פָּרָשַׁת וָאֶתְחַנַּן | Parashat va’Etḥanan (Deuteronomy 3:23-7:11), color-coded according to its narrative layers

According to the poetry of the Midrash Tanḥuma, Bereshit 1:1, the words of the Torah were inscribed “black fire on white fire.” For many years, I’ve wanted to look deeply into the black fire and visualize the full spectrum of the Torah’s sources, hidden within the black fire but revealed through a critical analysis of its layers of redaction. Below, I’ve set the text of the first Torah portion in the annual Torah reading cycle, using color-coding to distinguish the stratigraphic layers forming the composition of the Masoretic text according to the Supplementary Hypothesis presented by Tsemaḥ Yoreh in his Kernel to Canon series of books (2013-2017) and his website, the Sources of Biblical Narrative. As Dr. Yoreh explains,

The Supplementary Hypothesis asserts that the Pentateuch was composed by several different writers. This reflects an overwhelming academic consensus on Biblical authorship, even among scholars who do not subscribe to the Supplementary Hypothesis in particular.[….] According to the Supplementary Hypothesis, Biblical narrative is layered. No editor took a blowtorch to the parts of the Bible he disagreed with and destroyed them; if he had, we would not find these repetitions and contradictions. Instead, Biblical narrative began with a coherent, foundational bedrock, which over time accreted more and more storylines. Unlike geological processes, though, this process of addition was deliberate. What happened if one author disagreed with his predecessor’s storyline or worldview? He did not simply take an axe to the narrative; instead, he attempted to bury his predecessor’s point of view by repeating his own over and over again, thus skewing our understanding of the story in new ways. Every generation of readers sees the world differently, and thus every generation of writers seeks to adapt their predecessors’ cultural heritage to their own situation. We are not meant simply to dismiss earlier stories; rather, the intention of later writers is to transform our understanding of those stories via their additions.

Legend

⬛ Most of the book of Deuteronomy (sefer Devarim) is considered the composite of three layers of redaction, ‘D1,’ ‘D2,’ and ‘Dp.’ Together, these layers (commonly referred to as the ‘Deuteronomist’) are thought to have formed by a complex process that reached probably from the 7th century BCE to the early 5th. This strata is primarily responsible for incorporating the law code of Deuteronomy into the Pentateuch. D1, as it is called, also adds a layer of redaction concerned with theodicy in the books of Joshua-Kings. D1 appears here in BLACK text.

⬛ This strata, called D2, shares a particularly non-Judean perspective following the split between the north (Ephraim/Yisrael) and the south (Yehudah) after the reign of Shlomo haMelekh, a perspective that was ignored by D1 (and successive authors). In Deuteronomy, D2 adds hortatory (sermons) to D1’s narrative introduction at the beginning of Deuteronomy (the focus of which is the observation of the commandments and divine justice), and otherwise supplements D1’s work. (A few verses in Parashat Bo in the book of Exodus are also attributed to D2.) D2 appears here in RUST-BROWN text.

⬛ This strata “reflects the strength and demands of the Jerusalem priesthood” following upon the reforms of King Yoshiyahu in the mid- to late 7th century BCE. The third Deuteronomist (and the latest) is the most easily identified, since they are the Deuteronomist most interested in Priestly themes such as purity, proper sacrifice, and the priests. This third Deuteronomist seems to have confined his additions to the book of Deuteronomy (almost exclusively confining himself to hortatory and laws). This layer, referred to as ‘Dp’ (for ‘Priestly’), appears here in DARK GREEN text.

⬛ The next strata popularized Kohanite law for the remnant of Judah after the Temple was destroyed, and functioned as an intermediary between Kohanite lists and laws and the surrounding narrative. This layer, which Dr. Yoreh calls ‘H’ (for the ‘Holiness Code’) appears here in LIME-GREEN text.

Parashat va’Etḥanan (Deuteronomy 3:23-7:11) in the annual Torah reading cycle is the second parashah in Sefer Devarim. It is preceded by parashat Devarim (Deuteronomy 1:1-3:22). Parashat Éqev (Deuteronomy 7:12-11:25), follows it.

Source (Hebrew) Translation (English)

ג כג וָאֶתְחַנַּ֖ן אֶל־יְהֹוָ֑ה בָּעֵ֥ת הַהִ֖וא לֵאמֹֽר׃ כד אֲדֹנָ֣י יֱהֹוִ֗ה אַתָּ֤ה הַֽחִלּ֙וֹתָ֙ לְהַרְא֣וֹת אֶֽת־עַבְדְּךָ֔ אֶ֨ת־גׇּדְלְךָ֔ וְאֶת־יָדְךָ֖ הַחֲזָקָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֤ר מִי־אֵל֙ בַּשָּׁמַ֣יִם וּבָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂ֥ה כְמַעֲשֶׂ֖יךָ וְכִגְבוּרֹתֶֽךָ׃ כה אֶעְבְּרָה־נָּ֗א וְאֶרְאֶה֙ אֶת־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַטּוֹבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן הָהָ֥ר הַטּ֛וֹב הַזֶּ֖ה וְהַלְּבָנֹֽן׃ כו וַיִּתְעַבֵּ֨ר יְהֹוָ֥ה בִּי֙ לְמַ֣עַנְכֶ֔ם וְלֹ֥א שָׁמַ֖ע אֵלָ֑י וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֤ה אֵלַי֙ רַב־לָ֔ךְ אַל־תּ֗וֹסֶף דַּבֵּ֥ר אֵלַ֛י ע֖וֹד בַּדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה׃ כז עֲלֵ֣ה ׀ רֹ֣אשׁ הַפִּסְגָּ֗ה וְשָׂ֥א עֵינֶ֛יךָ יָ֧מָּה וְצָפֹ֛נָה וְתֵימָ֥נָה וּמִזְרָ֖חָה וּרְאֵ֣ה בְעֵינֶ֑יךָ כִּי־לֹ֥א תַעֲבֹ֖ר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֥ן הַזֶּֽה׃ כח וְצַ֥ו אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁ֖עַ וְחַזְּקֵ֣הוּ וְאַמְּצֵ֑הוּ כִּי־ה֣וּא יַעֲבֹ֗ר לִפְנֵי֙ הָעָ֣ם הַזֶּ֔ה וְהוּא֙ יַנְחִ֣יל אוֹתָ֔ם אֶת־הָאָ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּרְאֶֽה׃ כט וַנֵּ֣שֶׁב בַּגָּ֔יְא מ֖וּל בֵּ֥ית פְּעֽוֹר׃
3 23 “Now I pleaded with YHVH at that time, saying: 24 ‘My Lord YHVH, you yourself have started to let your servant see your greatness and your strong hand, that who is an el in heaven and on earth that can do according to your deeds and according to your power! 25 Pray let me cross over that I may see the good land that is in (the country) across the Yarden, this good hill-country, and the Levanon!’ 26 But YHVH was cross with me on your account, and he would not hearken to me, YHVH said to me: ‘Enough for you! Do not speak to me any more again about this matter! 27 Go up to the top of the Pisgah (Range) and lift up your eyes-toward the sea, toward the north, toward the south, and toward sunrise; see (it) with your eyes, for you will not cross this Yarden! 28 But command Yehoshua, make-him-strong, make-him-courageous, for he will cross over before this people and he will cause them to inherit the land that you see.’ 29 And we stayed in the valley, opposite Bet Pe’or.”[1]Dtr 2 accentuates that even though Moses was involved in the conquest of this Trans-Jordanian territory that – it is Joshua who will ultimately conquer the land of Canaan. Moses will not enter the promised land, because of an unspecified sin, perhaps because he agreed to sending spies without asking for divine approval, and see the commentary on chapter 1.

ד א וְעַתָּ֣ה יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל שְׁמַ֤ע אֶל־הַֽחֻקִּים֙ וְאֶל־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָֽנֹכִ֛י מְלַמֵּ֥ד אֶתְכֶ֖ם לַעֲשׂ֑וֹת לְמַ֣עַן תִּֽחְי֗וּ וּבָאתֶם֙ וִֽירִשְׁתֶּ֣ם אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֱלֹהֵ֥י אֲבֹתֵיכֶ֖ם נֹתֵ֥ן לָכֶֽם׃ ב לֹ֣א תֹסִ֗פוּ עַל־הַדָּבָר֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר אָנֹכִי֙ מְצַוֶּ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְלֹ֥א תִגְרְע֖וּ מִמֶּ֑נּוּ לִשְׁמֹ֗ר אֶת־מִצְוֺת֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָנֹכִ֖י מְצַוֶּ֥ה אֶתְכֶֽם׃ ג עֵֽינֵיכֶם֙ הָֽרֹא֔וֹת אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה יְהֹוָ֖ה בְּבַ֣עַל פְּע֑וֹר כִּ֣י כׇל־הָאִ֗ישׁ אֲשֶׁ֤ר הָלַךְ֙ אַחֲרֵ֣י בַֽעַל־פְּע֔וֹר הִשְׁמִיד֛וֹ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ מִקִּרְבֶּֽךָ׃ ד וְאַתֶּם֙ הַדְּבֵקִ֔ים בַּיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֑ם חַיִּ֥ים כֻּלְּכֶ֖ם הַיּֽוֹם׃
4 1 “And now, O Yisra’el, hearken to the laws and the regulations that I am teaching you to observe, in order that you may live and enter and take-possession of the land that YHVH, the elo’ah of your fathers, is giving to you. 2 You are not to add to the word that I am commanding you, and you are not to subtract from it, in keeping the commandments of YHVH your elo’ah that I am commanding you.[2]A short introduction to the body of laws which will follow in Deuteronomy 12-26. First, however, the seminal moment of lawgiving will be revisited, i.e. the ten-commandments at Mount-Sinai, which is dispersed among four chapters because of lengthy “sermonlike” additions by Dtr 2. 3 Your eyes (it is) that have seen what YHVH did at Baal Pe’or: indeed, every man that walked after Baal Pe’or — YHVH your elo’ah destroyed him from among you! 4 But you, the ones clinging to YHVH your elo’ah, are alive, all of you, today!”[3]An allusion to the plague that the deity inflicted upon Israel following the sin of Baal Peor in Numbers 25 according to P. Note the abrupt switch from the general warning to a specific instance of sin indicating an insertion of secondary material.

שני ה רְאֵ֣ה ׀ לִמַּ֣דְתִּי אֶתְכֶ֗ם חֻקִּים֙ וּמִשְׁפָּטִ֔ים כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוַּ֖נִי יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהָ֑י לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת כֵּ֔ן בְּקֶ֣רֶב הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתֶּ֛ם בָּאִ֥ים שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ׃ ו וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם֮ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם֒ כִּ֣י הִ֤וא חׇכְמַתְכֶם֙ וּבִ֣ינַתְכֶ֔ם לְעֵינֵ֖י הָעַמִּ֑ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִשְׁמְע֗וּן אֵ֚ת כׇּל־הַחֻקִּ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה וְאָמְר֗וּ רַ֚ק עַם־חָכָ֣ם וְנָב֔וֹן הַגּ֥וֹי הַגָּד֖וֹל הַזֶּֽה׃ ז כִּ֚י מִי־ג֣וֹי גָּד֔וֹל אֲשֶׁר־ל֥וֹ אֱלֹהִ֖ים קְרֹבִ֣ים אֵלָ֑יו כַּיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֔ינוּ בְּכׇל־קׇרְאֵ֖נוּ אֵלָֽיו׃ ח וּמִי֙ גּ֣וֹי גָּד֔וֹל אֲשֶׁר־ל֛וֹ חֻקִּ֥ים וּמִשְׁפָּטִ֖ים צַדִּיקִ֑ם כְּכֹל֙ הַתּוֹרָ֣ה הַזֹּ֔את אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָנֹכִ֛י נֹתֵ֥ן לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם הַיּֽוֹם׃
5 “See, I am teaching you laws and regulations as YHVH my elo’ah has commanded me, to do thus, amid the land that you are entering to possess. 6 You are to keep (them), you are to observe (them), for that (will be) wisdom-for-you and understanding-for-you in the eyes of the peoples who, when they hear all these laws, will say: ‘Only a wise and understanding people is this great nation!’ 7 For who (else) is (such) a great nation that has Elohim so near to it as YHVH our elo’ah in all our calling on him? 8 And who (else) is (such) a great nation that has laws and regulations so equitable as all this Torah/Instruction that I put before you today?”[4]Dtr 2 begins with the identical formula as in vs. 1 and then elaborates upon Dtr 1’s introduction, praising the laws about to be given. It is some times quite difficult to distinguish between the two Deuteronomistic authors’ orations due to a similar language and outlook, here, however, it seems likely that this section is an expansion.

ט רַ֡ק הִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֩ וּשְׁמֹ֨ר נַפְשְׁךָ֜ מְאֹ֗ד פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּ֨ח אֶת־הַדְּבָרִ֜ים אֲשֶׁר־רָא֣וּ עֵינֶ֗יךָ וּפֶן־יָס֙וּרוּ֙ מִלְּבָ֣בְךָ֔ כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֣י חַיֶּ֑יךָ וְהוֹדַעְתָּ֥ם לְבָנֶ֖יךָ וְלִבְנֵ֥י בָנֶֽיךָ׃ י י֗וֹם אֲשֶׁ֨ר עָמַ֜דְתָּ לִפְנֵ֨י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֘יךָ֮ בְּחֹרֵב֒ בֶּאֱמֹ֨ר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֵלַ֗י הַקְהֶל־לִי֙ אֶת־הָעָ֔ם וְאַשְׁמִעֵ֖ם אֶת־דְּבָרָ֑י אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִלְמְד֜וּן לְיִרְאָ֣ה אֹתִ֗י כׇּל־הַיָּמִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֨ר הֵ֤ם חַיִּים֙ עַל־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה וְאֶת־בְּנֵיהֶ֖ם יְלַמֵּדֽוּן׃ יא וַתִּקְרְב֥וּן וַתַּֽעַמְד֖וּן תַּ֣חַת הָהָ֑ר וְהָהָ֞ר בֹּעֵ֤ר בָּאֵשׁ֙ עַד־לֵ֣ב הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם חֹ֖שֶׁךְ עָנָ֥ן וַעֲרָפֶֽל׃ יב וַיְדַבֵּ֧ר יְהֹוָ֛ה אֲלֵיכֶ֖ם מִתּ֣וֹךְ הָאֵ֑שׁ ק֤וֹל דְּבָרִים֙ אַתֶּ֣ם שֹׁמְעִ֔ים וּתְמוּנָ֛ה אֵינְכֶ֥ם רֹאִ֖ים זוּלָתִ֥י קֽוֹל׃ יג וַיַּגֵּ֨ד לָכֶ֜ם אֶת־בְּרִית֗וֹ אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֤ה אֶתְכֶם֙ לַעֲשׂ֔וֹת עֲשֶׂ֖רֶת הַדְּבָרִ֑ים וַֽיִּכְתְּבֵ֔ם עַל־שְׁנֵ֖י לֻח֥וֹת אֲבָנִֽים׃ יד וְאֹתִ֞י צִוָּ֤ה יְהֹוָה֙ בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֔וא לְלַמֵּ֣ד אֶתְכֶ֔ם חֻקִּ֖ים וּמִשְׁפָּטִ֑ים לַעֲשֹׂתְכֶ֣ם אֹתָ֔ם בָּאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתֶּ֛ם עֹבְרִ֥ים שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ׃
9 “Only: take you care, take exceeding care for your self, lest you forget the things that your eyes saw, lest you turn-aside in your heart all the days of your life; make-them-known to your children, and to your children’s children: 10 The day that you stood before the presence of YHVH your elo’ah at Ḥorev, when YHVH said to me: ‘Assemble the people to me, that I may have them hear my words that they may learn to hold me in awe all the days that they are alive on the fertile-earth, — and their children, they are to teach!’ — 11 you came-near, you stood beneath the mountain: now the mountain was burning with fire, up to the (very) heart of the heavens, (in) darkness, cloud and fog. 12 And YHVH spoke to you from the midst of the fire: a voice of words you heard, a form you did not see, only a voice! 13 He announced to you his covenant which he commanded you to observe, the Ten Words, and he wrote them down on two stone stelae.[5]The beginning of Dtr 1’s Sinai account; this narrative will continue in Chapters 5, 9, and 10. Since the sections are so dispersed between these chapters, the connection between them is not always obvious, but if one combines all the sections together one arrives at a coherent account. 14 And me, YHVH commanded at that time to teach you laws and regulations for you to observe them in the land that you are crossing into to possess.”

טו וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּ֥ם מְאֹ֖ד לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶ֑ם כִּ֣י לֹ֤א רְאִיתֶם֙ כׇּל־תְּמוּנָ֔ה בְּי֗וֹם דִּבֶּ֨ר יְהֹוָ֧ה אֲלֵיכֶ֛ם בְּחֹרֵ֖ב מִתּ֥וֹךְ הָאֵֽשׁ׃ טז פֶּ֨ן־תַּשְׁחִת֔וּן וַעֲשִׂיתֶ֥ם לָכֶ֛ם פֶּ֖סֶל תְּמוּנַ֣ת כׇּל־סָ֑מֶל תַּבְנִ֥ית זָכָ֖ר א֥וֹ נְקֵבָֽה׃ יז תַּבְנִ֕ית כׇּל־בְּהֵמָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר בָּאָ֑רֶץ תַּבְנִית֙ כׇּל־צִפּ֣וֹר כָּנָ֔ף אֲשֶׁ֥ר תָּע֖וּף בַּשָּׁמָֽיִם׃ יח תַּבְנִ֕ית כׇּל־רֹמֵ֖שׂ בָּאֲדָמָ֑ה תַּבְנִ֛ית כׇּל־דָּגָ֥ה אֲשֶׁר־בַּמַּ֖יִם מִתַּ֥חַת לָאָֽרֶץ׃ יט וּפֶן־תִּשָּׂ֨א עֵינֶ֜יךָ הַשָּׁמַ֗יְמָה וְֽ֠רָאִ֠יתָ אֶת־הַשֶּׁ֨מֶשׁ וְאֶת־הַיָּרֵ֜חַ וְאֶת־הַכּֽוֹכָבִ֗ים כֹּ֚ל צְבָ֣א הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וְנִדַּחְתָּ֛ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִ֥יתָ לָהֶ֖ם וַעֲבַדְתָּ֑ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר חָלַ֜ק יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ אֹתָ֔ם לְכֹל֙ הָֽעַמִּ֔ים תַּ֖חַת כׇּל־הַשָּׁמָֽיִם׃ כ וְאֶתְכֶם֙ לָקַ֣ח יְהֹוָ֔ה וַיּוֹצִ֥א אֶתְכֶ֛ם מִכּ֥וּר הַבַּרְזֶ֖ל מִמִּצְרָ֑יִם לִהְי֥וֹת ל֛וֹ לְעַ֥ם נַחֲלָ֖ה כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃
15 “Now you are to take exceeding care for your selves — for you did not see any form on the day that YHVH spoke to you at Ḥorev from the midst of the fire — 16 lest you wreak-ruin by making yourselves a carved form of any figure, 17 (in the) pattern of male or female, the pattern of any domesticated-animal that is on earth, the pattern of any winged bird that flies in the heavens, 18 the pattern of any crawling-thing on the fertile-earth, the pattern of any fish that is in the waters beneath the earth — 19 or lest you lift up your eyes toward the heavens and see the sun and the moon and the stars, all the forces of the heavens, and be lured-away to prostrate yourselves to them and serve them, whom YHVH has apportioned for all the (other) peoples beneath all the heavens. 20 But you, YHVH took and brought you out of the Iron Furnace, out of Mitsrayim, to be for him a people of inheritance, as (is) this (very) day.”

כא וַֽיהֹוָ֥ה הִתְאַנַּף־בִּ֖י עַל־דִּבְרֵיכֶ֑ם וַיִּשָּׁבַ֗ע לְבִלְתִּ֤י עׇבְרִי֙ אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֔ן וּלְבִלְתִּי־בֹא֙ אֶל־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַטּוֹבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ נַחֲלָֽה׃ כב כִּ֣י אָנֹכִ֥י מֵת֙ בָּאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את אֵינֶ֥נִּי עֹבֵ֖ר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן וְאַתֶּם֙ עֹֽבְרִ֔ים וִֽירִשְׁתֶּ֕ם אֶת־הָאָ֥רֶץ הַטּוֹבָ֖ה הַזֹּֽאת׃ כג הִשָּׁמְר֣וּ לָכֶ֗ם פֶּֽן־תִּשְׁכְּחוּ֙ אֶת־בְּרִ֤ית יְהֹוָה֙ אֱלֹ֣הֵיכֶ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֥ר כָּרַ֖ת עִמָּכֶ֑ם וַעֲשִׂיתֶ֨ם לָכֶ֥ם פֶּ֙סֶל֙ תְּמ֣וּנַת כֹּ֔ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוְּךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ׃ כד כִּ֚י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ אֵ֥שׁ אֹכְלָ֖ה ה֑וּא אֵ֖ל קַנָּֽא׃
21 “Now YHVH was incensed with me because of your words and he swore not to let me cross the Yarden, not to enter the good land that YHVH is giving you as an inheritance. 22 For I am going to die in this land, I will not cross the Yarden! But you (are the ones who) will cross over and take-possession of this good land. 23 Take you care, lest you forget the covenant of YHVH your elo’ah which he cut with you, and you make yourselves a carved-image, the form of anything about which YHVH your elo’ah commanded you! 24 For YHVH your elo’ah — he is a consuming fire, a jealous El!”

כה כִּֽי־תוֹלִ֤יד בָּנִים֙ וּבְנֵ֣י בָנִ֔ים וְנוֹשַׁנְתֶּ֖ם בָּאָ֑רֶץ וְהִשְׁחַתֶּ֗ם וַעֲשִׂ֤יתֶם פֶּ֙סֶל֙ תְּמ֣וּנַת כֹּ֔ל וַעֲשִׂיתֶ֥ם הָרַ֛ע בְּעֵינֵ֥י יְהֹוָה־אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לְהַכְעִיסֽוֹ׃ כו הַעִידֹ֩תִי֩ בָכֶ֨ם הַיּ֜וֹם אֶת־הַשָּׁמַ֣יִם וְאֶת־הָאָ֗רֶץ כִּֽי־אָבֹ֣ד תֹּאבֵדוּן֮ מַהֵר֒ מֵעַ֣ל הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אַתֶּ֜ם עֹבְרִ֧ים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּ֛ן שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּ֑הּ לֹֽא־תַאֲרִיכֻ֤ן יָמִים֙ עָלֶ֔יהָ כִּ֥י הִשָּׁמֵ֖ד תִּשָּׁמֵדֽוּן׃ כז וְהֵפִ֧יץ יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם בָּעַמִּ֑ים וְנִשְׁאַרְתֶּם֙ מְתֵ֣י מִסְפָּ֔ר בַּגּוֹיִ֕ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְנַהֵ֧ג יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם שָֽׁמָּה׃ כח וַעֲבַדְתֶּם־שָׁ֣ם אֱלֹהִ֔ים מַעֲשֵׂ֖ה יְדֵ֣י אָדָ֑ם עֵ֣ץ וָאֶ֔בֶן אֲשֶׁ֤ר לֹֽא־יִרְאוּן֙ וְלֹ֣א יִשְׁמְע֔וּן וְלֹ֥א יֹֽאכְל֖וּן וְלֹ֥א יְרִיחֻֽן׃
25 “When you beget children and children’s children and you grow old in the land: should you wreak-ruin by making a carved-image in the form of anything, thus doing what is ill in the eyes of YHVH your elo’ah, vexing him: 26 I call-as-witness against you today the heavens and the earth, that you will perish, yes, perish quickly from off the land that you are crossing the Yarden thither to possess; you will not prolong days upon it, but you will be destroyed, yes, destroyed! 27 YHVH will scatter you among the peoples, you will be left as menfolk few-in-number among the nations whither YHVH will lead you. 28 You will serve there elohim made by human hands, of wood and of stone, which cannot see and cannot hear, and cannot eat and cannot smell.”

כט וּבִקַּשְׁתֶּ֥ם מִשָּׁ֛ם אֶת־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ וּמָצָ֑אתָ כִּ֣י תִדְרְשֶׁ֔נּוּ בְּכׇל־לְבָבְךָ֖ וּבְכׇל־נַפְשֶֽׁךָ׃ ל בַּצַּ֣ר לְךָ֔ וּמְצָא֕וּךָ כֹּ֖ל הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֑לֶּה בְּאַחֲרִית֙ הַיָּמִ֔ים וְשַׁבְתָּ֙ עַד־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ וְשָׁמַעְתָּ֖ בְּקֹלֽוֹ׃ לא כִּ֣י אֵ֤ל רַחוּם֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לֹ֥א יַרְפְּךָ֖ וְלֹ֣א יַשְׁחִיתֶ֑ךָ וְלֹ֤א יִשְׁכַּח֙ אֶת־בְּרִ֣ית אֲבֹתֶ֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֖ע לָהֶֽם׃
29 “But when you seek YHVH your elo’ah from there you will find (him), if you search for him with all your heart and with all your being. 30 When you are in distress because there befall you all these things, in future days, you shall return to YHVH your elo’ah and hearken to his voice. 31 For a compassionate El is YHVH your elo’ah; he will not weaken you, he will not bring-ruin on you, he will not forget the covenant (with) your fathers that he swore to them.”

לב כִּ֣י שְׁאַל־נָא֩ לְיָמִ֨ים רִֽאשֹׁנִ֜ים אֲשֶׁר־הָי֣וּ לְפָנֶ֗יךָ לְמִן־הַיּוֹם֙ אֲשֶׁר֩ בָּרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים ׀ אָדָם֙ עַל־הָאָ֔רֶץ וּלְמִקְצֵ֥ה הַשָּׁמַ֖יִם וְעַד־קְצֵ֣ה הַשָּׁמָ֑יִם הֲנִֽהְיָ֗ה כַּדָּבָ֤ר הַגָּדוֹל֙ הַזֶּ֔ה א֖וֹ הֲנִשְׁמַ֥ע כָּמֹֽהוּ׃ לג הֲשָׁ֣מַֽע עָם֩ ק֨וֹל אֱלֹהִ֜ים מְדַבֵּ֧ר מִתּוֹךְ־הָאֵ֛שׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר־שָׁמַ֥עְתָּ אַתָּ֖ה וַיֶּֽחִי׃ לד א֣וֹ ׀ הֲנִסָּ֣ה אֱלֹהִ֗ים לָ֠ב֠וֹא לָקַ֨חַת ל֣וֹ גוֹי֮ מִקֶּ֣רֶב גּוֹי֒ בְּמַסֹּת֩ בְּאֹתֹ֨ת וּבְמוֹפְתִ֜ים וּבְמִלְחָמָ֗ה וּבְיָ֤ד חֲזָקָה֙ וּבִזְר֣וֹעַ נְטוּיָ֔ה וּבְמוֹרָאִ֖ים גְּדֹלִ֑ים כְּ֠כֹ֠ל אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֨ה לָכֶ֜ם יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֛ם בְּמִצְרַ֖יִם לְעֵינֶֽיךָ׃ לה אַתָּה֙ הׇרְאֵ֣תָ לָדַ֔עַת כִּ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה ה֣וּא הָאֱלֹהִ֑ים אֵ֥ין ע֖וֹד מִלְּבַדּֽוֹ׃ לו מִן־הַשָּׁמַ֛יִם הִשְׁמִֽיעֲךָ֥ אֶת־קֹל֖וֹ לְיַסְּרֶ֑ךָּ וְעַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ הֶרְאֲךָ֙ אֶת־אִשּׁ֣וֹ הַגְּדוֹלָ֔ה וּדְבָרָ֥יו שָׁמַ֖עְתָּ מִתּ֥וֹךְ הָאֵֽשׁ׃
32 “For inquire, pray, of past days, which were before you: from the day that Elohim created humankind on the earth, and from one edge of the heavens to the (other) edge of the heavens: has there ever been such a great thing, or anything heard like it? 33 Has a people ever heard the voice of Elohim speaking from the midst of the fire as you have heard, yourself, and remained-alive? 34 Or has Elohim ever essayed to come and take himself a nation from within a nation, with trials, signs, portents and deeds-of-war, with a strong hand and an outstretched arm and with great awe-inspiring (acts), according as all that YHVH your elo’ah did in Mitsrayim before your eyes? 35 You yourself have been made-to-see, to know that YHVH — is Elohim, there is none else beside him! 36 From the heavens he had you hear his voice, to discipline you; on earth he had you see his great fire, and his words you heard from the midst of the fire.”

לז וְתַ֗חַת כִּ֤י אָהַב֙ אֶת־אֲבֹתֶ֔יךָ וַיִּבְחַ֥ר בְּזַרְע֖וֹ אַחֲרָ֑יו וַיּוֹצִֽאֲךָ֧ בְּפָנָ֛יו בְּכֹח֥וֹ הַגָּדֹ֖ל מִמִּצְרָֽיִם׃ לח לְהוֹרִ֗ישׁ גּוֹיִ֛ם גְּדֹלִ֧ים וַעֲצֻמִ֛ים מִמְּךָ֖ מִפָּנֶ֑יךָ לַהֲבִֽיאֲךָ֗ לָֽתֶת־לְךָ֧ אֶת־אַרְצָ֛ם נַחֲלָ֖ה כַּיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃ לט וְיָדַעְתָּ֣ הַיּ֗וֹם וַהֲשֵׁבֹתָ֮ אֶל־לְבָבֶ֒ךָ֒ כִּ֤י יְהֹוָה֙ ה֣וּא הָֽאֱלֹהִ֔ים בַּשָּׁמַ֣יִם מִמַּ֔עַל וְעַל־הָאָ֖רֶץ מִתָּ֑חַת אֵ֖ין עֽוֹד׃ מ וְשָׁמַרְתָּ֞ אֶת־חֻקָּ֣יו וְאֶת־מִצְוֺתָ֗יו אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָנֹכִ֤י מְצַוְּךָ֙ הַיּ֔וֹם אֲשֶׁר֙ יִיטַ֣ב לְךָ֔ וּלְבָנֶ֖יךָ אַחֲרֶ֑יךָ וּלְמַ֨עַן תַּאֲרִ֤יךְ יָמִים֙ עַל־הָ֣אֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לְךָ֖ כׇּל־הַיָּמִֽים׃
37 “Now since he loved your fathers, he chose their seed after them and brought you out with his presence with great power from Mitsrayim, 38 to dispossess nations greater and mightier than you from before you, by bringing you out, by giving you their land as an inheritance, as (is) this (very) day — 39 know today and lay it up in your heart, that YHVH — is Elohim in the heavens above and on the earth beneath, (there is) none else! 40 You are to keep his laws and his commandments that I command you today, that it may go-well with you and with your children after you, in order that you may prolong days on the fertile-ground that YHVH your elo’ah is giving you, all the days (to come).”[6]Dtr 2 uses this narrative prelude to the ten commandments to launch into a long theological oration regarding the non-corporality of the deity and his greatness – basing himself on Dtr 1’s statement that no image was seen at Horeb (Sinai) in vs. 12.

שלישי מא אָ֣ז יַבְדִּ֤יל מֹשֶׁה֙ שָׁלֹ֣שׁ עָרִ֔ים בְּעֵ֖בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן מִזְרְחָ֖ה שָֽׁמֶשׁ׃ מב לָנֻ֨ס שָׁ֜מָּה רוֹצֵ֗חַ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִרְצַ֤ח אֶת־רֵעֵ֙הוּ֙ בִּבְלִי־דַ֔עַת וְה֛וּא לֹא־שֹׂנֵ֥א ל֖וֹ מִתְּמֹ֣ל שִׁלְשֹׁ֑ם וְנָ֗ס אֶל־אַחַ֛ת מִן־הֶעָרִ֥ים הָאֵ֖ל וָחָֽי׃ מג אֶת־בֶּ֧צֶר בַּמִּדְבָּ֛ר בְּאֶ֥רֶץ הַמִּישֹׁ֖ר לָרֽאוּבֵנִ֑י וְאֶת־רָאמֹ֤ת בַּגִּלְעָד֙ לַגָּדִ֔י וְאֶת־גּוֹלָ֥ן בַּבָּשָׁ֖ן לַֽמְנַשִּֽׁי׃
41 Then Mosheh set apart three towns in (the country) across the Yarden, toward the rising of the sun, 42 for fleeing to (for) the (accidental) murderer who murders his neighbor with no forethought, where he did not bear-hatred toward him from yesterday and the day-before, and so can flee to one of these towns and stay-alive: 43 Betser in the wilderness of the plateau land, belonging to the Re’uveni, Ra’mot in Gil’ad, belonging to the Gadi, and Golan in Bashan, belonging to the Menashi.[7]This section is quite out of place in the context of the theological oration preceding it, and note the use of the third person to describe Moses, as opposed to the first person in the orations. It echoes the command in Numbers 35:14 (H) to set aside cities of refuge in the Trans-Jordan, the conquest of which was accomplished in the preceding chapter. It is not clear why this section was placed here rather than in Chapter 3, except perhaps that Chapter 3 was perceived as a narrative chapter and this chapter was perceived as a legal chapter.

מד וְזֹ֖את הַתּוֹרָ֑ה אֲשֶׁר־שָׂ֣ם מֹשֶׁ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ מה אֵ֚לֶּה הָֽעֵדֹ֔ת וְהַֽחֻקִּ֖ים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֑ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר דִּבֶּ֤ר מֹשֶׁה֙ אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בְּצֵאתָ֖ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם׃ מו בְּעֵ֨בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֜ן בַּגַּ֗יְא מ֚וּל בֵּ֣ית פְּע֔וֹר בְּאֶ֗רֶץ סִיחֹן֙ מֶ֣לֶךְ הָֽאֱמֹרִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֥ר יוֹשֵׁ֖ב בְּחֶשְׁבּ֑וֹן אֲשֶׁ֨ר הִכָּ֤ה מֹשֶׁה֙ וּבְנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל בְּצֵאתָ֖ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם׃ מז וַיִּֽירְשׁ֨וּ אֶת־אַרְצ֜וֹ וְאֶת־אֶ֣רֶץ ׀ ע֣וֹג מֶֽלֶךְ־הַבָּשָׁ֗ן שְׁנֵי֙ מַלְכֵ֣י הָֽאֱמֹרִ֔י אֲשֶׁ֖ר בְּעֵ֣בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּ֑ן מִזְרַ֖ח שָֽׁמֶשׁ׃ מח מֵעֲרֹעֵ֞ר אֲשֶׁ֨ר עַל־שְׂפַת־נַ֧חַל אַרְנֹ֛ן וְעַד־הַ֥ר שִׂיאֹ֖ן ה֥וּא חֶרְמֽוֹן׃ מט וְכׇל־הָ֨עֲרָבָ֜ה עֵ֤בֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן֙ מִזְרָ֔חָה וְעַ֖ד יָ֣ם הָעֲרָבָ֑ה תַּ֖חַת אַשְׁדֹּ֥ת הַפִּסְגָּֽה׃
44 This is the Torah/Instruction that Mosheh set before the Children of Yisra’el, 45 these are the precepts and the laws and the regulations that Mosheh declared to the Children of Yisra’el when they went out from Mitsrayim, 46 in (the country) across the Yarden, in the valley opposite Bet Pe’or, in the land of Siḥon, king of the Emori, who sat-as-ruler in Ḥeshbon, whom Mosheh and the Children of Yisra’el struck, when they went out from Mitsrayim; 47 they took possession of his land and the land of Og king of Bashan — the two kings of the Emori who (were) in (the country) across the Yarden, (toward) the rising of the sun, 48 from Aro’er that is on the bank of the Wadi Arnon, as far as Mount Si’on/Peak — that is Ḥermon, 49 and all the Plain across the Yarden, toward sunrise, as far as the Sea of the Plain, beneath the slopes of the Pisgah (Range).[8]This list of places where Moses imparted the law, very much resembles the list in Deuteronomy 1:1b-2, which was added by Dtr 2. This section introduces the laws as imparted in different places later in the Israelite journey. Together they provide a summary of the Israelite journey – the laws, however, will only come afterwards in Chapters 12-26.

רביעי ה א וַיִּקְרָ֣א מֹשֶׁה֮ אֶל־כׇּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל֒ וַיֹּ֣אמֶר אֲלֵהֶ֗ם שְׁמַ֤ע יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ אֶת־הַחֻקִּ֣ים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָנֹכִ֛י דֹּבֵ֥ר בְּאׇזְנֵיכֶ֖ם הַיּ֑וֹם וּלְמַדְתֶּ֣ם אֹתָ֔ם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֖ם לַעֲשֹׂתָֽם׃ ב יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֗ינוּ כָּרַ֥ת עִמָּ֛נוּ בְּרִ֖ית בְּחֹרֵֽב׃ ג לֹ֣א אֶת־אֲבֹתֵ֔ינוּ כָּרַ֥ת יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶת־הַבְּרִ֣ית הַזֹּ֑את כִּ֣י אִתָּ֔נוּ אֲנַ֨חְנוּ אֵ֥לֶּה פֹ֛ה הַיּ֖וֹם כֻּלָּ֥נוּ חַיִּֽים׃
5 1 Mosheh called all of Yisra’el (together) and said to them: “Hearken, O Yisra’el, to the laws and the regulations that I am speaking in your ears today! You are to learn them, you are to take-care to observe them! 2 YHVH our elo’ah cut with us a covenant at Ḥorev. 3 Not with our fathers did YHVH cut this covenant, but with us, yes, us, those here today, all of us (that are) alive!”[9]Dtr 2 introduces the Ten Commandments which would need no introduction if it were not for the orational and legal sections added by this source and H.

ד פָּנִ֣ים ׀ בְּפָנִ֗ים דִּבֶּ֨ר יְהֹוָ֧ה עִמָּכֶ֛ם בָּהָ֖ר מִתּ֥וֹךְ הָאֵֽשׁ׃ ה אָ֠נֹכִי עֹמֵ֨ד בֵּין־יְהֹוָ֤ה וּבֵֽינֵיכֶם֙ בָּעֵ֣ת הַהִ֔וא לְהַגִּ֥יד לָכֶ֖ם אֶת־דְּבַ֣ר יְהֹוָ֑ה כִּ֤י יְרֵאתֶם֙ מִפְּנֵ֣י הָאֵ֔שׁ וְלֹֽא־עֲלִיתֶ֥ם בָּהָ֖ר לֵאמֹֽר׃
4 “Face to face did YHVH speak with you on the mountain, from the midst of the fire 5  — I myself was standing between YHVH and you at that time, to report to you the word of YHVH; for you were afraid of the fire, and would not go up on the mountain — saying:”

↓↑ ו אָֽנֹכִ֖י֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑֔יךָ אֲשֶׁ֧ר הוֹצֵאתִ֛יךָ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם מִבֵּ֣֥ית עֲבָדִֽ֑ים׃ לֹ֣א־יִהְיֶ֥‍ֽה־לְךָ֛֩ אֱלֹהִ֥֨ים אֲחֵרִ֖֜ים עַל־פָּנָֽ֗יַ׃
6 “I am YHVH your elo’ah who brought you out of the land of Mitsrayim, out of a house of serfs. (7) You are not to have other elohim beside my presence.”

ז לֹֽ֣א־תַעֲשֶֽׂ֨ה־לְךָ֥֣ פֶ֣֙סֶל֙ ׀ כׇּל־תְּמוּנָ֔֡ה אֲשֶׁ֤֣ר בַּשָּׁמַ֣֙יִם֙ ׀ מִמַּ֔֡עַל וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר֩ בָּאָ֖֨רֶץ מִתַָּ֑֜חַת וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר בַּמַּ֖֣יִם ׀ מִתַּ֥֣חַת לָאָֽ֗רֶץ׃ ח לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶ֥֣ה לָהֶ֖ם֮ וְלֹ֣א תָעׇבְדֵ֑ם֒ כִּ֣י אָנֹכִ֞י יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ אֵ֣ל קַנָּ֔א פֹּ֠קֵד עֲוֺ֨ן אָב֧וֹת עַל־בָּנִ֛ים וְעַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁ֥ים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִ֖ים לְשֹׂנְאָֽ֑י׃ ט וְעֹ֥‍֤שֶׂה חֶ֖֙סֶד֙ לַֽאֲלָפִ֑֔ים לְאֹהֲבַ֖י וּלְשֹׁמְרֵ֥י [מצותו] מִצְוֺתָֽי׃
7 (8) “You are not to make yourself a carved-image of any form that is in the heavens above, that is on the earth beneath, that is in the waters beneath the earth. 8 (9) You are not to prostrate yourselves to them, you are not to serve them, for I, YHVH your elo’ah, am a jealous God, calling-to-account the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons to the third and to the fourth (generation) of those that hate me, 9 (10) but showing loyalty to thousands of those that love me, of those that keep my commandments.”

י לֹ֥א תִשָּׂ֛א אֶת־שֵֽׁם־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ לַשָּׁ֑וְא כִּ֣י לֹ֤א יְנַקֶּה֙ יְהֹוָ֔ה אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂ֥א אֶת־שְׁמ֖וֹ לַשָּֽׁוְא׃
10 (11) “You are not to take up the name of YHVH your elo’ah for emptiness, for YHVH will not clear him that takes up his name for emptiness!”

יא שָׁמ֛֣וֹר אֶת־י֥וֹם֩ הַשַּׁבָּ֖֨ת לְקַדְּשׁ֑֜וֹ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוְּךָ֖֣ ׀ יְהֹוָ֥֣ה אֱלֹהֶֽ֗יךָ׃ יב שֵׁ֤֣שֶׁת יָמִ֣ים֙ תַּֽעֲבֹ֔ד֮ וְעָשִׂ֖֣יתָ כׇּֿל־מְלַאכְתֶּֽךָ֒׃ יג וְי֨וֹם֙ הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔‍֜י שַׁבָּ֖֣ת ׀ לַיהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑֗יךָ לֹ֣א תַעֲשֶׂ֣ה כׇל־מְלָאכָ֡ה אַתָּ֣ה וּבִנְךָֽ־וּבִתֶּ֣ךָ וְעַבְדְּךָֽ־וַ֠אֲמָתֶךָ וְשׁוֹרְךָ֨ וַחֲמֹֽרְךָ֜ וְכׇל־בְּהֶמְתֶּ֗ךָ וְגֵֽרְךָ֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר בִּשְׁעָרֶ֔יךָ לְמַ֗עַן יָנ֛וּחַ עַבְדְּךָ֥ וַאֲמָתְךָ֖ כָּמֽ֑וֹךָ׃ יד וְזָכַרְתָּ֗֞ כִּ֣י־עֶ֤֥בֶד הָיִ֣֙יתָ֙ ׀ בְּאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔֗יִם וַיֹּצִ֨אֲךָ֜֩ יְהֹוָ֤֨ה אֱלֹהֶ֤֙יךָ֙ מִשָּׁ֔ם֙ בְּיָ֥‍֤ד חֲזָקָ֖ה֙ וּבִזְרֹ֣עַ נְטוּיָ֑֔ה עַל־כֵּ֗ן צִוְּךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ לַעֲשׂ֖וֹת אֶת־י֥וֹם הַשַּׁבָּֽת׃
11 (12) “Keep the day of Shabbat, by hallowing it, as YHVH your elo’ah has commanded you. 12 (13) For six days you are to serve and to do all your work; 13 (14) but the seventh day (is) Shabbat for YHVH your elo’ah — you are not to do any work: (not) you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your servant, nor your maid, nor your ox, nor your donkey, nor any of your domesticated-animals, nor your sojourner that is in your gates — in order that your servant and your maid may rest as one-like-yourself. 14 (15) You are to bear-in-mind that serf were you in the land of Mitsrayim, but YHVH your elo’ah took you out from there with a strong hand and with an outstretched arm; therefore YHVH your elo’ah commands you to observe the day of Shabbat.”

טו כַּבֵּ֤ד אֶת־אָבִ֙יךָ֙ וְאֶת־אִמֶּ֔ךָ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוְּךָ֖ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ לְמַ֣עַן ׀ יַאֲרִיכֻ֣ן יָמֶ֗יךָ וּלְמַ֙עַן֙ יִ֣יטַב לָ֔ךְ עַ֚ל הָֽאֲדָמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ נֹתֵ֥ן לָֽךְ׃
15 (16) “Honor your father and your mother, as YHVH your elo’ah has commanded you, in order that your days may be prolonged, and in order that it may go-well with you on the fertile-earth that YHVH your elo’ah is giving you.”

טז לֹ֥֖א תִּֿרְצָ֖‍ֽח׃
16 (17) “You are not to murder!”

וְלֹ֣‍֖א תִּֿנְאָ֑‍ֽף׃
“And you are not to adulter!”

וְלֹ֣֖א תִּֿגְנֹֽ֔ב׃
“And you are not to steal!”

וְלֹֽא־תַעֲנֶ֥ה בְרֵֽעֲךָ֖ עֵ֥ד שָֽׁוְא׃
“And you are not to testify against your neighbor as a lying witness!”

יז וְלֹ֥א תַחְמֹ֖ד אֵ֣שֶׁת רֵעֶ֑ךָ
17 (18) “And you are not to desire the wife of your neighbor;”

וְלֹ֨א תִתְאַוֶּ֜ה בֵּ֣ית רֵעֶ֗ךָ שָׂדֵ֜הוּ וְעַבְדּ֤וֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ֙ שׁוֹר֣וֹ וַחֲמֹר֔וֹ וְכֹ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר לְרֵעֶֽךָ׃
“you are not to crave the house of your neighbor, his field, or his servant, or his maid, his ox or his donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor!”

חמישי יח אֶֽת־הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֡לֶּה דִּבֶּר֩ יְהֹוָ֨ה אֶל־כׇּל־קְהַלְכֶ֜ם בָּהָ֗ר מִתּ֤וֹךְ הָאֵשׁ֙ הֶֽעָנָ֣ן וְהָֽעֲרָפֶ֔ל ק֥וֹל גָּד֖וֹל וְלֹ֣א יָסָ֑ף וַֽיִּכְתְּבֵ֗ם עַל־שְׁנֵי֙ לֻחֹ֣ת אֲבָנִ֔ים וַֽיִּתְּנֵ֖ם אֵלָֽי׃ יט וַיְהִ֗י כְּשׇׁמְעֲכֶ֤ם אֶת־הַקּוֹל֙ מִתּ֣וֹךְ הַחֹ֔שֶׁךְ וְהָהָ֖ר בֹּעֵ֣ר בָּאֵ֑שׁ וַתִּקְרְב֣וּן אֵלַ֔י כׇּל־רָאשֵׁ֥י שִׁבְטֵיכֶ֖ם וְזִקְנֵיכֶֽם׃ כ וַתֹּאמְר֗וּ הֵ֣ן הֶרְאָ֜נוּ יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֵ֙ינוּ֙ אֶת־כְּבֹד֣וֹ וְאֶת־גׇּדְל֔וֹ וְאֶת־קֹל֥וֹ שָׁמַ֖עְנוּ מִתּ֣וֹךְ הָאֵ֑שׁ הַיּ֤וֹם הַזֶּה֙ רָאִ֔ינוּ כִּֽי־יְדַבֵּ֧ר אֱלֹהִ֛ים אֶת־הָֽאָדָ֖ם וָחָֽי׃ כא וְעַתָּה֙ לָ֣מָּה נָמ֔וּת כִּ֣י תֹֽאכְלֵ֔נוּ הָאֵ֥שׁ הַגְּדֹלָ֖ה הַזֹּ֑את אִם־יֹסְפִ֣ים ׀ אֲנַ֗חְנוּ לִ֠שְׁמֹ֠עַ אֶת־ק֨וֹל יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֵ֛ינוּ ע֖וֹד וָמָֽתְנוּ׃ כב כִּ֣י מִ֣י כׇל־בָּשָׂ֡ר אֲשֶׁ֣ר שָׁמַ֣ע קוֹל֩ אֱלֹהִ֨ים חַיִּ֜ים מְדַבֵּ֧ר מִתּוֹךְ־הָאֵ֛שׁ כָּמֹ֖נוּ וַיֶּֽחִי׃ כג קְרַ֤ב אַתָּה֙ וּֽשְׁמָ֔ע אֵ֛ת כׇּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר יֹאמַ֖ר יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ וְאַ֣תְּ ׀ תְּדַבֵּ֣ר אֵלֵ֗ינוּ אֵת֩ כׇּל־אֲשֶׁ֨ר יְדַבֵּ֜ר יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֵ֛ינוּ אֵלֶ֖יךָ וְשָׁמַ֥עְנוּ וְעָשִֽׂינוּ׃
18 (19) “These words YHVH spoke to your entire assembly at the mountain from the midst of the fire, the cloud, and the fog, (with) a great voice, adding no more;[10]Dtr 1 offers a recap of the Ten Commandments which very much resembles Exodus 20. The important difference is with regard to the Sabbath commandment which is explained differently. In Exodus 20:8-11 (verse numbering may be different in the various versions), P explains that the reason for the observation of Sabbath is that the world was created in six days and God rested on the seventh. In Deuteronomy the explanation relates Sabbath back to the Exodus, which accords with Deuteronomy’s emphasis on social justice towards the foreigner throughout the legal code of chapters 12-26 (e.g. Deuteronomy 14:28-29). and he wrote them on the two stelae of stone and gave them to me.[11]As in E and J (Exodus 32:1ff), Dtr 1, relates that the tablets were given to Moses only at a later juncture after the ten commandments (and see Deut. 9:8ff). Their mention here is out of place narrativally, and is evidence that the glossator did not read the two parts of the account (Chapters 4-5 and Chapters 9) in conjunction and wished to impart this important tradition here. In other words, the glossator is either Dtr 2 who added the lengthy orations / sermons (at least part them) between chapters 5-9, or a later author. 19 (20) And it was, when you heard the voice from the midst of the darkness and (saw) the mountain burning with fire, you came-near to me, all the heads of your tribes and your elders, 20 (21) and you said: ‘Here, YHVH our elo’ah has let us see all his Kavod and his greatness, and his voice we have heard from the midst of the fire. This day we have seen that Elohim can speak to humans and they can remain-alive! 21 (22) But now, why should we die? For it will consume us, this great fire; if we continue to hear the voice of YHVH our elo’ah anymore, we will die! 22 (23) For who is there (among) all flesh that has (ever) heard the voice of the living Elohim speaking from the midst of the fire, as we have, and remained-alive? 23 (24) You go-near and hear all that YHVH our elo’ah says; and you speak to us all that YHVH our elo’ah speaks to you, we will hearken and we will do (it).'”

כד וַיִּשְׁמַ֤ע יְהֹוָה֙ אֶת־ק֣וֹל דִּבְרֵיכֶ֔ם בְּדַבֶּרְכֶ֖ם אֵלָ֑י וַיֹּ֨אמֶר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֵלַ֗י שָׁ֠מַ֠עְתִּי אֶת־ק֨וֹל דִּבְרֵ֜י הָעָ֤ם הַזֶּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר דִּבְּר֣וּ אֵלֶ֔יךָ הֵיטִ֖יבוּ כׇּל־אֲשֶׁ֥ר דִּבֵּֽרוּ׃ כה מִֽי־יִתֵּ֡ן וְהָיָה֩ לְבָבָ֨ם זֶ֜ה לָהֶ֗ם לְיִרְאָ֥ה אֹתִ֛י וְלִשְׁמֹ֥ר אֶת־כׇּל־מִצְוֺתַ֖י כׇּל־הַיָּמִ֑ים לְמַ֨עַן יִיטַ֥ב לָהֶ֛ם וְלִבְנֵיהֶ֖ם לְעֹלָֽם׃ כו לֵ֖ךְ אֱמֹ֣ר לָהֶ֑ם שׁ֥וּבוּ לָכֶ֖ם לְאׇהֳלֵיכֶֽם׃
24 (25) “And YHVH hearkened to the voice of your words when you spoke to me, YHVH said to me: ‘I have heard the voice of this people’s words that they have spoken to you; it is well, all that they have spoken! 25 (26) Who would give that this heart of theirs would (always) belong to them, to hold me in awe and keep all my commandments, all the days, in order that it might go-well with them and with their children, for the ages![12]A recap of the nation’s response to the ten commandments which is quite similar to its counterpart in Exodus 20:15-18 (the verse numbers vary), except that here Dtr 1 adds the deity’s approval of the nations reaction, fear functions as an important catalyst to the observation of the commandments (e.g. Deuteronomy 13:5). 26 (27) Go, say to them: Return you to your tents!'”

כז וְאַתָּ֗ה פֹּה֮ עֲמֹ֣ד עִמָּדִי֒ וַאֲדַבְּרָ֣ה אֵלֶ֗יךָ אֵ֧ת כׇּל־הַמִּצְוָ֛ה וְהַחֻקִּ֥ים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר תְּלַמְּדֵ֑ם וְעָשׂ֣וּ בָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֧ר אָנֹכִ֛י נֹתֵ֥ן לָהֶ֖ם לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ׃ כח וּשְׁמַרְתֶּ֣ם לַעֲשׂ֔וֹת כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֛ה יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֖ם אֶתְכֶ֑ם לֹ֥א תָסֻ֖רוּ יָמִ֥ין וּשְׂמֹֽאל׃ כט בְּכׇל־הַדֶּ֗רֶךְ אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֜ה יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֛ם אֶתְכֶ֖ם תֵּלֵ֑כוּ לְמַ֤עַן תִּֽחְיוּן֙ וְט֣וֹב לָכֶ֔ם וְהַאֲרַכְתֶּ֣ם יָמִ֔ים בָּאָ֖רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּֽירָשֽׁוּן׃
27 (28) “As for you, remain-standing here beside me, that I may speak to you all the commandment, the laws and the regulations that you are to teach them, that they may observe (them) in the land that I am giving them to possess. 28 (29) You are to take-care to observe as YHVH your elo’ah has commanded you; you are not to turn-aside to the right or to the left. 29 (30) In all the way that YHVH your elo’ah has commanded you, you are to walk, in order that you may remain-alive, and it may be-well with you, and you may prolong (your) days in the land that you are possessing.”[13]Once again Dtr 2 uses the ten commandments to launch into a sermon concerning the observation of the Lord’s laws, this sermon will extend until chapter 9.

ו א וְזֹ֣את הַמִּצְוָ֗ה הַֽחֻקִּים֙ וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֛ה יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֖ם לְלַמֵּ֣ד אֶתְכֶ֑ם לַעֲשׂ֣וֹת בָּאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אַתֶּ֛ם עֹבְרִ֥ים שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ׃ ב לְמַ֨עַן תִּירָ֜א אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ לִ֠שְׁמֹ֠ר אֶת־כׇּל־חֻקֹּתָ֣יו וּמִצְוֺתָיו֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָנֹכִ֣י מְצַוֶּ֒ךָ֒ אַתָּה֙ וּבִנְךָ֣ וּבֶן־בִּנְךָ֔ כֹּ֖ל יְמֵ֣י חַיֶּ֑יךָ וּלְמַ֖עַן יַאֲרִכֻ֥ן יָמֶֽיךָ׃ ג וְשָׁמַעְתָּ֤ יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְשָׁמַרְתָּ֣ לַעֲשׂ֔וֹת אֲשֶׁר֙ יִיטַ֣ב לְךָ֔ וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר תִּרְבּ֖וּן מְאֹ֑ד כַּאֲשֶׁר֩ דִּבֶּ֨ר יְהֹוָ֜ה אֱלֹהֵ֤י אֲבֹתֶ֙יךָ֙ לָ֔ךְ אֶ֛רֶץ זָבַ֥ת חָלָ֖ב וּדְבָֽשׁ׃
6 1 “Now this is the commandment, the laws and the regulations that YHVH your elo’ah has commanded (me) to teach you to observe in the land that you are crossing into to possess, 2 in order that you may hold YHVH your elo’ah in awe, by keeping all his laws and his commandments that I command you, you, and your child, and your child’s child, all the days of your life; and in order that your days may be prolonged. 3 You are to hearken, O Yisra’el, and are to take-care to observe (them), that it may go-well with you, that you may become exceedingly many, as YHVH, the elo’ah of your fathers promised to you — (in) a land flowing with milk and honey.”

ששי ד שְׁמַ֖ע יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ יְהֹוָ֥ה ׀ אֶחָֽד׃ ה וְאָ֣הַבְתָּ֔ אֵ֖ת יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ בְּכׇל־לְבָבְךָ֥ וּבְכׇל־נַפְשְׁךָ֖ וּבְכׇל־מְאֹדֶֽךָ׃ ו וְהָי֞וּ הַדְּבָרִ֣ים הָאֵ֗לֶּה אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָנֹכִ֧י מְצַוְּךָ֛ הַיּ֖וֹם עַל־לְבָבֶֽךָ׃ ז וְשִׁנַּנְתָּ֣ם לְבָנֶ֔יךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ֖ בָּ֑ם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ֤ בְּבֵיתֶ֙ךָ֙ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ֣ בַדֶּ֔רֶךְ וּֽבְשׇׁכְבְּךָ֖ וּבְקוּמֶֽךָ׃ ח וּקְשַׁרְתָּ֥ם לְא֖וֹת עַל־יָדֶ֑ךָ וְהָי֥וּ לְטֹטָפֹ֖ת בֵּ֥ין עֵינֶֽיךָ׃ ט וּכְתַבְתָּ֛ם עַל־מְזֻז֥וֹת בֵּיתֶ֖ךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶֽיךָ׃
4 “Hearken O Yisra’el: YHVH our elo’ah, YHVH (is) One/Unique! 5 Now you are to love YHVH your elo’ah with all your heart, with all your being, with all your substance! 6 These words, which I myself command you today, are to be upon your heart. 7 You are to inculcate them in your children and are to speak of them in your sitting in your house and in your walking in the way, in your lying-down and in your rising-up. 8 You are to tie them as a sign upon your hand, and they are to be for totafot between your eyes. 9 You are to write them upon the doorposts of your house and on your gates.”

י וְהָיָ֞ה כִּ֥י יְבִיאֲךָ֣ ׀ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ אֶל־הָאָ֜רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֨ר נִשְׁבַּ֧ע לַאֲבֹתֶ֛יךָ לְאַבְרָהָ֛ם לְיִצְחָ֥ק וּֽלְיַעֲקֹ֖ב לָ֣תֶת לָ֑ךְ עָרִ֛ים גְּדֹלֹ֥ת וְטֹבֹ֖ת אֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־בָנִֽיתָ׃ יא וּבָ֨תִּ֜ים מְלֵאִ֣ים כׇּל־טוּב֮ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־מִלֵּ֒אתָ֒ וּבֹרֹ֤ת חֲצוּבִים֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־חָצַ֔בְתָּ כְּרָמִ֥ים וְזֵיתִ֖ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־נָטָ֑עְתָּ וְאָכַלְתָּ֖ וְשָׂבָֽעְתָּ׃ יב הִשָּׁ֣מֶר לְךָ֔ פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּ֖ח אֶת־יְהֹוָ֑ה אֲשֶׁ֧ר הוֹצִֽיאֲךָ֛ מֵאֶ֥רֶץ מִצְרַ֖יִם מִבֵּ֥ית עֲבָדִֽים׃ יג אֶת־יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ תִּירָ֖א וְאֹת֣וֹ תַעֲבֹ֑ד וּבִשְׁמ֖וֹ תִּשָּׁבֵֽעַ׃ יד לֹ֣א תֵֽלְכ֔וּן אַחֲרֵ֖י אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֑ים מֵאֱלֹהֵי֙ הָֽעַמִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר סְבִיבוֹתֵיכֶֽם׃ טו כִּ֣י אֵ֥ל קַנָּ֛א יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ בְּקִרְבֶּ֑ךָ פֶּן־יֶ֠חֱרֶ֠ה אַף־יְהֹוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ בָּ֔ךְ וְהִשְׁמִ֣ידְךָ֔ מֵעַ֖ל פְּנֵ֥י הָאֲדָמָֽה׃
10 “Now it shall be when YHVH your elo’ah brings you to the land that he swore to your fathers, to Avraham, to Yitsḥaq, and to Yaaqov, to give you, towns great and good that you did not build, 11 houses full of every good-thing that you did not fill, cisterns hewn out that you did not hew, vineyards and olive-groves that you did not plant, and you eat and you are satisfied, 12 take-you-care, lest you forget YHVH who brought you out of the land of Mitsrayim, out of a house of serfs. 13 YHVH your elo’ah you are to hold-in-awe, him you are to serve, by his name you are to swear! 14 You are not to walk after other elohim from the elo’ah of the peoples that are around you, 15 for a jealous El is YHVH your elo’ah in your midst — lest the anger of YHVH your elo’ah flare up against you and he destroy you from off the face of the fertile-earth.”

טז לֹ֣א תְנַסּ֔וּ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֑ם כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר נִסִּיתֶ֖ם בַּמַּסָּֽה׃ יז שָׁמ֣וֹר תִּשְׁמְר֔וּן אֶת־מִצְוֺ֖ת יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶ֑ם וְעֵדֹתָ֥יו וְחֻקָּ֖יו אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּֽךְ׃ יח וְעָשִׂ֛יתָ הַיָּשָׁ֥ר וְהַטּ֖וֹב בְּעֵינֵ֣י יְהֹוָ֑ה לְמַ֙עַן֙ יִ֣יטַב לָ֔ךְ וּבָ֗אתָ וְיָֽרַשְׁתָּ֙ אֶת־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַטֹּבָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּ֥ע יְהֹוָ֖ה לַאֲבֹתֶֽיךָ׃ יט לַהֲדֹ֥ף אֶת־כׇּל־אֹיְבֶ֖יךָ מִפָּנֶ֑יךָ כַּאֲשֶׁ֖ר דִּבֶּ֥ר יְהֹוָֽה׃
16 “You are not to test YHVH your elo’ah as you tested him at Massah/Testing! 17 Keep, yes, keep the commandment of YHVH your elo’ah, and his precepts and his laws that he commanded you. 18 You are to do what is right and what is good in the eyes of YHVH, in order that it may go-well with you, so that you may come and take-possession of the good land that YHVH swore to your fathers; 19 to push out all your enemies before you, as YHVH has promised.”

כ כִּֽי־יִשְׁאָלְךָ֥ בִנְךָ֛ מָחָ֖ר לֵאמֹ֑ר מָ֣ה הָעֵדֹ֗ת וְהַֽחֻקִּים֙ וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּ֛ה יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ אֶתְכֶֽם׃ כא וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ לְבִנְךָ֔ עֲבָדִ֛ים הָיִ֥ינוּ לְפַרְעֹ֖ה בְּמִצְרָ֑יִם וַיֹּצִיאֵ֧נוּ יְהֹוָ֛ה מִמִּצְרַ֖יִם בְּיָ֥ד חֲזָקָֽה׃ כב וַיִּתֵּ֣ן יְהֹוָ֡ה אוֹתֹ֣ת וּ֠מֹפְתִ֠ים גְּדֹלִ֨ים וְרָעִ֧ים ׀ בְּמִצְרַ֛יִם בְּפַרְעֹ֥ה וּבְכׇל־בֵּית֖וֹ לְעֵינֵֽינוּ׃ כג וְאוֹתָ֖נוּ הוֹצִ֣יא מִשָּׁ֑ם לְמַ֙עַן֙ הָבִ֣יא אֹתָ֔נוּ לָ֤תֶת לָ֙נוּ֙ אֶת־הָאָ֔רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֖ע לַאֲבֹתֵֽינוּ׃ כד וַיְצַוֵּ֣נוּ יְהֹוָ֗ה לַעֲשׂוֹת֙ אֶת־כׇּל־הַחֻקִּ֣ים הָאֵ֔לֶּה לְיִרְאָ֖ה אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ לְט֥וֹב לָ֙נוּ֙ כׇּל־הַיָּמִ֔ים לְחַיֹּתֵ֖נוּ כְּהַיּ֥וֹם הַזֶּֽה׃ כה וּצְדָקָ֖ה תִּֽהְיֶה־לָּ֑נוּ כִּֽי־נִשְׁמֹ֨ר לַעֲשׂ֜וֹת אֶת־כׇּל־הַמִּצְוָ֣ה הַזֹּ֗את לִפְנֵ֛י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵ֖ינוּ כַּאֲשֶׁ֥ר צִוָּֽנוּ׃
20 “When your child asks you on the morrow, saying: ‘What (mean) the precepts, the laws, and the regulations that YHVH our elo’ah has commanded you?’ 21 Then you are to say to your child: ‘Serfs were we to Pharaoh in Mitsrayim, and YHVH took us out of Mitsrayim with a strong hand; 22 YHVH placed signs and portents, great and evil-ones, on Mitsrayim, on Pharaoh and all his house, before our eyes. 23 And us he took out of there in order to bring us, to give us the land that he swore to our fathers; 24 so YHVH has commanded us to observe all these laws, to hold YHVH our elo’ah in awe, to have it be-well with us all the days (to come), to keep-us-alive, as (is) this day. 25 And righteous-merit will it be (considered) for us when we take-care to observe all this commandment before the presence of YHVH our elo’ah, as he commanded us.'”

שביעי ז א כִּ֤י יְבִֽיאֲךָ֙ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ אֶל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּ֥ה בָא־שָׁ֖מָּה לְרִשְׁתָּ֑הּ וְנָשַׁ֣ל גּֽוֹיִם־רַבִּ֣ים ׀ מִפָּנֶ֡יךָ הַֽחִתִּי֩ וְהַגִּרְגָּשִׁ֨י וְהָאֱמֹרִ֜י וְהַכְּנַעֲנִ֣י וְהַפְּרִזִּ֗י וְהַֽחִוִּי֙ וְהַיְבוּסִ֔י שִׁבְעָ֣ה גוֹיִ֔ם רַבִּ֥ים וַעֲצוּמִ֖ים מִמֶּֽךָּ׃ ב וּנְתָנָ֞ם יְהֹוָ֧ה אֱלֹהֶ֛יךָ לְפָנֶ֖יךָ וְהִכִּיתָ֑ם הַחֲרֵ֤ם תַּחֲרִים֙ אֹתָ֔ם לֹא־תִכְרֹ֥ת לָהֶ֛ם בְּרִ֖ית וְלֹ֥א תְחׇנֵּֽם׃ ג וְלֹ֥א תִתְחַתֵּ֖ן בָּ֑ם בִּתְּךָ֙ לֹא־תִתֵּ֣ן לִבְנ֔וֹ וּבִתּ֖וֹ לֹא־תִקַּ֥ח לִבְנֶֽךָ׃ ד כִּֽי־יָסִ֤יר אֶת־בִּנְךָ֙ מֵֽאַחֲרַ֔י וְעָבְד֖וּ אֱלֹהִ֣ים אֲחֵרִ֑ים וְחָרָ֤ה אַף־יְהֹוָה֙ בָּכֶ֔ם וְהִשְׁמִידְךָ֖ מַהֵֽר׃ ה כִּֽי־אִם־כֹּ֤ה תַעֲשׂוּ֙ לָהֶ֔ם מִזְבְּחֹתֵיהֶ֣ם תִּתֹּ֔צוּ וּמַצֵּבֹתָ֖ם תְּשַׁבֵּ֑רוּ וַאֲשֵֽׁירֵהֶם֙ תְּגַדֵּע֔וּן וּפְסִילֵיהֶ֖ם תִּשְׂרְפ֥וּן בָּאֵֽשׁ׃
7 1 “When YHVH your elo’ah brings you to the land that you are entering to possess, and dislodges great nations before you — the Ḥitti, the Girgashi, the Emori, the K’naani, the P’rizi, the Ḥivvi, and the Yevusi — seven nations more numerous and mightier (in number) than you, 2 and YHVH your elo’ah gives them before you and you strike them down: you are to devote-them-to-destruction, yes, destruction, you are not to cut with them a covenant, you are not to show-them-mercy! 3 And you are not to marry (with) them: your daughter you are not to give to their son, their daughter you are not to take for your son — 4 for they would turn-aside your son from (following) after me and they would serve other elohim, and the anger of YHVH would flare up against you, and he would destroy you quickly. 5 Rather, thus are you to do to them: their slaughter-sites you are to wreck, their standing-pillars you are to smash, their Asherot/Sacred-poles you are to cut-to-shreds, and their carved-images you are to burn with fire!”

ו כִּ֣י עַ֤ם קָדוֹשׁ֙ אַתָּ֔ה לַיהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֶ֑יךָ בְּךָ֞ בָּחַ֣ר ׀ יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֗יךָ לִהְי֥וֹת לוֹ֙ לְעַ֣ם סְגֻלָּ֔ה מִכֹּל֙ הָֽעַמִּ֔ים אֲשֶׁ֖ר עַל־פְּנֵ֥י הָאֲדָמָֽה׃ ז לֹ֣א מֵֽרֻבְּכֶ֞ם מִכׇּל־הָֽעַמִּ֗ים חָשַׁ֧ק יְהֹוָ֛ה בָּכֶ֖ם וַיִּבְחַ֣ר בָּכֶ֑ם כִּֽי־אַתֶּ֥ם הַמְעַ֖ט מִכׇּל־הָעַמִּֽים׃ ח כִּי֩ מֵֽאַהֲבַ֨ת יְהֹוָ֜ה אֶתְכֶ֗ם וּמִשׇּׁמְר֤וֹ אֶת־הַשְּׁבֻעָה֙ אֲשֶׁ֤ר נִשְׁבַּע֙ לַאֲבֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם הוֹצִ֧יא יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶתְכֶ֖ם בְּיָ֣ד חֲזָקָ֑ה וַֽיִּפְדְּךָ֙ מִבֵּ֣ית עֲבָדִ֔ים מִיַּ֖ד פַּרְעֹ֥ה מֶֽלֶךְ־מִצְרָֽיִם׃
6 “For you are a people holy to YHVH your elo’ah, (it is) you (that) YHVH your elo’ah chose for him as a treasured people from among all peoples that are on the face of the fertile-earth. 7 Not because of your being many-more than all the peoples has YHVH attached himself to you and chosen you, for you are the least-numerous of all peoples! 8 Rather, because of YHVH’s love for you and because of his keeping the sworn-oath that he swore to your fathers did YHVH take you out, with a strong hand, and redeem you from a house of serfs, from the hand of Pharaoh, king of Mitsrayim.”

מפטיר ט וְיָ֣דַעְתָּ֔ כִּֽי־יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֶ֖יךָ ה֣וּא הָֽאֱלֹהִ֑ים הָאֵל֙ הַֽנֶּאֱמָ֔ן שֹׁמֵ֧ר הַבְּרִ֣ית וְהַחֶ֗סֶד לְאֹהֲבָ֛יו וּלְשֹׁמְרֵ֥י מִצְוֺתָ֖ו לְאֶ֥לֶף דּֽוֹר׃ י וּמְשַׁלֵּ֧ם לְשֹׂנְאָ֛יו אֶל־פָּנָ֖יו לְהַאֲבִיד֑וֹ לֹ֤א יְאַחֵר֙ לְשֹׂ֣נְא֔וֹ אֶל־פָּנָ֖יו יְשַׁלֶּם־לֽוֹ׃ יא וְשָׁמַרְתָּ֨ אֶת־הַמִּצְוָ֜ה וְאֶת־הַֽחֻקִּ֣ים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִ֗ים אֲשֶׁ֨ר אָנֹכִ֧י מְצַוְּךָ֛ הַיּ֖וֹם לַעֲשׂוֹתָֽם׃
9 “Know that YHVH your elo’ah is Elohim, the trustworthy El, keeping the covenant of loyalty with those who love him and with those who keep his commandments, to the thousandth generation, 10 and paying back those who hate him to his face, by causing them to perish — he does not delay (punishment) to those who hate him to his face; he pays them back! 11 So you are to keep the command: the laws and the regulations that I command you today, by observing them.”

The Masoretic text presented here is from Rabbi Dr. Seth (Avi) Kadish’s Miqra al pi ha-Mesorah. For the translation in English, I have adapted the translation of Everett Fox in the Schocken Bible (1997), mostly to re-Hebraize divine names, place names, and personal names. In place of “soil” for Adamah, I use “fertile-earth.” Instead of “animal(s)” for Behemah, I use “domesticated-animals.” And instead of “tablets” for the luḥot, I use “stelae.” I have added the translation “Unique” for eḥad in addition to “One” in Deuteronomy 6:4. Finally, I have modified Fox’s gendered divine masculine in the statement “YHVH hu Elohim” (YHVH your elo’ah, he is Elohim”) by presenting instead: “YHVH your elo’ah is Elohim.” Aside from these, I have made minor punctuation changes.

Notes   [ + ]

  1. Dtr 2 accentuates that even though Moses was involved in the conquest of this Trans-Jordanian territory that – it is Joshua who will ultimately conquer the land of Canaan. Moses will not enter the promised land, because of an unspecified sin, perhaps because he agreed to sending spies without asking for divine approval, and see the commentary on chapter 1.
  2. A short introduction to the body of laws which will follow in Deuteronomy 12-26. First, however, the seminal moment of lawgiving will be revisited, i.e. the ten-commandments at Mount-Sinai, which is dispersed among four chapters because of lengthy “sermonlike” additions by Dtr 2.
  3. An allusion to the plague that the deity inflicted upon Israel following the sin of Baal Peor in Numbers 25 according to P. Note the abrupt switch from the general warning to a specific instance of sin indicating an insertion of secondary material.
  4. Dtr 2 begins with the identical formula as in vs. 1 and then elaborates upon Dtr 1’s introduction, praising the laws about to be given. It is some times quite difficult to distinguish between the two Deuteronomistic authors’ orations due to a similar language and outlook, here, however, it seems likely that this section is an expansion.
  5. The beginning of Dtr 1’s Sinai account; this narrative will continue in Chapters 5, 9, and 10. Since the sections are so dispersed between these chapters, the connection between them is not always obvious, but if one combines all the sections together one arrives at a coherent account.
  6. Dtr 2 uses this narrative prelude to the ten commandments to launch into a long theological oration regarding the non-corporality of the deity and his greatness – basing himself on Dtr 1’s statement that no image was seen at Horeb (Sinai) in vs. 12.
  7. This section is quite out of place in the context of the theological oration preceding it, and note the use of the third person to describe Moses, as opposed to the first person in the orations. It echoes the command in Numbers 35:14 (H) to set aside cities of refuge in the Trans-Jordan, the conquest of which was accomplished in the preceding chapter. It is not clear why this section was placed here rather than in Chapter 3, except perhaps that Chapter 3 was perceived as a narrative chapter and this chapter was perceived as a legal chapter.
  8. This list of places where Moses imparted the law, very much resembles the list in Deuteronomy 1:1b-2, which was added by Dtr 2. This section introduces the laws as imparted in different places later in the Israelite journey. Together they provide a summary of the Israelite journey – the laws, however, will only come afterwards in Chapters 12-26.
  9. Dtr 2 introduces the Ten Commandments which would need no introduction if it were not for the orational and legal sections added by this source and H.
  10. Dtr 1 offers a recap of the Ten Commandments which very much resembles Exodus 20. The important difference is with regard to the Sabbath commandment which is explained differently. In Exodus 20:8-11 (verse numbering may be different in the various versions), P explains that the reason for the observation of Sabbath is that the world was created in six days and God rested on the seventh. In Deuteronomy the explanation relates Sabbath back to the Exodus, which accords with Deuteronomy’s emphasis on social justice towards the foreigner throughout the legal code of chapters 12-26 (e.g. Deuteronomy 14:28-29).
  11. As in E and J (Exodus 32:1ff), Dtr 1, relates that the tablets were given to Moses only at a later juncture after the ten commandments (and see Deut. 9:8ff). Their mention here is out of place narrativally, and is evidence that the glossator did not read the two parts of the account (Chapters 4-5 and Chapters 9) in conjunction and wished to impart this important tradition here. In other words, the glossator is either Dtr 2 who added the lengthy orations / sermons (at least part them) between chapters 5-9, or a later author.
  12. A recap of the nation’s response to the ten commandments which is quite similar to its counterpart in Exodus 20:15-18 (the verse numbers vary), except that here Dtr 1 adds the deity’s approval of the nations reaction, fear functions as an important catalyst to the observation of the commandments (e.g. Deuteronomy 13:5).
  13. Once again Dtr 2 uses the ten commandments to launch into a sermon concerning the observation of the Lord’s laws, this sermon will extend until chapter 9.

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