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Moses Gaster

Moses Gaster (17 September 1856 – 5 March 1939) was a Romanian, later British scholar and rabbi, the Ḥakham of the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish congregation, London, a folklorist, and a Hebrew and Romanian linguist. In Leipzig, he received his PhD in 1878, followed in 1881 with his Hattarat Hora'ah (rabbinical diploma) from the Jewish Seminary in Breslau. Before his expulsion from Romania in 1885 by the government of Ion Brătianu for his early Zionist organizing, he was lecturer on the Romanian language and literature at the University of Bucharest (1881–85), inspector-general of schools, and a member of the council for examining teachers in Romania. He also lectured on the Romanian apocrypha, the whole of which he had discovered in manuscript. His history of Romanian popular literature was published in Bucharest in 1883. Gaster was a central figure of Hibbat Zion in Romania and played a central role in the 1882 establishment by Jews from Moineşti of the Samarin (Zamarin) settlement, known since 1884 as Zichron Ya'akov. In England, in 1886 and 1891, he held a lectureship in Slavonic literature at the University of Oxford. In 1895, at the request of the Romanian government, he wrote a report on the British system of education, which was printed as a "green book" and accepted as a basis of education in Romania. In 1887 Gaster was appointed hakham of the Sephardic or Spanish and Portuguese Congregation in London, in which capacity he presided over the bicentenary of Bevis Marks Synagogue. He was a member of the councils of the Folklore, Biblical, Archaeological, and Royal Asiatic societies, writing many papers in their interest. He was the only ordained rabbi ever to become president of The Folklore Society, in 1907–1908. He became vice-president of the First Zionist Congress in Basel, and was a prominent figure in each succeeding congress. The first draft of the Balfour Declaration was written at the Gaster home on 7 February 1917 in the presence of Chaim Weizmann, Nahum Sokolow, Baron Rothschild, Sir Mark Sykes and Herbert Samuel. In 1925, Gaster was appointed one of the six members of the honorary board of trustees (Curatorium) of the Yiddish Scientific Institute (YIVO) in Wilna, alongside Simon Dubnow, Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Edward Sapir, and Chaim Zhitlowsky.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_Gaster

אֲדוֹן עוֹלָם (אשכנז)‏ | Adōn Olam (Romanian translation by Rabbi Dr. Moses Gaster, 1883)

Contributed on: 05 Aug 2023 by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Moses Gaster | Shlomo ibn Gabirol |

Rabbi Dr. Moses Gaster’s translation of Adon Olam in Romaninan was first printed on pages 3-4 of Siddur Tefilat Yisrael: Carte de Rugăcĭunĭ Pentru Israeliţĭ (1883), his daily Siddur. . . .


אָמוֹן יוֹם זֶה | Amon Yom Zeh, an introduction to the Azharot of ibn Gabirol by David ben Elazar ibn Paquda (ca. 12th c.)

Contributed on: 26 May 2020 by Aharon N. Varady (translation) | Moses Gaster | David ben Elazar ibn Paquda |

A poetic introduction to the Azharot of Solomon ibn Gabirol read in the afternoon of Shavuot by Sefaradim. . . .


דָּנִיֵּאל וְהַתַּנִּין | Daniel vs. the Dragon, according to the Aramaic text of Divrei Yeraḥmiel (ca. 12th c.)

Contributed on: 31 Jan 2020 by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Moses Gaster | Yeraḥmiel ben Shlomo | Unknown Author(s) |

The story of Daniel and the dragon held captive by the neo-Babylonians found in Aramaic in the Divrei Yeraḥmiel (the Chronicles of Jeraḥmeel, Oxford Bodleian Heb d.11). . . .


💬 דָּנִיֵּאל וְהַתַּנִּין | Daniel vs. the Dragon, according to the Judeo-Aramaic text found in Divrei Yeraḥmiel, vocalized and cantillated by Isaac Gantwerk Mayer

Contributed on: 06 Jun 2023 by Isaac Gantwerk Mayer (translation) | Isaac Gantwerk Mayer (transcription & naqdanut) | Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Moses Gaster | Yeraḥmiel ben Shlomo | Unknown Author(s) |

Daniel’s battle with the Dragon, one of the apocryphal Additions to Daniel, is affixed to the end of the book in the Septuagint. The editor has here included a new vocalized and cantillated edition of the Aramaic text preserved in the 12th century Divrei Yeraḥmiel (Oxford Bodleian Heb d.11 transcribed by Rabbi Dr. Moses Gaster). The language of this passage is an odd synthesis of Targumic, pseudo-Biblical Aramaic, and even some Syriac forms, so the editor’s vocalization is aiming for a happy medium of all the possibilities. (In several locations Divrei Yeraḥmiel uses incorrect Hebrew-specific forms, probably due to scribal error. These are here marked as a qere-ketiv split.) . . .


תפלה על המגפה שתעצר | Prayer for Cessation of the Disease Now Raging, by Rabbi Dr. Moses Gaster (1892)

Contributed on: 12 Apr 2020 by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Moses Gaster |

A prayer for the end of a cholera epidemic written by Rabbi Dr. Moses Gaster in 1892. . . .


הַנּוֹתֵן תְּשׁוּעָה | Prayer for the Royal Family of King George Ⅴ (1931)

Contributed on: 17 Apr 2021 by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Moses Gaster |

The text of the prayer, haNoten Teshuah, as adapted for King George V. . . .


💬 התפילות של מרדכי ואסתר | the Prayers of Mordekhai and Esther, from Divrei haYamim l’Yeraḥmiel (ca. 11-12th c.)

Contributed on: 04 Mar 2020 by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Moses Gaster | Yeraḥmiel ben Shlomo |

The dream and prayer of Mordecai, and the prayer of Esther, as copied in the medieval pseudo-historical Chronicle of Yeraḥmiel. . . .


Rugăcĭune Pentru Regele | Prayer for the King [Carol Ⅰ, of Romania], by Rabbi Dr. Moses Gaster (1883)

Contributed on: 26 Aug 2021 by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Aharon N. Varady (translation) | Moses Gaster |

A variation of the prayer Hanoten Teshua by Rabbi Dr. Moses Gaster, from his סדור תפלת ישראל: Carte de rugăciuni pentru Israeliţi (Bucureşti, Editor L. Steinberg Stampfel, Eder & Comp. Pressburg 1883), p.192. . . .


📖 סדר התפלות לחג הסכות (מנהג הספרדים)‏ | Seder haTefilot l’Ḥag haSukkot, edited and revised by Moses Gaster (1906)

Contributed on: 25 Oct 2019 by Aharon N. Varady (digital imaging and document preparation) | Moses Gaster | David de Aaron de Sola (translation) |

A bilingual Hebrew-English maḥzor for the festival of Sukkot, Shemini Atseret and Simḥat Torah, nusaḥ sefarad, with a translation for Rabbi David de Aaron de Sola, revised and edited by Moses Gaster. . . .


📖 סדר התפלות לפסח ולשבועות (מנהג הספרדים)‏ | Seder haTefilot l’Pesaḥ u’l’Shavuot, edited and revised by Moses Gaster (1906)

Contributed on: 29 Oct 2019 by Aharon N. Varady (digital imaging and document preparation) | Moses Gaster | David de Aaron de Sola (translation) |

A bilingual Hebrew-English maḥzor for the festival of Pesaḥ and Shavuot, nusaḥ sefarad, with a translation for Rabbi David de Aaron de Sola, revised and edited by Moses Gaster. . . .


📖 סדר התפלות לראש השנה (מנהג הספרדים)‏ | Seder haTefilot l’Rosh haShanah, edited and revised by Moses Gaster (1903)

Contributed on: 29 Jan 2020 by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Moses Gaster | David de Aaron de Sola (translation) |

A bilingual Hebrew-English maḥzor for Rosh haShanah, nusaḥ sefarad, with a translation for Rabbi David de Aaron de Sola, revised and edited by Moses Gaster. . . .


📖 סדר התפלות ליום כפור (מנהג הספרדים)‏ | Seder haTefilot l’Yom Kippur, edited and revised by Moses Gaster (1904, amended 1934)

Contributed on: 29 Jan 2020 by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | David Bueno de Mesquita | Moses Gaster | David de Aaron de Sola (translation) |

A bilingual Hebrew-English maḥzor for Yom Kippur, nusaḥ sefarad, with a translation for Rabbi David de Aaron de Sola, revised and edited by Moses Gaster, amended by Rabbi David Bueno de Mesquita. . . .


📖 סדר התפלות חלק א׳ (מנהג הספרדים)‏ | Seder haTefilot vol.1: Daily and Occasional Prayers, translated by Rabbi David de Aaron de Sola (1835/1852), edited and revised by Moses Gaster (1901)

Contributed on: 12 Oct 2019 by Aharon N. Varady (digital imaging and document preparation) | Moses Gaster | David de Aaron de Sola (translation) |

A bilingual Hebrew-English siddur, nusaḥ sefarad, with a translation for Rabbi David de Aaron de Sola, revised and edited by Moses Gaster. . . .


📖 סדור תפלת ישראל (אשכנז) | Siddur Tefilat Yisrael: Carte de Rugăcĭunĭ Pentru Israeliţĭ (Romanian translation by Rabbi Dr. Moses Gaster, 1883)

Contributed on: 03 Nov 2022 by Moses Gaster |

A bilingual Hebrew-Romanian prayerbook translated by Dr. Moses Gaster in 1883. . . .


תפילת עזריה חנניה ומישאל בתוך הכבשן | The Prayer of Azaryah, Ḥananyah, and Mishael from within the Furnace, according to the Aramaic text of Divrei Yeraḥmiel (ca. 12th c.)

Contributed on: 31 Jan 2020 by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Moses Gaster | Yeraḥmiel ben Shlomo | Unknown Author(s) |

The prayer of Azaryah and his song of praise with Ḥananyah, and Mishael from within the Furnace (also known as “the song of the three holy children”) found in Aramaic in the Divrei Yeraḥmiel (the Chronicles of Jeraḥmeel, Oxford Bodleian Heb d.11). . . .


💬 מעשה טוביה ליום שני של שבועות | The Story of Toḇiyah for the second day of Shavuot

Contributed on: 25 Dec 2018 by Isaac Gantwerk Mayer (transcription & naqdanut) | Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Moses Gaster | Unknown Author(s) |

The story of Toviah (Tobit) in Hebrew translation, in an abridged version arranged for public reading on the second day of Shavuot. . . .


הספר ששמשו בו הכשדים | Theurgy of the Kasdim, an astral-magic treatise on the seven angels of the week

Contributed on: 12 Jul 2021 by Aharon N. Varady (transcription) | Moses Gaster | Unknown Author(s) |

A work of Jewish astrology and magic containing recipes specific to the angelic rulers of each day of the week. . . .



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