זִקְנֵ֥י הָעִֽיר׃ יח וְלָ֥קְח֛וּ זִקְנֵ֥י הָֽעִיר־הַהִ֖וא אֶת־הָאִ֑ישׁ וְיִסְּר֖וּ אֹתֽוֹ׃ יט וְעָנְשׁ֨וּ אֹת֜וֹ מֵ֣אָה כֶ֗סֶף וְנָתְנוּ֙ לַאֲבִ֣י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֔ה כִּ֤י הוֹצִיא֙ שֵׁ֣ם רָ֔ע עַ֖ל בְּתוּלַ֣ת יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְלֽוֹ־תִהְיֶ֣ה לְאִשָּׁ֔ה לֹא־יוּכַ֥ל לְשַׁלְּחָ֖הּ כׇּל־יָמָֽיו׃ {ס}
13 “If a man shall take a woman, and comes to her, and then hates her, 14  and he makes against her a wanton[2] acc. to Stone Edition Tanach  charge and brings out against her a bad name, and he says this: “The woman—this woman I did take, and I came close to her, and did not find in her signs of virginity.” 15 They must then take her—the father of the girl, and her mother, and bring out the signs of virginity of the girl to the elders of the city, to the gate. 16 And he shall say this—the father of the girl —to the elders, “My daughter I have given to this man that you see here as a wife, and he came to hate her. 17 But now see what he has done: he put out wanton charges, speaking like this, “I did not find in your daughter signs of virginity, but here now is the evidence for my daughter.” He will spread out the bloodied garment in front of the elders of the city. 18 Then they will take him—the elders of the city—will take the man and they will yissar (flog) him, 19 and they will fine him a hundred sheqel of silver, and give it to the father of the girl, since he had put out a bad name against a virgin of Yisrael, and his she shall be as a wife. He may not send her off for all of his days.”
כ וְאִם־אֱמֶ֣ת הָיָ֔ה הַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּ֑ה לֹא־נִמְצְא֥וּ בְתוּלִ֖ים לַֽנַּעֲרָֽ׃ כא וְהוֹצִ֨יאוּ אֶת־הַֽנַּעֲרָ֜ אֶל־פֶּ֣תַח בֵּית־אָבִ֗יהָ וּסְקָל֩וּהָ֩ אַנְשֵׁ֨י עִירָ֤הּ בָּאֲבָנִים֙ וָמֵ֔תָה כִּֽי־עָשְׂתָ֤ה נְבָלָה֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לִזְנ֖וֹת בֵּ֣ית אָבִ֑יהָ וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ׃ {ס}
20 “But if true it is—the charge that was made: there were not found signs of virginity on the girl, 21 they shall take the girl out to the entrance of the house of her father and they will pelt her— the men of her city—with stones until she dies, since she did something shameful in Yisrael, playing the whore in the house of her father. Thus you will burn out the evil from your midst!”
כב כִּֽי־יִמָּצֵ֨א אִ֜ישׁ שֹׁכֵ֣ב ׀ עִם־אִשָּׁ֣ה בְעֻֽלַת־בַּ֗עַל וּמֵ֙תוּ֙ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶ֔ם הָאִ֛ישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵ֥ב עִם־הָאִשָּׁ֖ה וְהָאִשָּׁ֑ה וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ {ס}
22 “If there is found a man to be lying with a woman who is espoused to a man, they must die—the two of them: the man himself who lay with the woman, and the woman also. You will thus burn out the evil from Yisrael!”
כג כִּ֤י יִהְיֶה֙ נַעֲרָ֣ בְתוּלָ֔ה מְאֹרָשָׂ֖ה לְאִ֑ישׁ וּמְצָאָ֥הּ אִ֛ישׁ בָּעִ֖יר וְשָׁכַ֥ב עִמָּֽהּ׃ כד וְהוֹצֵאתֶ֨ם אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶ֜ם אֶל־שַׁ֣עַר ׀ הָעִ֣יר הַהִ֗וא וּסְקַלְתֶּ֨ם אֹתָ֥ם בָּאֲבָנִים֮ וָמֵ֒תוּ֒ אֶת־הַֽנַּעֲרָ֗ עַל־דְּבַר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־צָעֲקָ֣ה בָעִ֔יר וְאֶ֨ת־הָאִ֔ישׁ עַל־דְּבַ֥ר אֲשֶׁר־עִנָּ֖ה אֶת־אֵ֣שֶׁת רֵעֵ֑הוּ וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ׃ {ס}
23 “If there should be a girl who is a virgin, and who is betrothed to a man, and she is found by a man in the city, and he lies with her, 24 you shall bring the two of them out to the gate of the city where this occurred, and stone the two of them— pelting them with stones until they die: the young woman because of the fact that she failed to cry out in the city, and as for the man, because he in fact abused the wife of his neighbor. You will thus burn away the evil from your midst!”
כה וְֽאִם־בַּשָּׂדֶ֞ה יִמְצָ֣א הָאִ֗ישׁ אֶת־הַֽנַּעֲרָ֙ הַמְאֹ֣רָשָׂ֔ה וְהֶחֱזִֽיק־בָּ֥הּ הָאִ֖ישׁ וְשָׁכַ֣ב עִמָּ֑הּ וּמֵ֗ת הָאִ֛ישׁ אֲשֶׁר־שָׁכַ֥ב עִמָּ֖הּ לְבַדּֽוֹ׃ כו וְלַֽנַּעֲרָ֙ לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂ֣ה דָבָ֔ר אֵ֥ין לַֽנַּעֲרָ֖ חֵ֣טְא מָ֑וֶת כִּ֡י כַּאֲשֶׁר֩ יָק֨וּם אִ֤ישׁ עַל־רֵעֵ֙הוּ֙ וּרְצָח֣וֹ נֶ֔פֶשׁ כֵּ֖ן הַדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה׃ כז כִּ֥י בַשָּׂדֶ֖ה מְצָאָ֑הּ צָעֲקָ֗ה הַֽנַּעֲרָ֙ הַמְאֹ֣רָשָׂ֔ה וְאֵ֥ין מוֹשִׁ֖יעַ לָֽהּ׃ {ס}
25 “But if it was in the field that she was found by the man—the girl that was spoken for—she is seized by the man, and he lies with her, then he will die—the man who did this; the one who lay with her: he alone, 26 but as for the girl, you shall not do a thing. There is no guilt for the girl; no sin deserving death. For this may be compared to the case where there goes up a man against his neighbor and murders him: just so is this matter. 27 For it is in the field that he found her. If she had cried out—the girl who had been spoken for—there would have been no rescuer for her.”
כח כִּֽי־יִמְצָ֣א אִ֗ישׁ נַעֲרָ֤ בְתוּלָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־אֹרָ֔שָׂה וּתְפָשָׂ֖הּ וְשָׁכַ֣ב עִמָּ֑הּ וְנִמְצָֽאוּ׃ כט וְ֠נָתַ֠ן הָאִ֨ישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵ֥ב עִמָּ֛הּ לַאֲבִ֥י הַֽנַּעֲרָ֖ חֲמִשִּׁ֣ים כָּ֑סֶף וְלֽוֹ־תִהְיֶ֣ה לְאִשָּׁ֗ה תַּ֚חַת אֲשֶׁ֣ר עִנָּ֔הּ לֹא־יוּכַ֥ל שַׁלְּחָ֖הּ כׇּל־יָמָֽיו׃ {ס}
28 “If there is found—by a man—a girl who is a virgin and not betrothed; he takes hold of her and he lies with her, and they are found, 29 then he is to give—the man who was found lying with her—to the father of the girl, fifty shekels of silver. To him she shall be a wife because he has abused her. He may not send her away, all his days.”
כג א לֹא־יִקַּ֥ח אִ֖ישׁ אֶת־אֵ֣שֶׁת אָבִ֑יו וְלֹ֥א יְגַלֶּ֖ה כְּנַ֥ף אָבִֽיו׃ {ס}
23 1 “A man is not to take-in-marriage the wife of his father, that he not expose the skirt of his father.”
ב לֹֽא־יָבֹ֧א פְצֽוּעַ־דַּכָּ֛א‏[3] ברוב ספרי אשכנז דַּכָּ֛ה  וּכְר֥וּת שׇׁפְכָ֖ה בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהֹוָה׃ {ס}
2 “There shall not come one wounded by crushing, or a severed organ, into the ḳahal (assembly) of 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄.”
ג לֹא־יָבֹ֥א מַמְזֵ֖ר בִּקְהַ֣ל יְהֹוָ֑ה גַּ֚ם דּ֣וֹר עֲשִׂירִ֔י לֹא־יָ֥בֹא ל֖וֹ בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהֹוָה׃ {ס}
3 “There may not enter a mamzer (bastard) into the ḳahal of 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄. Even to the tenth generation, he may not enter the ḳahal of 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄.”
ד לֹֽא־יָבֹ֧א עַמּוֹנִ֛י וּמוֹאָבִ֖י בִּקְהַ֣ל יְהֹוָ֑ה גַּ֚ם דּ֣וֹר עֲשִׂירִ֔י לֹא־יָבֹ֥א לָהֶ֛ם בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהֹוָ֖ה עַד־עוֹלָֽם׃ ה עַל־דְּבַ֞ר אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹא־קִדְּמ֤וּ אֶתְכֶם֙ בַּלֶּ֣חֶם וּבַמַּ֔יִם בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶ֣ם מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם וַאֲשֶׁר֩ שָׂכַ֨ר עָלֶ֜יךָ אֶת־בִּלְעָ֣ם בֶּן־בְּע֗וֹר מִפְּת֛וֹר אֲרַ֥ם נַהֲרַ֖יִם לְקַֽלְלֶֽךָּ׃ ו וְלֹֽא־אָבָ֞ה יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ לִשְׁמֹ֣עַ אֶל־בִּלְעָ֔ם וַיַּהֲפֹךְ֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֧יךָ לְּךָ֛ אֶת־הַקְּלָלָ֖ה לִבְרָכָ֑ה כִּ֥י אֲהֵֽבְךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ׃ ז לֹא־תִדְרֹ֥שׁ שְׁלֹמָ֖ם וְטֹבָתָ֑ם כׇּל־יָמֶ֖יךָ לְעוֹלָֽם׃ {ס}
4 “There may not enter an Ammoni or a Moavi into the ḳahal of 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄. Even to the tenth generation there may not enter any from among them into the ḳahal of 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄, throughout the ages—5 on account of the fact that they did not come to meet you with bread and with water on the road, at your going out from Mitsrayim, and because he hired against you Bilaam son of Beor from Petor in Aram of the Two Rivers, to curse you. 6 But Hashem did not consent—𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah—to hearken to Bilaam. But Hashem transformed it—𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah—on your behalf, changed the curse into a blessing, because you are loved by 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah. 7 You will not seek their peace, or their well-being all your days, forever!”
רביעי ח לֹֽא־תְתַעֵ֣ב אֲדֹמִ֔י כִּ֥י אָחִ֖יךָ ה֑וּא לֹא־תְתַעֵ֣ב מִצְרִ֔י כִּי־גֵ֖ר הָיִ֥יתָ בְאַרְצֽוֹ׃ ט בָּנִ֛ים אֲשֶׁר־יִוָּלְד֥וּ לָהֶ֖ם דּ֣וֹר שְׁלִישִׁ֑י יָבֹ֥א לָהֶ֖ם בִּקְהַ֥ל יְהֹוָה׃ {ס}
8 “Do not despise the Edomi, since your brother he is indeed. Do not despise the Mitsri, since a sojourner you were in his land. 9 Children therefore that are born to them in the third generation—may enter from them—the ḳahal of 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄.”
י כִּֽי־תֵצֵ֥א מַחֲנֶ֖ה עַל־אֹיְבֶ֑יךָ וְנִ֨שְׁמַרְתָּ֔ מִכֹּ֖ל דָּבָ֥ר רָֽע׃ יא כִּֽי־יִהְיֶ֤ה בְךָ֙ אִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֛ר לֹא־יִהְיֶ֥ה טָה֖וֹר מִקְּרֵה־לָ֑יְלָה וְיָצָא֙ אֶל־מִח֣וּץ לַֽמַּחֲנֶ֔ה לֹ֥א יָבֹ֖א אֶל־תּ֥וֹךְ הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה׃ יב וְהָיָ֥ה לִפְנֽוֹת־עֶ֖רֶב יִרְחַ֣ץ בַּמָּ֑יִם וּכְבֹ֣א הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ יָבֹ֖א אֶל־תּ֥וֹךְ הַֽמַּחֲנֶֽה׃
10 “When you go out as a camp against your enemies, you must be on your guard from every thing that is evil. 11 Should there be among you a man who is not clean, through a mischance of the night, he shall go outside the camp, and is not to come into the midst of the camp. 12 It shall be toward evening: he shall wash with water, and at the setting of the sun he may come back inside the camp.”
יג וְיָד֙ תִּהְיֶ֣ה לְךָ֔ מִח֖וּץ לַֽמַּחֲנֶ֑ה וְיָצָ֥אתָ שָּׁ֖מָּה חֽוּץ׃ יד וְיָתֵ֛ד תִּהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֖ עַל־אֲזֵנֶ֑ךָ וְהָיָה֙ בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ֣ ח֔וּץ וְחָפַרְתָּ֣ה בָ֔הּ וְשַׁבְתָּ֖ וְכִסִּ֥יתָ אֶת־צֵאָתֶֽךָ׃ טו כִּי֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֜יךָ מִתְהַלֵּ֣ךְ ׀ בְּקֶ֣רֶב מַחֲנֶ֗ךָ לְהַצִּֽילְךָ֙ וְלָתֵ֤ת אֹיְבֶ֙יךָ֙ לְפָנֶ֔יךָ וְהָיָ֥ה מַחֲנֶ֖יךָ קָד֑וֹשׁ וְלֹֽא־יִרְאֶ֤ה בְךָ֙ עֶרְוַ֣ת דָּבָ֔ר וְשָׁ֖ב מֵאַחֲרֶֽיךָ׃ {ס}
13 “A marker[4] yad: Cf. Robert Alter  there shall be for you outside the camp. You shall go out there to relieve yourself. 14 A tent peg or spike you shall have with you with your gear, and it will be when you sit down outside, you will dig a hole with it, and when you return you must cover your excrement. 15 Because indeed 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah does surely move about in the midst of your camp to deliver you and give over your enemies before you, and your camp shall be holy: Hashem must not see among you an exposure of something ervah (shameful)[5] lit. nakedness, nudity, genitals, and thus, cognate with the Arabic: عَوْرَة (awrāt) which includes a meaning of defectiveness, faultiness, deficiency, and imperfection. Dr. Everett Fox offers “nakedness” but that meaning doesn’t seem specific enough here or later (in Deuteronomy 24:1). In rabbinic Judaism, ervah is shorthand for an illicit sexual relationship — a meaning which does not seem to fit the meaning of ervah in the context of this verse either. A more productive use of “nakedness” here would be metaphorical, referring, I think, to a more general sensibility concerned with not leaving revealed what should rather be concealed in a brazen, callous, or utterly neglectful or hapless manner, eliciting just the sort of disgust one might experience if one accidentally stepped into their neighbor’s dog poop. I think “shamelessness” or “profligacy,” might suffice for a definition especially where profligate describes a behavior of wasting resources and a careless attitude concerning waste in general. In this way, ervah as profligate connects soundly with the command not to needlessly waste or lay waste (the mitsvah of bal tashḥit). Following the injunction to preserve fruit trees outside besieged cities (in Deuteronomy 20:19), this mitsvah provides yet another implied warning not to follow or otherwise encourage the derekh mashḥit (the way of the destroyer) — a particularly apt warning in the context of an army and its soldiers literally making waste, i.e. generating ruinous pollution. Such a command remains relevant today given that the United States military remains one of the largest polluters in the world (as of 2019). For a seemingly different but related usage, see below, Deuteronomy 24:1. —Aharon N. Varady  and turn away from you.”
טז לֹא־תַסְגִּ֥יר עֶ֖בֶד אֶל־אֲדֹנָ֑יו אֲשֶׁר־יִנָּצֵ֥ל אֵלֶ֖יךָ מֵעִ֥ם אֲדֹנָֽיו׃ יז עִמְּךָ֞ יֵשֵׁ֣ב בְּקִרְבְּךָ֗ בַּמָּק֧וֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַ֛ר בְּאַחַ֥ד שְׁעָרֶ֖יךָ בַּטּ֣וֹב ל֑וֹ לֹ֖א תּוֹנֶֽנּוּ׃ {ס}
16 “You must not turn over a slave to his master: one who escapes to you from his master. 17 Indeed, alongside you he shall stay, in your midst, in whatever place that he should choose within one of your gates, where it seems good to him. You must not mistreat him!”
יח לֹא־תִהְיֶ֥ה קְדֵשָׁ֖ה מִבְּנ֣וֹת יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וְלֹֽא־יִהְיֶ֥ה קָדֵ֖שׁ מִבְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ יט לֹא־תָבִיא֩ אֶתְנַ֨ן זוֹנָ֜ה וּמְחִ֣יר כֶּ֗לֶב בֵּ֛ית יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לְכׇל־נֶ֑דֶר כִּ֧י תוֹעֲבַ֛ת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶֽם׃ {ס}
18 “There shall be no sacred prostitute among the daughters of Yisrael, nor a sacred male prostitute from the sons of Yisrael. 19 You shall not bring the fee of a whore or the price of a dog into the house of 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah for any vow, because of the fact that an abhorrence they are to 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah—both of these!”
כ לֹא־תַשִּׁ֣יךְ לְאָחִ֔יךָ נֶ֥שֶׁךְ כֶּ֖סֶף נֶ֣שֶׁךְ אֹ֑כֶל נֶ֕שֶׁךְ כׇּל־דָּבָ֖ר אֲשֶׁ֥ר יִשָּֽׁךְ׃ כא לַנׇּכְרִ֣י תַשִּׁ֔יךְ וּלְאָחִ֖יךָ לֹ֣א תַשִּׁ֑יךְ לְמַ֨עַן יְבָרֶכְךָ֜ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ בְּכֹל֙ מִשְׁלַ֣ח יָדֶ֔ךָ עַל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה בָא־שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ׃ {ס}
20 “Do not exact interest from your brothers, whether interest for money or interest for food: interest in fact, for anything that will bear interest. 21 From a stranger you may take interest, but from your brother you may not take interest, so that you may be blessed by 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah in all whereto you put your hand (i.e. in all your endeavors) upon the land when you will go there to possess it.”
כב כִּֽי־תִדֹּ֥ר נֶ֙דֶר֙ לַיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לֹ֥א תְאַחֵ֖ר לְשַׁלְּמ֑וֹ כִּֽי־דָּרֹ֨שׁ יִדְרְשֶׁ֜נּוּ יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ מֵֽעִמָּ֔ךְ וְהָיָ֥ה בְךָ֖ חֵֽטְא׃ כג וְכִ֥י תֶחְדַּ֖ל לִנְדֹּ֑ר לֹֽא־יִהְיֶ֥ה בְךָ֖ חֵֽטְא׃ כד מוֹצָ֥א שְׂפָתֶ֖יךָ תִּשְׁמֹ֣ר וְעָשִׂ֑יתָ כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר נָדַ֜רְתָּ לַיהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ נְדָבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבַּ֖רְתָּ בְּפִֽיךָ׃ {ס}
22 “When you make a vow to 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah, do not delay to fulfill it. It will surely be demanded by 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah from you, and there would be in you a sin. 23 But should you refrain from making a vow, there will not be in you a sin. 24 What comes out from your lips, you must be careful to fulfill, doing what you have vowed to 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah—the freewill gift[6] n’davah: acc. to Robert Alter  as you have promised with your own mouth. “
חמישי כה כִּ֤י תָבֹא֙ בְּכֶ֣רֶם רֵעֶ֔ךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ֧ עֲנָבִ֛ים כְּנַפְשְׁךָ֖ שׇׂבְעֶ֑ךָ וְאֶֽל־כֶּלְיְךָ֖ לֹ֥א תִתֵּֽן׃ {ס}
25 “Should you enter the vineyard of your neighbor, you may surely eat at your pleasure, to your fill. But into your own bag, you may not put them.”
כו כִּ֤י תָבֹא֙ בְּקָמַ֣ת רֵעֶ֔ךָ וְקָטַפְתָּ֥ מְלִילֹ֖ת בְּיָדֶ֑ךָ וְחֶרְמֵשׁ֙ לֹ֣א תָנִ֔יף עַ֖ל קָמַ֥ת רֵעֶֽךָ׃ {ס}
26 “And should you come into the standing grain of your neighbor, you may pluck melilot (tender ears)[7] Cf. Robert Alter.  with your hand, but a sickle you shall not lift over the grain of your neighbor.”
כד א כִּֽי־יִקַּ֥ח אִ֛ישׁ אִשָּׁ֖ה וּבְעָלָ֑הּ וְהָיָ֞ה אִם־לֹ֧א תִמְצָא־חֵ֣ן בְּעֵינָ֗יו כִּי־מָ֤צָא בָהּ֙ עֶרְוַ֣ת דָּבָ֔ר וְכָ֨תַב לָ֜הּ סֵ֤פֶר כְּרִיתֻת֙ וְנָתַ֣ן בְּיָדָ֔הּ וְשִׁלְּחָ֖הּ מִבֵּיתֽוֹ׃ ב וְיָצְאָ֖ה מִבֵּית֑וֹ וְהָלְכָ֖ה וְהָיְתָ֥ה לְאִישׁ־אַחֵֽר׃ ג וּשְׂנֵאָהּ֮ הָאִ֣ישׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן֒ וְכָ֨תַב לָ֜הּ סֵ֤פֶר כְּרִיתֻת֙ וְנָתַ֣ן בְּיָדָ֔הּ וְשִׁלְּחָ֖הּ מִבֵּית֑וֹ א֣וֹ כִ֤י יָמוּת֙ הָאִ֣ישׁ הָאַחֲר֔וֹן אֲשֶׁר־לְקָחָ֥הּ ל֖וֹ לְאִשָּֽׁה׃ ד לֹא־יוּכַ֣ל בַּעְלָ֣הּ הָרִאשׁ֣וֹן אֲשֶֽׁר־שִׁ֠לְּחָ֠הּ לָשׁ֨וּב לְקַחְתָּ֜הּ לִהְי֧וֹת ל֣וֹ לְאִשָּׁ֗ה אַחֲרֵי֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר הֻטַּמָּ֔אָה כִּֽי־תוֹעֵבָ֥ה הִ֖וא לִפְנֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה וְלֹ֤א תַחֲטִיא֙ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ נַחֲלָֽה׃ {ס}
24 1 “If a woman is taken by a man—he takes a woman, and marries her, and if it should be that she does not find favor in his eyes, if he finds in her something of ervah (lit. “a thing of nakedness,” some impropriety)[8] See note above on Deuteronomy 23:13. The primary meaning of ‘nakedness’ does not make sense here. The idea of a deficiency or defect (apparent in the revelation of nudity) does make sense, although the implication here is horrible to my sensibility. In rabbinic tradition, ervah is a euphemism for illicit sexual relationship. As in Deuteronomy 23:13, I suggest that “shamelessness” or “profligacy,” might suffice for a definition. Someone profligate wastes resources with abandon and carries with them a careless attitude concerning waste in general, in other words, someone flagrantly inconsiderate, even destructive in nature. Profligate seems apt to me if we recognize in ervah someone who is wasteful with the equity of a relationship founded on commitment, prone to elicit heartbreak through unconscientious or even perhaps deliberate acts of betrayal — and I find this framing of ervah much preferable to calling someone illicit, licentious, or debauched — accusations that shame sexual liberty rather than focus on the root of the pain: taking liberties with the psychical and emotional health of one’s partner. What remains problematic here despite my redemptive reading is that women, already a vulnerable population as attested elsewhere in the text, are the subject of lost favor among men whose own vigilance concerning ervah (in Deuteronomy 23:13) seems relegated entirely to their bodily excretions among a wholly male population of soldiers. —Aharon N. Varady , he may write for her a document of k’ritut (lit. “cut-off,” i.e. divorce), and place it in her hand, and send her away from his household. 2 When she goes out from his house, if she goes and becomes the wife of another man, 3 and if she is rejected by the other man, and he writes for her a document of “cut-off” and places it in her hand, and send her away from his household, or on other hand if he should die—the second man—who took her for himself as a wife, 4 he may not—the husband, the first one, (the one who had sent her away)—come back and take her, for her to be to him as a wife after she had thus made herself impure, since offensive it is before 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄, that you do not bring sin upon the land—the land that 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah is giving to you, as a heritage!”
ששי ה כִּֽי־יִקַּ֥ח אִישׁ֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה חֲדָשָׁ֔ה לֹ֤א יֵצֵא֙ בַּצָּבָ֔א וְלֹא־יַעֲבֹ֥ר עָלָ֖יו לְכׇל־דָּבָ֑ר נָקִ֞י יִהְיֶ֤ה לְבֵיתוֹ֙ שָׁנָ֣ה אֶחָ֔ת וְשִׂמַּ֖ח אֶת־אִשְׁתּ֥וֹ אֲשֶׁר־לָקָֽח׃
5 “When there takes a man a new wife, he may not go out into battle, nor go over to the army for any business. Free he must remain, and stay in his house for one year, and make his wife happy—the woman he has taken.”
ו לֹא־יַחֲבֹ֥ל רֵחַ֖יִם וָרָ֑כֶב כִּי־נֶ֖פֶשׁ ה֥וּא חֹבֵֽל׃ {ס}
6 “Don’t take as a pledge a mill, or a millstone, since life itself is thereby pledged.”
ז כִּי־יִמָּצֵ֣א אִ֗ישׁ גֹּנֵ֨ב נֶ֤פֶשׁ מֵאֶחָיו֙ מִבְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְהִתְעַמֶּר־בּ֖וֹ וּמְכָר֑וֹ וּמֵת֙ הַגַּנָּ֣ב הַה֔וּא וּבִֽעַרְתָּ֥ הָרָ֖ע מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ׃ {ס}
7 “If there is found a man to have stolen (i.e. kidnapped) a person from among his brethren of the children of Yisrael, and enslaves him or sells him, then put to death shall be that thief. Thus you will burn out the evil from among you!”
ח הִשָּׁ֧מֶר בְּנֶֽגַע־הַצָּרַ֛עַת לִשְׁמֹ֥ר מְאֹ֖ד וְלַעֲשׂ֑וֹת כְּכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁר־יוֹר֨וּ אֶתְכֶ֜ם הַכֹּהֲנִ֧ים הַלְוִיִּ֛ם כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוִּיתִ֖ם תִּשְׁמְר֥וּ לַעֲשֽׂוֹת׃ ט זָכ֕וֹר אֵ֧ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֛ה יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לְמִרְיָ֑ם בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶ֥ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם׃ {ס}
8 “Be wary regarding the plague of tsara’at, that you observe diligently, and do according to all that is taught to you by the priests—that is, the Levites—just as I have charged them, be watchful to do. 9 Remember the event that occurred—that which was done by 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah to Miriam on the road, when you came out of Mitsrayim!”
י כִּֽי־תַשֶּׁ֥ה בְרֵֽעֲךָ֖ מַשַּׁ֣את מְא֑וּמָה לֹא־תָבֹ֥א אֶל־בֵּית֖וֹ לַעֲבֹ֥ט עֲבֹטֽוֹ׃ יא בַּח֖וּץ תַּעֲמֹ֑ד וְהָאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אַתָּה֙ נֹשֶׁ֣ה ב֔וֹ יוֹצִ֥יא אֵלֶ֛יךָ אֶֽת־הַעֲב֖וֹט הַחֽוּצָה׃ יב וְאִם־אִ֥ישׁ עָנִ֖י ה֑וּא לֹ֥א תִשְׁכַּ֖ב בַּעֲבֹטֽוֹ׃ יג הָשֵׁב֩ תָּשִׁ֨יב ל֤וֹ אֶֽת־הַעֲבוֹט֙ כְּב֣וֹא הַשֶּׁ֔מֶשׁ וְשָׁכַ֥ב בְּשַׂלְמָת֖וֹ וּבֵֽרְכֶ֑ךָּ וּלְךָ֙ תִּהְיֶ֣ה צְדָקָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ׃ {ס}
10 “When you make to your neighbor a loan of any sort, do not enter his house to seize his pledge. 11 Wait outside: stand and wait, until the man—the one that you are loaning to—shall bring out to you the pledge—he brings it outside. 12 If the man should be poor —the one asking—do not lie down[9] cf. Robert Alter  in the garment pledged. 13 You must return it—give back to him the pledge—at the setting of the sun, so he may lie down in his garment, and bless you. To you, this will be tsedakah in the presence of 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah.”
שביעי יד לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁ֥ק שָׂכִ֖יר עָנִ֣י וְאֶבְי֑וֹן מֵאַחֶ֕יךָ א֧וֹ מִגֵּרְךָ֛ אֲשֶׁ֥ר בְּאַרְצְךָ֖ בִּשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ׃ טו בְּיוֹמוֹ֩ תִתֵּ֨ן שְׂכָר֜וֹ וְֽלֹא־תָב֧וֹא עָלָ֣יו הַשֶּׁ֗מֶשׁ כִּ֤י עָנִי֙ ה֔וּא וְאֵלָ֕יו ה֥וּא נֹשֵׂ֖א אֶת־נַפְשׁ֑וֹ וְלֹֽא־יִקְרָ֤א עָלֶ֙יךָ֙ אֶל־יְהֹוָ֔ה וְהָיָ֥ה בְךָ֖ חֵֽטְא׃ {ס}
14 “Don’t withhold from a laborer—who is poor and needy—from among your brothers or indeed from your resident alien, who dwells in your land, within your gates. 15 For in his day, you shall give him his wages. There must not bring upon him the setting sun, for in fact poor he is indeed, and by means of it he maintains his life, that he not cry out against you to 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄, and it will be to you a sin!”
טז לֹֽא־יוּמְת֤וּ אָבוֹת֙ עַל־בָּנִ֔ים וּבָנִ֖ים לֹא־יוּמְת֣וּ עַל־אָב֑וֹת אִ֥ישׁ בְּחֶטְא֖וֹ יוּמָֽתוּ׃ {ס}
16 “There shall not die fathers for sons, and sons shall not die for fathers. Each one for his own sin shall die!”
יז לֹ֣א תַטֶּ֔ה מִשְׁפַּ֖ט גֵּ֣ר יָת֑וֹם וְלֹ֣א תַחֲבֹ֔ל בֶּ֖גֶד אַלְמָנָֽה׃ יח וְזָכַרְתָּ֗ כִּ֣י עֶ֤בֶד הָיִ֙יתָ֙ בְּמִצְרַ֔יִם וַֽיִּפְדְּךָ֛ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ מִשָּׁ֑ם עַל־כֵּ֞ן אָנֹכִ֤י מְצַוְּךָ֙ לַעֲשׂ֔וֹת אֶת־הַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּֽה׃ {ס}
17 “Do not subvert the rights of a stranger or an orphan. Do not take as security the clothing of a widow. 18 And remember that in fact a slave you were in Mitsrayim. Redeemed you were by 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah from there. Because of this, I do command you to observe this—to do these things!”
יט כִּ֣י תִקְצֹר֩ קְצִֽירְךָ֨ בְשָׂדֶ֜ךָ וְשָֽׁכַחְתָּ֧ עֹ֣מֶר בַּשָּׂדֶ֗ה לֹ֤א תָשׁוּב֙ לְקַחְתּ֔וֹ לַגֵּ֛ר לַיָּת֥וֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָ֖ה יִהְיֶ֑ה לְמַ֤עַן יְבָרֶכְךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ בְּכֹ֖ל מַעֲשֵׂ֥ה יָדֶֽיךָ׃ {ס}
19 “When you go to reap your harvest in your field, if you should forget a sheaf that is in the field, do not go back to take it. Left for the stranger, the orphan, and the widow it will be, in order that you be blessed by 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah in all the work of your hands.”
כ כִּ֤י תַחְבֹּט֙ זֵֽיתְךָ֔ לֹ֥א תְפַאֵ֖ר אַחֲרֶ֑יךָ לַגֵּ֛ר לַיָּת֥וֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָ֖ה יִהְיֶֽה׃ כא כִּ֤י תִבְצֹר֙ כַּרְמְךָ֔ לֹ֥א תְעוֹלֵ֖ל אַחֲרֶ֑יךָ לַגֵּ֛ר לַיָּת֥וֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָ֖ה יִהְיֶֽה׃ כב וְזָ֣כַרְתָּ֔ כִּי־עֶ֥בֶד הָיִ֖יתָ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרָ֑יִם עַל־כֵּ֞ן אָנֹכִ֤י מְצַוְּךָ֙ לַעֲשׂ֔וֹת אֶת־הַדָּבָ֖ר הַזֶּֽה׃ {ס}
20 “When you beat your olive trees, do not go back over them. Left for the stranger, the orphan, and the widow it will be. 21 And when you gather from your vineyard, do not glean after yourself. Left for the stranger, the orphan, and the widow it will be. 22 And remember that a slave you were in the land of Mitsrayim. Because of this, I do command you to observe this word—to do these things!”
כה א כִּֽי־יִהְיֶ֥ה רִיב֙ בֵּ֣ין אֲנָשִׁ֔ים וְנִגְּשׁ֥וּ אֶל־הַמִּשְׁפָּ֖ט וּשְׁפָט֑וּם וְהִצְדִּ֙יקוּ֙ אֶת־הַצַּדִּ֔יק וְהִרְשִׁ֖יעוּ אֶת־הָרָשָֽׁע׃ ב וְהָיָ֛ה אִם־בִּ֥ן הַכּ֖וֹת הָרָשָׁ֑ע וְהִפִּיל֤וֹ הַשֹּׁפֵט֙ וְהִכָּ֣הוּ לְפָנָ֔יו כְּדֵ֥י רִשְׁעָת֖וֹ בְּמִסְפָּֽר׃ ג אַרְבָּעִ֥ים יַכֶּ֖נּוּ לֹ֣א יֹסִ֑יף פֶּן־יֹסִ֨יף לְהַכֹּת֤וֹ עַל־אֵ֙לֶּה֙ מַכָּ֣ה רַבָּ֔ה וְנִקְלָ֥ה אָחִ֖יךָ לְעֵינֶֽיךָ׃
25 1 “When there is a dispute between people, they must approach the court, who will judge them. They must acquit the innocent and convict the guilty. 2 And it will be, if deserving of blows is the guilty one, he will be made to lie down by the judge, and be struck in his presence, according to his guilt is the number of lashes. 3 Up to forty lashes—not adding any, since if more are inflicted—more than these many lashes, degraded will be your brother before your eyes.”
ד לֹא־תַחְסֹ֥ם שׁ֖וֹר בְּדִישֽׁוֹ׃ {ס}
4 “Do not muzzle an ox when it is threshing.”
ה כִּֽי־יֵשְׁב֨וּ אַחִ֜ים יַחְדָּ֗ו וּמֵ֨ת אַחַ֤ד מֵהֶם֙ וּבֵ֣ן אֵֽין־ל֔וֹ לֹֽא־תִהְיֶ֧ה אֵֽשֶׁת־הַמֵּ֛ת הַח֖וּצָה לְאִ֣ישׁ זָ֑ר יְבָמָהּ֙ יָבֹ֣א עָלֶ֔יהָ וּלְקָחָ֥הּ ל֛וֹ לְאִשָּׁ֖ה וְיִבְּמָֽהּ׃ ו וְהָיָ֗ה הַבְּכוֹר֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֵּלֵ֔ד יָק֕וּם עַל־שֵׁ֥ם אָחִ֖יו הַמֵּ֑ת וְלֹֽא־יִמָּחֶ֥ה שְׁמ֖וֹ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ ז וְאִם־לֹ֤א יַחְפֹּץ֙ הָאִ֔ישׁ לָקַ֖חַת אֶת־יְבִמְתּ֑וֹ וְעָלְתָה֩ יְבִמְתּ֨וֹ הַשַּׁ֜עְרָה אֶל־הַזְּקֵנִ֗ים וְאָֽמְרָה֙ מֵאֵ֨ן יְבָמִ֜י לְהָקִ֨ים לְאָחִ֥יו שֵׁם֙ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל לֹ֥א אָבָ֖ה יַבְּמִֽי׃ ח וְקָֽרְאוּ־ל֥וֹ זִקְנֵי־עִיר֖וֹ וְדִבְּר֣וּ אֵלָ֑יו וְעָמַ֣ד וְאָמַ֔ר לֹ֥א חָפַ֖צְתִּי לְקַחְתָּֽהּ׃ ט וְנִגְּשָׁ֨ה יְבִמְתּ֣וֹ אֵלָיו֮ לְעֵינֵ֣י הַזְּקֵנִים֒ וְחָלְצָ֤ה נַעֲלוֹ֙ מֵעַ֣ל רַגְל֔וֹ וְיָרְקָ֖ה בְּפָנָ֑יו וְעָֽנְתָה֙ וְאָ֣מְרָ֔ה כָּ֚כָה יֵעָשֶׂ֣ה לָאִ֔ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־יִבְנֶ֖ה אֶת־בֵּ֥ית אָחִֽיו׃ י וְנִקְרָ֥א שְׁמ֖וֹ בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בֵּ֖ית חֲל֥וּץ הַנָּֽעַל׃ {ס}
5 “If there are living two brothers together, and there dies one of them, and he has no son, the wife may not go—the wife of the deceased—outside the family to marry an outsider. Her yavam (surviving brother-in-law) must come to her and take her to himself as a wife, performing the yibbum (the levirate marriage). 6 And it will be that the firstborn—the child she bears—shall yaqum (assume) the name of the brother —the deceased, to prevent the blotting out of his name from Yisrael. 7 But if he does not wish—the man—to marry his yevamah (sister-in-law), then she must go up—his yevamah—to the gate, up to the elders, and say, “He declines—my yavam—to preserve for his brother a name in Yisrael. He is not willing to perform the yibbum with me!” 8 He must be summoned by the elders of the city who will speak to him. If he stands there and says “I do not wish to marry her,” 9 she will approach him—his yevamah must go up to him in the presence of the elders, and remove his shoe from his foot, and spit in his face. She shall answer by saying, “Thus shall be done to a man who will not build up the house of his brother.” 10 They will call his name in Yisrael: ‘The house of the taken-off shoe.'”
יא כִּֽי־יִנָּצ֨וּ אֲנָשִׁ֤ים יַחְדָּו֙ אִ֣ישׁ וְאָחִ֔יו וְקָֽרְבָה֙ אֵ֣שֶׁת הָֽאֶחָ֔ד לְהַצִּ֥יל אֶת־אִישָׁ֖הּ מִיַּ֣ד מַכֵּ֑הוּ וְשָׁלְחָ֣ה יָדָ֔הּ וְהֶחֱזִ֖יקָה בִּמְבֻשָֽׁיו׃ יב וְקַצֹּתָ֖ה אֶת־כַּפָּ֑הּ לֹ֥א תָח֖וֹס עֵינֶֽךָ׃ {ס}
11 “If there is a fight between two people—a man and his brother, and there approaches the wife of one of them to rescue her husband from the one who is hitting him, and she puts out her hand and grabs him by his genitals, 12 you must cut off her hand: have no pity in your eyes!”
יג לֹֽא־יִהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֛ בְּכִֽיסְךָ֖ אֶ֣בֶן וָאָ֑בֶן גְּדוֹלָ֖ה וּקְטַנָּֽה׃ יד לֹא־יִהְיֶ֥ה לְךָ֛ בְּבֵיתְךָ֖ אֵיפָ֣ה וְאֵיפָ֑ה גְּדוֹלָ֖ה וּקְטַנָּֽה׃ טו אֶ֣בֶן שְׁלֵמָ֤ה וָצֶ֙דֶק֙ יִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֔ךְ אֵיפָ֧ה שְׁלֵמָ֛ה וָצֶ֖דֶק יִֽהְיֶה־לָּ֑ךְ לְמַ֙עַן֙ יַאֲרִ֣יכוּ יָמֶ֔יךָ עַ֚ל הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽךְ׃ טז כִּ֧י תוֹעֲבַ֛ת יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ כׇּל־עֹ֣שֵׂה אֵ֑לֶּה כֹּ֖ל עֹ֥שֵׂה עָֽוֶל׃ {פ}
13 “There shall not be with you in your bag different stone weights, a big one and a small one. 14 There shall not be with you in your house efah and efah (i.e. two different measures, a big one and a small one). 15 Indeed a stone that is full and honest you shall have, an efah also, one that is full and honest you shall keep. In order to lengthen your days—your days upon the land that 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah is giving to you. 16 Because indeed an abhorrence it is to 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah, all who do such a thing—all who commit any fraud!”
מפטיר יז זָכ֕וֹר אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה לְךָ֖ עֲמָלֵ֑ק בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶ֥ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם׃ יח אֲשֶׁ֨ר קָֽרְךָ֜ בַּדֶּ֗רֶךְ וַיְזַנֵּ֤ב בְּךָ֙ כׇּל־הַנֶּחֱשָׁלִ֣ים אַֽחֲרֶ֔יךָ וְאַתָּ֖ה עָיֵ֣ף וְיָגֵ֑עַ וְלֹ֥א יָרֵ֖א אֱלֹהִֽים׃ יט וְהָיָ֡ה בְּהָנִ֣יחַ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֣יךָ ׀ לְ֠ךָ֠ מִכׇּל־אֹ֨יְבֶ֜יךָ מִסָּבִ֗יב בָּאָ֙רֶץ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְהֹוָה־אֱ֠לֹהֶ֠יךָ נֹתֵ֨ן לְךָ֤ נַחֲלָה֙ לְרִשְׁתָּ֔הּ תִּמְחֶה֙ אֶת־זֵ֣כֶר עֲמָלֵ֔ק מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם לֹ֖א תִּשְׁכָּֽח׃ {פ}
17 “Remember that which occurred—what was done to you by Amaleq on the road, when you came out of Mitsrayim, 18 how he came upon you there on the road, and he cut off from you all the stragglers at your rear, when you were weary and worn. He had no fear of Elohim. 19 And it therefore must be when rest is granted by 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah—when Hashem gives respite to you from all your enemies that are all around in the land that 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 your elo’ah is giving to you as an inheritance, to possess it: you must blot out the remembrance of Amaleq from under the heavens. This you must not forget!”

The Masoretic text presented here is from Rabbi Dr. Seth (Avi) Kadish’s Miqra al pi ha-Mesorah. For the translation in English, I have adapted the translation of Len Fellman from his collection of transtropilized parashot, without including a number of innovations intended for readers listening to and/or chanting his text. (For Fellman’s completely transtropilized text along with idiomatic “padded” text separated out as greyed text, please consult his source.) Fellman writes:

I favor literal translations (e.g. “cut a covenant”) to call attention to Hebrew idioms, and towards simpler (even if less accurate) words (e.g. Ex. 12:7 “beam above the door” rather than “lintel”) to be easier to follow. If my readings provoke a discussion of the Hebrew, I consider that as justification for using less-than-idiomatic English. I try to find just the right balance between “literalness” and “listenable-ness”. A primary goal is throwing light on the Hebrew syntax….The English translations I mostly use (besides several scholarly commentaries) are the following:

  • Aryeh Kaplan, The Living Torah (1981) (also my source for proper names & transliterations)
  • Richard Elliott Friedman, The Bible With Sources Revealed (2003)
  • Everett Fox, The Five Books of Moses (1997)
  • The Stone Edition Tanach (1996)
  • JPS Hebrew-English Tanach, (2nd Ed. 2000), along with Orlinsky, ‘Notes on the New Translation of the Torah’ (1969)
  • Robert Alter, The Five Books of Moses (2004)
  • Commentaries in the Anchor Bible series
  • Rotherham, The Emphasized Bible (1902)
  • The Jerusalem Bible (1966) (also my source for topic headings)
  • The New King James Bible (1982)

In my adaptation of Len’s work, I mostly re-Hebraize divine names, place names, and personal names. I also use gender-neutral pronouns and circumlocutions in place of default Hebrew male pronouns and the terms ‘God/gods’ (e.g. singular ‘they/their’ and Hashem instead of ‘he/him/his’). For ‘ḥamor’ I prefer “donkey” over “ass.” Aside from these, I have made minor punctuation changes. —Aharon Varady

Source(s)

Loading

 

Notes

Notes
1 בספרי תימן קַן בקו”ף גדולה
2 acc. to Stone Edition Tanach
3 ברוב ספרי אשכנז דַּכָּ֛ה
4 yad: Cf. Robert Alter
5 lit. nakedness, nudity, genitals, and thus, cognate with the Arabic: عَوْرَة (awrāt) which includes a meaning of defectiveness, faultiness, deficiency, and imperfection. Dr. Everett Fox offers “nakedness” but that meaning doesn’t seem specific enough here or later (in Deuteronomy 24:1). In rabbinic Judaism, ervah is shorthand for an illicit sexual relationship — a meaning which does not seem to fit the meaning of ervah in the context of this verse either. A more productive use of “nakedness” here would be metaphorical, referring, I think, to a more general sensibility concerned with not leaving revealed what should rather be concealed in a brazen, callous, or utterly neglectful or hapless manner, eliciting just the sort of disgust one might experience if one accidentally stepped into their neighbor’s dog poop. I think “shamelessness” or “profligacy,” might suffice for a definition especially where profligate describes a behavior of wasting resources and a careless attitude concerning waste in general. In this way, ervah as profligate connects soundly with the command not to needlessly waste or lay waste (the mitsvah of bal tashḥit). Following the injunction to preserve fruit trees outside besieged cities (in Deuteronomy 20:19), this mitsvah provides yet another implied warning not to follow or otherwise encourage the derekh mashḥit (the way of the destroyer) — a particularly apt warning in the context of an army and its soldiers literally making waste, i.e. generating ruinous pollution. Such a command remains relevant today given that the United States military remains one of the largest polluters in the world (as of 2019). For a seemingly different but related usage, see below, Deuteronomy 24:1. —Aharon N. Varady
6 n’davah: acc. to Robert Alter
7 Cf. Robert Alter.
8 See note above on Deuteronomy 23:13. The primary meaning of ‘nakedness’ does not make sense here. The idea of a deficiency or defect (apparent in the revelation of nudity) does make sense, although the implication here is horrible to my sensibility. In rabbinic tradition, ervah is a euphemism for illicit sexual relationship. As in Deuteronomy 23:13, I suggest that “shamelessness” or “profligacy,” might suffice for a definition. Someone profligate wastes resources with abandon and carries with them a careless attitude concerning waste in general, in other words, someone flagrantly inconsiderate, even destructive in nature. Profligate seems apt to me if we recognize in ervah someone who is wasteful with the equity of a relationship founded on commitment, prone to elicit heartbreak through unconscientious or even perhaps deliberate acts of betrayal — and I find this framing of ervah much preferable to calling someone illicit, licentious, or debauched — accusations that shame sexual liberty rather than focus on the root of the pain: taking liberties with the psychical and emotional health of one’s partner. What remains problematic here despite my redemptive reading is that women, already a vulnerable population as attested elsewhere in the text, are the subject of lost favor among men whose own vigilance concerning ervah (in Deuteronomy 23:13) seems relegated entirely to their bodily excretions among a wholly male population of soldiers. —Aharon N. Varady
9 cf. Robert Alter

 PDF (or Print)

 
 
 

 

Comments, Corrections, and Queries