פָּרָשַׁת בְּחֻקֹּתַי | Parashat b’Ḥuqotai (Leviticus 26:3-27:34), color-coded according to its narrative layers

According to the poetry of the Midrash Tanḥuma, Bereshit 1:1, the words of the Torah were inscribed “black fire on white fire.” For many years, I’ve wanted to look deeply into the black fire and visualize the full spectrum of the Torah’s sources, hidden within the black fire but revealed through a critical analysis of its layers of redaction. Below, I’ve set the text of the first Torah portion in the annual Torah reading cycle, using color-coding to distinguish the stratigraphic layers forming the composition of the Masoretic text according to the Supplementary Hypothesis presented by Tsemaḥ Yoreh in his Kernel to Canon series of books (2013-2017) and his website, the Sources of Biblical Narrative. As Dr. Yoreh explains,

The Supplementary Hypothesis asserts that the Pentateuch was composed by several different writers. This reflects an overwhelming academic consensus on Biblical authorship, even among scholars who do not subscribe to the Supplementary Hypothesis in particular.[….] According to the Supplementary Hypothesis, Biblical narrative is layered. No editor took a blowtorch to the parts of the Bible he disagreed with and destroyed them; if he had, we would not find these repetitions and contradictions. Instead, Biblical narrative began with a coherent, foundational bedrock, which over time accreted more and more storylines. Unlike geological processes, though, this process of addition was deliberate. What happened if one author disagreed with his predecessor’s storyline or worldview? He did not simply take an axe to the narrative; instead, he attempted to bury his predecessor’s point of view by repeating his own over and over again, thus skewing our understanding of the story in new ways. Every generation of readers sees the world differently, and thus every generation of writers seeks to adapt their predecessors’ cultural heritage to their own situation. We are not meant simply to dismiss earlier stories; rather, the intention of later writers is to transform our understanding of those stories via their additions.

Legend

⬛ The kernel of biblical text upon which all other narratives were laid is thought to have been composed in the mid- to late eighth century BCE toward the end of the heyday of the northern Kingdom of Ephraim (one of the two kingdoms that occupied Biblical Israel). This layer, commonly referred to as ‘E’, is indicated with INDIGO text. The first parashah containing text of this layer was parashat Vayera in Sefer Bereshit.

⬛ The next oldest layer is thought to have been composed in the late 8th or early 7th century BCE in the southern Kingdom of Judah. This layer, commonly known as ‘J’, is indicated with a BLUE text.

⬛ This strata, thought to have been composed during the exilic to early post-exilic period (571–486 BCE) is, as Dr. Yoreh explains, “responsible for supplementing the ‘J’ narrative with dates, names, and numbers, thus ‘ordering’ and authenticating ‘J’s account.” This layer, commonly referred to as ‘P’ (for ‘Priestly’) appears here in GREEN text.

⬛ The next strata popularized Kohanite law for the remnant of Judah after the Temple was destroyed, and functioned as an intermediary between Kohanite lists and laws and the surrounding narrative. This layer, which Dr. Yoreh calls ‘H’ (for the ‘Holiness Code’) appears here in LIME-GREEN text.

⬛ The most recent layer of text, is a post-exilic (pre-3rd century BCE) text that Dr. Yoreh refers to as the “Bridger” which supplements earlier strata with genealogies and popular myths, providing narrative bridges between distant story cycles. This ‘B’ layer is presented here in FUCHSIA.

The kernel of biblical text ‘E,’ its early supplemental layer ‘J’, and its later supplement ‘B,’ are absent from Sefer Vayiqra (Leviticus).

Parashat b’Ḥuqotai (Leviticus 26:3–27:34) in the annual Torah reading cycle concludes Sefer Vayiqra. It is preceded by parashat b’Har (Leviticus 25:1-26:2) which is combined with it on Jewish leap years. Parashat b’Midbar (Numbers 1:1–4:20) follows it.

Source (Hebrew) Translation (English)

כו ג אִם־בְּחֻקֹּתַ֖י תֵּלֵ֑כוּ וְאֶת־מִצְוֺתַ֣י תִּשְׁמְר֔וּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶ֖ם אֹתָֽם׃ ד וְנָתַתִּ֥י גִשְׁמֵיכֶ֖ם בְּעִתָּ֑ם וְנָתְנָ֤ה הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ יְבוּלָ֔הּ וְעֵ֥ץ הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה יִתֵּ֥ן פִּרְיֽוֹ׃ ה וְהִשִּׂ֨יג לָכֶ֥ם דַּ֙יִשׁ֙ אֶת־בָּצִ֔יר וּבָצִ֖יר יַשִּׂ֣יג אֶת־זָ֑רַע וַאֲכַלְתֶּ֤ם לַחְמְכֶם֙ לָשֹׂ֔בַע וִֽישַׁבְתֶּ֥ם לָבֶ֖טַח בְּאַרְצְכֶֽם׃ שני ו וְנָתַתִּ֤י שָׁלוֹם֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ וּשְׁכַבְתֶּ֖ם וְאֵ֣ין מַחֲרִ֑יד וְהִשְׁבַּתִּ֞י חַיָּ֤ה רָעָה֙ מִן־הָאָ֔רֶץ וְחֶ֖רֶב לֹא־תַעֲבֹ֥ר בְּאַרְצְכֶֽם׃ ז וּרְדַפְתֶּ֖ם אֶת־אֹיְבֵיכֶ֑ם וְנָפְל֥וּ לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם לֶחָֽרֶב׃ ח וְרָדְפ֨וּ מִכֶּ֤ם חֲמִשָּׁה֙ מֵאָ֔ה וּמֵאָ֥ה מִכֶּ֖ם רְבָבָ֣ה יִרְדֹּ֑פוּ וְנָפְל֧וּ אֹיְבֵיכֶ֛ם לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם לֶחָֽרֶב׃ ט וּפָנִ֣יתִי אֲלֵיכֶ֔ם וְהִפְרֵיתִ֣י אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְהִרְבֵּיתִ֖י אֶתְכֶ֑ם וַהֲקִימֹתִ֥י אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֖י אִתְּכֶֽם׃ שלישי (חמישי) י וַאֲכַלְתֶּ֥ם יָשָׁ֖ן נוֹשָׁ֑ן וְיָשָׁ֕ן מִפְּנֵ֥י חָדָ֖שׁ תּוֹצִֽיאוּ׃ יא וְנָתַתִּ֥י מִשְׁכָּנִ֖י בְּתוֹכְכֶ֑ם וְלֹֽא־תִגְעַ֥ל נַפְשִׁ֖י אֶתְכֶֽם׃ יב וְהִתְהַלַּכְתִּי֙ בְּת֣וֹכְכֶ֔ם וְהָיִ֥יתִי לָכֶ֖ם לֵֽאלֹהִ֑ים וְאַתֶּ֖ם תִּהְיוּ־לִ֥י לְעָֽם׃ יג אֲנִ֞י יְהֹוָ֣ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֗ם אֲשֶׁ֨ר הוֹצֵ֤אתִי אֶתְכֶם֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם מִֽהְיֹ֥ת לָהֶ֖ם עֲבָדִ֑ים וָאֶשְׁבֹּר֙ מֹטֹ֣ת עֻלְּכֶ֔ם וָאוֹלֵ֥ךְ אֶתְכֶ֖ם קֽוֹמְמִיּֽוּת׃
26 3 “If by my laws you walk, and my commands you keep, and observe them, 4 then I will give-forth your rains in their set-time, so that the earth gives-forth its yield and the trees of the field give-forth their fruit. 5 Threshing will overtake vintage for you, and vintage will overtake sowing; you shall eat your food to being-satisfied, and be settled in security in your land. 6 I will give peace throughout the land, so that you will lie down with none to make you tremble, I will cause-to-cease dangerous wild-animals from the land, and a sword shall not cross through your land. 7 You shall pursue your enemies, and they will fall before you to the sword; 8 five of you will pursue a hundred, and a hundred of you, a myriad pursue, your enemies falling before you to the sword. 9 I will turn-my-face toward you, making-you-fruitful and making-you-many, and I will establish my covenant with you. 10 You will eat old-grain, the oldest-stored, and the old for the new you will have to clear out. 11 I will place my Mishkan/Dwelling in your midst, and I will not repel you. 12 I will walk about in your midst, I will be for you as Elohim, and you yourselves will be for me as a people. 13 I YHVH am your elo’ah who brought you out of the land of Mitsrayim, from your being serfs to them; I broke the bars of your yoke, enabling you to walk upright!”

יד וְאִם־לֹ֥א תִשְׁמְע֖וּ לִ֑י וְלֹ֣א תַעֲשׂ֔וּ אֵ֥ת כׇּל־הַמִּצְוֺ֖ת הָאֵֽלֶּה׃ טו וְאִם־בְּחֻקֹּתַ֣י תִּמְאָ֔סוּ וְאִ֥ם אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַ֖י תִּגְעַ֣ל נַפְשְׁכֶ֑ם לְבִלְתִּ֤י עֲשׂוֹת֙ אֶת־כׇּל־מִצְוֺתַ֔י לְהַפְרְכֶ֖ם אֶת־בְּרִיתִֽי׃ טז אַף־אֲנִ֞י אֶֽעֱשֶׂה־זֹּ֣את לָכֶ֗ם וְהִפְקַדְתִּ֨י עֲלֵיכֶ֤ם בֶּֽהָלָה֙ אֶת־הַשַּׁחֶ֣פֶת וְאֶת־הַקַּדַּ֔חַת מְכַלּ֥וֹת עֵינַ֖יִם וּמְדִיבֹ֣ת נָ֑פֶשׁ וּזְרַעְתֶּ֤ם לָרִיק֙ זַרְעֲכֶ֔ם וַאֲכָלֻ֖הוּ אֹיְבֵיכֶֽם׃ יז וְנָתַתִּ֤י פָנַי֙ בָּכֶ֔ם וְנִגַּפְתֶּ֖ם לִפְנֵ֣י אֹיְבֵיכֶ֑ם וְרָד֤וּ בָכֶם֙ שֹֽׂנְאֵיכֶ֔ם וְנַסְתֶּ֖ם וְאֵין־רֹדֵ֥ף אֶתְכֶֽם׃
14 “But if you do not hearken to me, by not observing all these commandments, 15 if my laws you spurn, and my regulations you repel by not observing all my commandments, by your violating my covenant, 16 I in turn will do this to you: I will mete out to you shock, consumption, and fever, wearing out the eyes and exhausting the breath, you will sow your seed for naught, for your enemies will eat it. 17 And I will set my face against you, you will be hit-by-plague in the face of your enemies; those who hate you will have-dominion over you, you will flee, with no one pursuing you!”

יח וְאִ֨ם־עַד־אֵ֔לֶּה לֹ֥א תִשְׁמְע֖וּ לִ֑י וְיָסַפְתִּי֙ לְיַסְּרָ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם שֶׁ֖בַע עַל־חַטֹּאתֵיכֶֽם׃ יט וְשָׁבַרְתִּ֖י אֶת־גְּא֣וֹן עֻזְּכֶ֑ם וְנָתַתִּ֤י אֶת־שְׁמֵיכֶם֙ כַּבַּרְזֶ֔ל וְאֶֽת־אַרְצְכֶ֖ם כַּנְּחֻשָֽׁה׃ כ וְתַ֥ם לָרִ֖יק כֹּחֲכֶ֑ם וְלֹֽא־תִתֵּ֤ן אַרְצְכֶם֙ אֶת־יְבוּלָ֔הּ וְעֵ֣ץ הָאָ֔רֶץ לֹ֥א יִתֵּ֖ן פִּרְיֽוֹ׃
18 “Now if, after all that, you do not hearken to me, I will continue to discipline you, sevenfold, for your sins — 19 I will break your fierce pride! I will give your heavens to be like iron, and your earth like bronze, 20 so that your power will be spent for naught; your land will not give-forth its yield, the trees of the land will not give-forth their fruit.”

כא וְאִם־תֵּֽלְכ֤וּ עִמִּי֙ קֶ֔רִי וְלֹ֥א תֹאב֖וּ לִשְׁמֹ֣עַֽ לִ֑י וְיָסַפְתִּ֤י עֲלֵיכֶם֙ מַכָּ֔ה שֶׁ֖בַע כְּחַטֹּאתֵיכֶֽם׃ כב וְהִשְׁלַחְתִּ֨י בָכֶ֜ם אֶת־חַיַּ֤ת הַשָּׂדֶה֙ וְשִׁכְּלָ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְהִכְרִ֙יתָה֙ אֶת־בְּהֶמְתְּכֶ֔ם וְהִמְעִ֖יטָה אֶתְכֶ֑ם וְנָשַׁ֖מּוּ דַּרְכֵיכֶֽם׃
21 “Now if you walk with me (in) opposition, and do not consent to hearken to me, I will continue against you blows, sevenfold, according to your sins — 22 I will send-loose against you the dangerous wild-animals of the field, so that they bereave you, so that they (utterly) cut off your domesticated-animals, so that they make you few, and your roads become desolate.”

כג וְאִ֨ם־בְּאֵ֔לֶּה לֹ֥א תִוָּסְר֖וּ לִ֑י וַהֲלַכְתֶּ֥ם עִמִּ֖י קֶֽרִי׃ כד וְהָלַכְתִּ֧י אַף־אֲנִ֛י עִמָּכֶ֖ם בְּקֶ֑רִי וְהִכֵּיתִ֤י אֶתְכֶם֙ גַּם־אָ֔נִי שֶׁ֖בַע עַל־חַטֹּאתֵיכֶֽם׃ כה וְהֵבֵאתִ֨י עֲלֵיכֶ֜ם חֶ֗רֶב נֹקֶ֙מֶת֙ נְקַם־בְּרִ֔ית וְנֶאֱסַפְתֶּ֖ם אֶל־עָרֵיכֶ֑ם וְשִׁלַּ֤חְתִּי דֶ֙בֶר֙ בְּת֣וֹכְכֶ֔ם וְנִתַּתֶּ֖ם בְּיַד־אוֹיֵֽב׃ כו בְּשִׁבְרִ֣י לָכֶם֮ מַטֵּה־לֶ֒חֶם֒ וְ֠אָפ֠וּ עֶ֣שֶׂר נָשִׁ֤ים לַחְמְכֶם֙ בְּתַנּ֣וּר אֶחָ֔ד וְהֵשִׁ֥יבוּ לַחְמְכֶ֖ם בַּמִּשְׁקָ֑ל וַאֲכַלְתֶּ֖ם וְלֹ֥א תִשְׂבָּֽעוּ׃
23 “Now if, after these-things, you do not accept-discipline from me, but (continue to) walk with me (in) opposition, 24 I will walk with you, I myself, with opposition; I will strike you, yes, I myself, sevenfold for your sins. 25 I will bring against you an avenging sword, taking-vengeance for the covenant. Should you gather yourselves into your cities, I will send-free pestilence in your midst, and you will be given into the hand of your enemies. 26 When I break the “staff of bread” for you, ten women shall bake your bread in one oven; they will return your bread by weight, and you will eat, but you will not be satisfied.”

כז וְאִ֨ם־בְּזֹ֔את לֹ֥א תִשְׁמְע֖וּ לִ֑י וַהֲלַכְתֶּ֥ם עִמִּ֖י בְּקֶֽרִי׃ כח וְהָלַכְתִּ֥י עִמָּכֶ֖ם בַּחֲמַת־קֶ֑רִי וְיִסַּרְתִּ֤י אֶתְכֶם֙ אַף־אָ֔נִי שֶׁ֖בַע עַל־חַטֹּאתֵיכֶֽם׃ כט וַאֲכַלְתֶּ֖ם בְּשַׂ֣ר בְּנֵיכֶ֑ם וּבְשַׂ֥ר בְּנֹתֵיכֶ֖ם תֹּאכֵֽלוּ׃ ל וְהִשְׁמַדְתִּ֞י אֶת־בָּמֹֽתֵיכֶ֗ם וְהִכְרַתִּי֙ אֶת־חַמָּ֣נֵיכֶ֔ם וְנָֽתַתִּי֙ אֶת־פִּגְרֵיכֶ֔ם עַל־פִּגְרֵ֖י גִּלּוּלֵיכֶ֑ם וְגָעֲלָ֥ה נַפְשִׁ֖י אֶתְכֶֽם׃ לא וְנָתַתִּ֤י אֶת־עָֽרֵיכֶם֙ חׇרְבָּ֔ה וַהֲשִׁמּוֹתִ֖י אֶת־מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶ֑ם וְלֹ֣א אָרִ֔יחַ בְּרֵ֖יחַ נִיחֹֽחֲכֶֽם׃ לב וַהֲשִׁמֹּתִ֥י אֲנִ֖י אֶת־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְשָֽׁמְמ֤וּ עָלֶ֙יהָ֙ אֹֽיְבֵיכֶ֔ם הַיֹּשְׁבִ֖ים בָּֽהּ׃ לג וְאֶתְכֶם֙ אֱזָרֶ֣ה בַגּוֹיִ֔ם וַהֲרִיקֹתִ֥י אַחֲרֵיכֶ֖ם חָ֑רֶב וְהָיְתָ֤ה אַרְצְכֶם֙ שְׁמָמָ֔ה וְעָרֵיכֶ֖ם יִהְי֥וּ חׇרְבָּֽה׃ לד אָז֩ תִּרְצֶ֨ה הָאָ֜רֶץ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶ֗יהָ כֹּ֚ל יְמֵ֣י הׇשַּׁמָּ֔ה וְאַתֶּ֖ם בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֹיְבֵיכֶ֑ם אָ֚ז תִּשְׁבַּ֣ת הָאָ֔רֶץ וְהִרְצָ֖ת אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶֽיהָ׃ לה כׇּל־יְמֵ֥י הׇשַּׁמָּ֖ה תִּשְׁבֹּ֑ת אֵ֣ת אֲשֶׁ֧ר לֹֽא־שָׁבְתָ֛ה בְּשַׁבְּתֹתֵיכֶ֖ם בְּשִׁבְתְּכֶ֥ם עָלֶֽיהָ׃
27 “And if after this you will not hearken to me, but (still) walk with me with opposition, 28 I will walk with you in the heat of opposition; I will discipline you, even I myself, sevenfold for your sins! 29 You will eat the flesh of your sons, the flesh of your daughters, you will eat! 30 I will destroy your high-places, I will cut down your cult-stands, I will place your corpses atop the corpses of your idol-clods; I will repel you. 31 I will make your cities a wasteland, I will make-desolate your holy-shrines, and I will not savor your soothing savors! 32 And I will make-desolate, I myself, the land, so that your enemies that settle in it will be appalled-at-the-desolation in it. 33 And you I will scatter among the nations; I will unsheath the sword against you, so that your land becomes a desolation and your cities become a wasteland. 34 Then the land will find-acceptance regarding its Shabbatot, all the days of desolation — when you are in the land of your enemies — then the land will enjoy-rest, and find-acceptance regarding its Shabbatot. 35 All the days of desolation it will enjoy-rest, since it did not enjoy-rest during its Shabbatot when you were settled on it.”

לו וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִ֣ים בָּכֶ֔ם וְהֵבֵ֤אתִי מֹ֙רֶךְ֙ בִּלְבָבָ֔ם בְּאַרְצֹ֖ת אֹיְבֵיהֶ֑ם וְרָדַ֣ף אֹתָ֗ם ק֚וֹל עָלֶ֣ה נִדָּ֔ף וְנָס֧וּ מְנֻֽסַת־חֶ֛רֶב וְנָפְל֖וּ וְאֵ֥ין רֹדֵֽף׃ לז וְכָשְׁל֧וּ אִישׁ־בְּאָחִ֛יו כְּמִפְּנֵי־חֶ֖רֶב וְרֹדֵ֣ף אָ֑יִן וְלֹא־תִֽהְיֶ֤ה לָכֶם֙ תְּקוּמָ֔ה לִפְנֵ֖י אֹֽיְבֵיכֶֽם׃ לח וַאֲבַדְתֶּ֖ם בַּגּוֹיִ֑ם וְאָכְלָ֣ה אֶתְכֶ֔ם אֶ֖רֶץ אֹיְבֵיכֶֽם׃ לט וְהַנִּשְׁאָרִ֣ים בָּכֶ֗ם יִמַּ֙קּוּ֙ בַּֽעֲוֺנָ֔ם בְּאַרְצֹ֖ת אֹיְבֵיכֶ֑ם וְאַ֛ף בַּעֲוֺנֹ֥ת אֲבֹתָ֖ם אִתָּ֥ם יִמָּֽקּוּ׃
36 “Now those that remain among you — I will bring faintness into their hearts, in the lands of their enemies, they will be set-in-pursuit by the sound of a leaf blown-about, they will flee as if in flight from a sword and will fall, though there is no pursuer! 37 They will stumble, each-man over his brother, as before the sword, though pursuer there is none. And you will not be able to stand-your-ground before your enemies; 38 rather, you will perish among the nations — it will devour you, the land of your enemies. 39 Those that remain among you will rot away in their iniquity, in the lands of their enemies, yes, because of the iniquities of their fathers, with them they shall rot away.”

מ וְהִתְוַדּ֤וּ אֶת־עֲוֺנָם֙ וְאֶת־עֲוֺ֣ן אֲבֹתָ֔ם בְּמַעֲלָ֖ם אֲשֶׁ֣ר מָֽעֲלוּ־בִ֑י וְאַ֕ף אֲשֶׁר־הָֽלְכ֥וּ עִמִּ֖י בְּקֶֽרִי׃ מא אַף־אֲנִ֗י אֵלֵ֤ךְ עִמָּם֙ בְּקֶ֔רִי וְהֵבֵאתִ֣י אֹתָ֔ם בְּאֶ֖רֶץ אֹיְבֵיהֶ֑ם אוֹ־אָ֣ז יִכָּנַ֗ע לְבָבָם֙ הֶֽעָרֵ֔ל וְאָ֖ז יִרְצ֥וּ אֶת־עֲוֺנָֽם׃ מב וְזָכַרְתִּ֖י אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֣י יַעֲק֑וֹב וְאַף֩ אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֨י יִצְחָ֜ק וְאַ֨ף אֶת־בְּרִיתִ֧י אַבְרָהָ֛ם אֶזְכֹּ֖ר וְהָאָ֥רֶץ אֶזְכֹּֽר׃ מג וְהָאָ֩רֶץ֩ תֵּעָזֵ֨ב מֵהֶ֜ם וְתִ֣רֶץ אֶת־שַׁבְּתֹתֶ֗יהָ בׇּהְשַׁמָּה֙ מֵהֶ֔ם וְהֵ֖ם יִרְצ֣וּ אֶת־עֲוֺנָ֑ם יַ֣עַן וּבְיַ֔עַן בְּמִשְׁפָּטַ֣י מָאָ֔סוּ וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתַ֖י גָּעֲלָ֥ה נַפְשָֽׁם׃ מד וְאַף־גַּם־זֹ֠את בִּֽהְיוֹתָ֞ם בְּאֶ֣רֶץ אֹֽיְבֵיהֶ֗ם לֹֽא־מְאַסְתִּ֤ים וְלֹֽא־גְעַלְתִּים֙ לְכַלֹּתָ֔ם לְהָפֵ֥ר בְּרִיתִ֖י אִתָּ֑ם כִּ֛י אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵיהֶֽם׃ מה וְזָכַרְתִּ֥י לָהֶ֖ם בְּרִ֣ית רִאשֹׁנִ֑ים אֲשֶׁ֣ר הוֹצֵֽאתִי־אֹתָם֩ מֵאֶ֨רֶץ מִצְרַ֜יִם לְעֵינֵ֣י הַגּוֹיִ֗ם לִהְי֥וֹת לָהֶ֛ם לֵאלֹהִ֖ים אֲנִ֥י יְהֹוָֽה׃ מו אֵ֠לֶּה הַֽחֻקִּ֣ים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים֮ וְהַתּוֹרֹת֒ אֲשֶׁר֙ נָתַ֣ן יְהֹוָ֔ה בֵּינ֕וֹ וּבֵ֖ין בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּהַ֥ר סִינַ֖י בְּיַד־מֹשֶֽׁה׃
40 “Now should they confess their iniquity and the iniquity of their fathers, in their breaking-faith by which they broke-faith with me — yes, since they have walked with me in opposition, 41 yes, I myself will walk with them in opposition, and will bring them into the land of their enemies — if then their foreskinned heart should humble itself, if then they should find-acceptance regarding their iniquity, 42 I will bear-in-mind my Yaaqov covenant, and yes, my Yitsḥaq covenant, and yes, my Avraham covenant I will bear-in-mind, and the land I will bear-in-mind. 43  — The land will have to be left-behind by them, attaining-acceptance through its Shabbatot by being-desolate-of them, and they will have to find-acceptance regarding their iniquity, because, because my regulations they spurned, and my laws they repelled. — 44 And yes, even then, when they are in the land of their enemies, I will not spurn them, I will not repel them, to finish them off, to abrogate my covenant with them, for I YHVH am their elo’ah! 45 I will bear-in-mind to their (benefit) the covenant of the former-ones whom I brought out of the land of Mitsrayim, before the eyes of the nations, to be for them Elohim, I am YHVH!” 46 These are the laws, the regulations, and the instructions that YHVH gave between himself and the Children of Yisrael at Har Sinai, by the hand of Mosheh.

רביעי (ששי) כז א וַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר׃ ב דַּבֵּ֞ר אֶל־בְּנֵ֤י יִשְׂרָאֵל֙ וְאָמַרְתָּ֣ אֲלֵהֶ֔ם אִ֕ישׁ כִּ֥י יַפְלִ֖א נֶ֑דֶר בְּעֶרְכְּךָ֥ נְפָשֹׁ֖ת לַֽיהֹוָֽה׃ ג וְהָיָ֤ה עֶרְכְּךָ֙ הַזָּכָ֔ר מִבֶּן֙ עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְעַ֖ד בֶּן־שִׁשִּׁ֣ים שָׁנָ֑ה וְהָיָ֣ה עֶרְכְּךָ֗ חֲמִשִּׁ֛ים שֶׁ֥קֶל כֶּ֖סֶף בְּשֶׁ֥קֶל הַקֹּֽדֶשׁ׃ ד וְאִם־נְקֵבָ֖ה הִ֑וא וְהָיָ֥ה עֶרְכְּךָ֖ שְׁלֹשִׁ֥ים שָֽׁקֶל׃ ה וְאִ֨ם מִבֶּן־חָמֵ֜שׁ שָׁנִ֗ים וְעַד֙ בֶּן־עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שָׁנָ֔ה וְהָיָ֧ה עֶרְכְּךָ֛ הַזָּכָ֖ר עֶשְׂרִ֣ים שְׁקָלִ֑ים וְלַנְּקֵבָ֖ה עֲשֶׂ֥רֶת שְׁקָלִֽים׃ ו וְאִ֣ם מִבֶּן־חֹ֗דֶשׁ וְעַד֙ בֶּן־חָמֵ֣שׁ שָׁנִ֔ים וְהָיָ֤ה עֶרְכְּךָ֙ הַזָּכָ֔ר חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה שְׁקָלִ֖ים כָּ֑סֶף וְלַנְּקֵבָ֣ה עֶרְכְּךָ֔ שְׁלֹ֥שֶׁת שְׁקָלִ֖ים כָּֽסֶף׃ ז וְ֠אִ֠ם מִבֶּן־שִׁשִּׁ֨ים שָׁנָ֤ה וָמַ֙עְלָה֙ אִם־זָכָ֔ר וְהָיָ֣ה עֶרְכְּךָ֔ חֲמִשָּׁ֥ה עָשָׂ֖ר שָׁ֑קֶל וְלַנְּקֵבָ֖ה עֲשָׂרָ֥ה שְׁקָלִֽים׃ ח וְאִם־מָ֥ךְ הוּא֙ מֵֽעֶרְכֶּ֔ךָ וְהֶֽעֱמִידוֹ֙ לִפְנֵ֣י הַכֹּהֵ֔ן וְהֶעֱרִ֥יךְ אֹת֖וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֑ן עַל־פִּ֗י אֲשֶׁ֤ר תַּשִּׂיג֙ יַ֣ד הַנֹּדֵ֔ר יַעֲרִיכֶ֖נּוּ הַכֹּהֵֽן׃
27 1 YHVH spoke to Mosheh, saying: 2 “Speak to the Children of Yisrael and say to them: ‘Any-man — when he would make a vow-offering in your assessed-equivalent of persons to YHVH, 3 your assessment shall be: (if) a male, from the age of twenty years up to the age of sixty years, your assessment shall be fifty silver sheqalim by the Holy-shrine sheqel. 4 And if it is a female, your assessment shall be thirty sheqalim. 5 If the age (is) from five years up to the age of twenty years, your assessment for a male is twenty sheqalim, and for a female, ten sheqalim. 6 If from the age of a month up to the age of five years, your assessment is for a male, five silver sheqalim, and for a female, your assessment, three silver sheqalim. 7 If from the age of sixty years and upward, if it is a male, your assessment shall be fifteen sheqalim, and for a female, ten sheqalim. 8 If he sinks down (in poverty), lower than the assessment, he is to be stood before the kohen, and the kohen is to assess (the amount) for him, according to what the hand of the one-making-the-vow can reach, the kohen is to assess him.'”

ט וְאִ֨ם־בְּהֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר יַקְרִ֧יבוּ מִמֶּ֛נָּה קׇרְבָּ֖ן לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה כֹּל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר יִתֵּ֥ן מִמֶּ֛נּוּ לַיהֹוָ֖ה יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּֽדֶשׁ׃ י לֹ֣א יַחֲלִיפֶ֗נּוּ וְלֹֽא־יָמִ֥יר אֹת֛וֹ ט֥וֹב בְּרָ֖ע אוֹ־רַ֣ע בְּט֑וֹב וְאִם־הָמֵ֨ר יָמִ֤יר בְּהֵמָה֙ בִּבְהֵמָ֔ה וְהָֽיָה־ה֥וּא וּתְמוּרָת֖וֹ יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּֽדֶשׁ׃ יא וְאִם֙ כׇּל־בְּהֵמָ֣ה טְמֵאָ֔ה אֲ֠שֶׁ֠ר לֹא־יַקְרִ֧יבוּ מִמֶּ֛נָּה קׇרְבָּ֖ן לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה וְהֶֽעֱמִ֥יד אֶת־הַבְּהֵמָ֖ה לִפְנֵ֥י הַכֹּהֵֽן׃ יב וְהֶעֱרִ֤יךְ הַכֹּהֵן֙ אֹתָ֔הּ בֵּ֥ין ט֖וֹב וּבֵ֣ין רָ֑ע כְּעֶרְכְּךָ֥ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן כֵּ֥ן יִהְיֶֽה׃ יג וְאִם־גָּאֹ֖ל יִגְאָלֶ֑נָּה וְיָסַ֥ף חֲמִישִׁת֖וֹ עַל־עֶרְכֶּֽךָ׃
9 “If it concerns an animal from which they bring-near a near-offering for YHVH, all of what he gives from it to YHVH is to be a holy-portion. 10 He is not to substitute for it and he is not to exchange it, good for ill or ill for good, if they exchange, yes, exchange animal for animal, it will be that it and its exchanged-one will be a holy-portion. 11 If it (concerns) any tamei animal from which there may not be brought-near a near-offering for YHVH, the animal is to be stood before the kohen, 12 and the kohen is to make-assessment for it, between good and ill, according to your assessment by the kohen, thus shall it be. 13 And if he (wants to) redeem, yes, redeem it, he is to add its fifth-part to your assessment.”

יד וְאִ֗ישׁ כִּֽי־יַקְדִּ֨שׁ אֶת־בֵּית֥וֹ קֹ֙דֶשׁ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וְהֶעֱרִיכוֹ֙ הַכֹּהֵ֔ן בֵּ֥ין ט֖וֹב וּבֵ֣ין רָ֑ע כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר יַעֲרִ֥יךְ אֹת֛וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֖ן כֵּ֥ן יָקֽוּם׃ טו וְאִ֨ם־הַמַּקְדִּ֔ישׁ יִגְאַ֖ל אֶת־בֵּית֑וֹ וְ֠יָסַ֠ף חֲמִישִׁ֧ית כֶּֽסֶף־עֶרְכְּךָ֛ עָלָ֖יו וְהָ֥יָה לֽוֹ׃
14 “Now a man — when he hallows his house as holy-property to YHVH, the kohen is to assess it, between good and ill; as the kohen assesses it, thus shall (its cost) be-established. 15 And if the one-who-hallows-it would redeem his house, he is to add a fifth-part (to the) silver of your assessment, and it shall remain his.”

חמישי (שביעי) טז וְאִ֣ם ׀ מִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֗וֹ יַקְדִּ֥ישׁ אִישׁ֙ לַֽיהֹוָ֔ה וְהָיָ֥ה עֶרְכְּךָ֖ לְפִ֣י זַרְע֑וֹ זֶ֚רַע חֹ֣מֶר שְׂעֹרִ֔ים בַּחֲמִשִּׁ֖ים שֶׁ֥קֶל כָּֽסֶף׃ יז אִם־מִשְּׁנַ֥ת הַיֹּבֵ֖ל יַקְדִּ֣ישׁ שָׂדֵ֑הוּ כְּעֶרְכְּךָ֖ יָקֽוּם׃ יח וְאִם־אַחַ֣ר הַיֹּבֵל֮ יַקְדִּ֣ישׁ שָׂדֵ֒הוּ֒ וְחִשַּׁב־ל֨וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֜ן אֶת־הַכֶּ֗סֶף עַל־פִּ֤י הַשָּׁנִים֙ הַנּ֣וֹתָרֹ֔ת עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֑ל וְנִגְרַ֖ע מֵֽעֶרְכֶּֽךָ׃ יט וְאִם־גָּאֹ֤ל יִגְאַל֙ אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה הַמַּקְדִּ֖ישׁ אֹת֑וֹ וְ֠יָסַ֠ף חֲמִשִׁ֧ית כֶּֽסֶף־עֶרְכְּךָ֛ עָלָ֖יו וְקָ֥ם לֽוֹ׃ כ וְאִם־לֹ֤א יִגְאַל֙ אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה וְאִם־מָכַ֥ר אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶ֖ה לְאִ֣ישׁ אַחֵ֑ר לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵ֖ל עֽוֹד׃ כא וְהָיָ֨ה הַשָּׂדֶ֜ה בְּצֵאת֣וֹ בַיֹּבֵ֗ל קֹ֛דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה כִּשְׂדֵ֣ה הַחֵ֑רֶם לַכֹּהֵ֖ן תִּהְיֶ֥ה אֲחֻזָּתֽוֹ׃ ששי כב וְאִם֙ אֶת־שְׂדֵ֣ה מִקְנָת֔וֹ אֲשֶׁ֕ר לֹ֖א מִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֑וֹ יַקְדִּ֖ישׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה׃ כג וְחִשַּׁב־ל֣וֹ הַכֹּהֵ֗ן אֵ֚ת מִכְסַ֣ת הָֽעֶרְכְּךָ֔ עַ֖ד שְׁנַ֣ת הַיֹּבֵ֑ל וְנָתַ֤ן אֶת־הָעֶרְכְּךָ֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא קֹ֖דֶשׁ לַיהֹוָֽה׃ כד בִּשְׁנַ֤ת הַיּוֹבֵל֙ יָשׁ֣וּב הַשָּׂדֶ֔ה לַאֲשֶׁ֥ר קָנָ֖הוּ מֵאִתּ֑וֹ לַאֲשֶׁר־ל֖וֹ אֲחֻזַּ֥ת הָאָֽרֶץ׃
16 “If from the field of his holding any-man hallows (part) to YHVH, your assessment shall be according to its seed-requirement: the seed-requirement of a ḥomer of barley, fifty silver sheqalim. 17 If as of the year of Yovel he hallows his field, as your assessment (its cost) will be-established. 18 but if it is after the Yovel that he hallows his field, the kohen is to reckon for him the silver according to the years left until the Year of Yovel, and it is to be subtracted from your (first) assessment. 19 If he wants to redeem, yes, redeem the field, the one hallowing it, he is to add a fifth-part of the silver of your assessment of it, and (its cost) is to be-established for him. 20 But if he does not want to redeem the field, or if he has sold the land to another man, it cannot be redeemed again — 21 the field shall be, when it goes-free in the Yovel, a holy-portion for YHVH, like a field specially-devoted; for the kohen it shall be, for his holding. 22 And if his purchased field that is not a field of his holding (is what) he hallows to YHVH, 23 the kohen is to reckon for him the value of your assessment, until the Year of Yovel, he is to give your assessment (in payment) at that time, as a holy-portion for YHVH. 24 In the Year of Yovel the field shall return to the one from whom it was purchased, the one whose holding of land it is.”

כה וְכׇ֨ל־עֶרְכְּךָ֔ יִהְיֶ֖ה בְּשֶׁ֣קֶל הַקֹּ֑דֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִ֥ים גֵּרָ֖ה יִהְיֶ֥ה הַשָּֽׁקֶל׃ כו אַךְ־בְּכ֞וֹר אֲשֶׁר־יְבֻכַּ֤ר לַֽיהֹוָה֙ בִּבְהֵמָ֔ה לֹֽא־יַקְדִּ֥ישׁ אִ֖ישׁ אֹת֑וֹ אִם־שׁ֣וֹר אִם־שֶׂ֔ה לַֽיהֹוָ֖ה הֽוּא׃ כז וְאִ֨ם בַּבְּהֵמָ֤ה הַטְּמֵאָה֙ וּפָדָ֣ה בְעֶרְכֶּ֔ךָ וְיָסַ֥ף חֲמִשִׁת֖וֹ עָלָ֑יו וְאִם־לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵ֖ל וְנִמְכַּ֥ר בְּעֶרְכֶּֽךָ׃ כח אַךְ־כׇּל־חֵ֡רֶם אֲשֶׁ֣ר יַחֲרִם֩ אִ֨ישׁ לַֽיהֹוָ֜ה מִכׇּל־אֲשֶׁר־ל֗וֹ מֵאָדָ֤ם וּבְהֵמָה֙ וּמִשְּׂדֵ֣ה אֲחֻזָּת֔וֹ לֹ֥א יִמָּכֵ֖ר וְלֹ֣א יִגָּאֵ֑ל כׇּל־חֵ֕רֶם קֹֽדֶשׁ־קׇדָשִׁ֥ים ה֖וּא לַיהֹוָֽה׃ שביעי כט כׇּל־חֵ֗רֶם אֲשֶׁ֧ר יׇחֳרַ֛ם מִן־הָאָדָ֖ם לֹ֣א יִפָּדֶ֑ה מ֖וֹת יוּמָֽת׃ ל וְכׇל־מַעְשַׂ֨ר הָאָ֜רֶץ מִזֶּ֤רַע הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ מִפְּרִ֣י הָעֵ֔ץ לַיהֹוָ֖ה ה֑וּא קֹ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה ׃ מפטיר לא וְאִם־גָּאֹ֥ל יִגְאַ֛ל אִ֖ישׁ מִמַּֽעַשְׂר֑וֹ חֲמִשִׁית֖וֹ יֹסֵ֥ף עָלָֽיו׃ לב וְכׇל־מַעְשַׂ֤ר בָּקָר֙ וָצֹ֔אן כֹּ֥ל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲבֹ֖ר תַּ֣חַת הַשָּׁ֑בֶט הָֽעֲשִׂירִ֕י יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּ֖דֶשׁ לַֽיהֹוָֽה׃ לג לֹ֧א יְבַקֵּ֛ר בֵּֽין־ט֥וֹב לָרַ֖ע וְלֹ֣א יְמִירֶ֑נּוּ וְאִם־הָמֵ֣ר יְמִירֶ֔נּוּ וְהָֽיָה־ה֧וּא וּתְמוּרָת֛וֹ יִֽהְיֶה־קֹּ֖דֶשׁ לֹ֥א יִגָּאֵֽל׃ לד אֵ֣לֶּה הַמִּצְוֺ֗ת אֲשֶׁ֨ר צִוָּ֧ה יְהֹוָ֛ה אֶת־מֹשֶׁ֖ה אֶל־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בְּהַ֖ר סִינָֽי׃
25 All your assessments are to be according to the Holy-shrine sheqel, twenty grains being the (one) sheqel. 26 However, a firstborn that is assigned-as-firstborn to YHVH, among animals — no man may hallow it; whether ox or sheep, it is YHVH’s. 27 Now if (it is) of a tamei animal, he is to redeem it at your assessment, adding its fifth-part to it, and if it is not redeemed, it is to be sold at your assessment. 28 However, everything specially-devoted that a man devotes for YHVH from all that is his, whether of man or of domesticated-animal or of field of his holding, is not to be sold and not to be redeemed, everything specially-devoted-it is a holiest holy-portion for YHVH. 29 Anyone specially-devoted that has been devoted-to-destruction, among humans, is not to be ransomed; he is to be put-to-death, yes, death. 30 And every tithe of the land, (whether) from the seed of the land or from the fruit of the tree: for YHVH it is, a holy-portion for YHVH. 31 If a man wants to redeem, yes, redeem (any) of his tithes, its fifth-part he is to add to it; 32 and every tithe of herd or flock, from all that passes under the (shepherd’s) rod, (each) tenth-one, is to be a holy-portion for YHVH. 33 He is not to search between good and ill, he is not to make-exchange for it; but if he makes-exchange, yes, exchange for it, then it and its exchange are a holy-portion, they cannot be redeemed. 34 These are the commandments that YHVH commanded Mosheh for the Children of Yisrael at Har Sinai.

The Masoretic text presented here is from Rabbi Dr. Seth (Avi) Kadish’s Miqra al pi ha-Mesorah. For the translation in English, I have adapted the translation of Everett Fox in the Schocken Bible (1997), mostly to re-Hebraize divine names, place names, names for specific sacred objects and titles, and personal names. In place of “wild-beast” for חיה רעה I have “dangerous wild-animal,” and instead of “animal” for בהמה I have “domesticated-animal.” Instead of “cessation,” I have “rest.” Aside from these, I have made minor punctuation changes. –Aharon N. Varady

Comments, Corrections, and Queries


בסיעתא דארעא